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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(16): e011576, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387432

RESUMO

Background Despite limitations as a stand-alone parameter, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction is the preferred measure of myocardial function and marker for postinfarction risk stratification. LV myocardial uniformity alterations may provide superior prognostic information after acute myocardial infarction, which was the subject of this study. Methods and Results Consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction (n=1082; median age: 63 years; 75% male) undergoing cardiac magnetic resonance at a median of 3 days after infarction were included in this multicenter observational study. Circumferential and radial uniformity ratio estimates were derived from cardiac magnetic resonance feature tracking as markers of mechanical uniformity alterations (values between 0 and 1 with 1 reflecting perfect uniformity). The clinical end point was the 12-month rate of major adverse cardiac events, consisting of all-cause death, reinfarction, and new congestive heart failure. Patients with major adverse cardiac events (n=73) had significantly impaired circumferential uniformity ratio estimates (0.76 [interquartile range: 0.67-0.86] versus 0.84 [interquartile range: 0.76-0.89]; P<0.001) and radial uniformity ratio estimates (0.69 [interquartile range: 0.60-0.79] versus 0.76 [interquartile range: 0.67-0.83]; P<0.001) compared with patients without events. Although uniformity estimates did not provide independent prognostic information in the overall cohort, a circumferential uniformity ratio estimate below the median of 0.84 emerged as an independent predictor of outcome in postinfarction patients with LV ejection fraction >35% (n=959), even after adjustment for established risk factors (hazard ratio: 1.99; 95% CI, 1.06-3.74; P=0.033 in multivariable Cox regression analysis). In contrast, LV ejection fraction was not associated with adverse events in this subgroup of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Conclusions Cardiac magnetic resonance-derived estimates of mechanical uniformity alterations are novel markers for risk assessment after acute myocardial infarction, and the circumferential uniformity ratio estimate provides independent prognostic information for patients with preserved or only moderately reduced LV ejection fraction.

2.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prognosis in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) depends on the amount of infarct-related artery (IRA)-subtended myocardium and associated damage but has not been described in great detail. Consequently, we sought to describe IRA-associated pathophysiological consequences using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). METHODS: 1235 AMI patients (n = 795 ST-elevation (STEMI) and 440 non-STEMI) underwent CMR following percutaneous coronary intervention. Blinded core-laboratory data were compared according to left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCx) and right coronary artery (RCA) regarding major adverse clinical events (MACE) within 12 months. Left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal/circumferential/radial (GLS/GCS/GRS) as well as left atrial (LA) total (εs), passive (εe) and active (εa) strains were determined using CMR-feature tracking. Tissue characterisation included infarct size (IS) and microvascular obstruction. RESULTS: LAD and LCx were associated with higher mortality compared to RCA lesions (4.6% and 4.4% vs 1.6%). LAD lesions showed largest IS (16.8%), largest ventricular [LV ejection fraction (EF) 47.4%, GLS - 13.2%, GCS - 20.8%] and atrial (εs 20.2%) impairment. There was less impairment in LCx (IS 11.8%, LVEF 50.8%, GLS - 17.4%, GCS - 25.0%, εs 20.7%) followed by RCA lesions (IS 11.3%, LVEF 50.8%, GLS - 19.1%, GCS - 26.6%, εs 21.7%). In AUC analyses, εs (LAD, RCA) and GLS (LCx) best predicted MACE (AUC > 0.69). Multivariate analyses identified εs (p = 0.017) in LAD and GLS (p = 0.034) in LCx infarcts as independent predictors of MACE. CONCLUSIONS: CMR allows IRA-specific phenotyping and characterisation of morphologic and functional changes. These alterations carry infarct-specific prognostic implications, and may represent novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets following AMI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00712101 and NCT01612312.

3.
Int J Cardiol ; 2019 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sex-specific outcome data following myocardial infarction (MI) are inconclusive with some evidence suggesting association of female sex and increased major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Since mechanistic principles remain elusive, we aimed to quantify the underlying phenotype using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) quantitative deformation imaging and tissue characterisation. METHODS: In total, 795 ST-elevation MI patients underwent post-interventional CMR imaging. Feature-tracking (CMR-FT) was performed in a blinded core-laboratory. Left ventricular function was quantified using ejection fraction (LVEF) and global longitudinal/circumferential/radial strains (GLS/GCS/GRS). Left atrial function was assessed by reservoir (εs), conduit (εe) and booster-pump strains (εa). Tissue characterisation included infarct size, microvascular obstruction and area at risk. Primary endpoint was the occurrence of MACE within 1 year. RESULTS: Female sex was associated with increased MACE (HR 1.96, 95% CI 1.13-3.42, p = 0.017) but not independently of baseline confounders (p = 0.526) with women being older, more often diabetic and hypertensive (p < 0.001) and of higher Killip-class (p = 0.010). Tissue characterisation was similar between sexes. Women showed impaired atrial (εs p = 0.011, εe p < 0.001) but increased systolic ventricular mechanics (GLS p = 0.001, LVEF p = 0.048). While atrial and ventricular function predicted MACE in men only LV GLS and GCS were associated with MACE in women irrespective of confounders (GLS p = 0.036, GCS p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: In men ventricular systolic contractility is impaired and volume assessments precisely stratify elevated risks. In contrast, women experience reduced atrial but increased ventricular systolic strain. This may reflect ventricular diastolic failure with systolic compensation, which is independently associated with MACE adding incremental value to sex-specific prognosis evaluation.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329854

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking (CMR-FT) global longitudinal strain (GLS) provides incremental prognostic value following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) but requires substantial post-processing. Alternatively, manual global long-axis strain (LAS) can be easily assessed from standard steady state free precession images. We aimed to define the prognostic value of LAS in a large multicentre study in patients following AMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1235 patients with myocardial infarction [n = 795 with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 440 with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)] underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in eight centres across Germany. Assessment of LAS was performed in a blinded core-laboratory measuring the systolic shortening between the epicardial apical border and the middle of a line connecting the origins of the mitral leaflets. Primary clinical endpoint was the occurrence of major adverse clinical events (MACE) including death, reinfarction, and congestive heart failure within 1 year after AMI. During 1-year follow-up, 76 patients suffered from MACE. Impaired LAS was associated with higher MACE occurrence both in STEMI (P < 0.001) and NSTEMI (P = 0.001) patients. Association of LAS remained significant (P = 0.017) after correction for univariate significant parameters for MACE prediction. C-statistics revealed incremental value of additional LAS assessment for optimized event prediction compared with left ventricular ejection fraction (MACE P = 0.044; mortality P = 0.013) and a combination of established clinical and imaging parameters (MACE P = 0.084; mortality P = 0.027), but not CMR-FT GLS (MACE P = 0.075; mortality P = 0.380). CONCLUSION: LAS provides software independent, widely available, easy and fast approximation of longitudinal left ventricular shortening early after reperfused AMI with incremental prognostic value beyond established risk stratification parameters. CLINICAL TRIALS.GOV: NCT00712101 and NCT01612312.

5.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322843

RESUMO

AIMS: Volume overload (VO) and pressure overload (PO) induce differential cardiac remodelling responses including distinct signalling pathways. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), key signalling components in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, modulate cardiac remodelling during pressure overload (PO). This study aimed to assess their role in VO-induced cardiac remodelling as this was unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Aortocaval fistula (Shunt) surgery was performed in mice to induce cardiac VO. Two weeks of Shunt caused a significant reduction of cardiac ERK1/2 activation in wild type (WT) mice as indicated by decreased phosphorylation of the TEY (Thr-Glu-Tyr) motif (-28% as compared with Sham controls, P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of other MAPKs was unaffected. For further assessment, transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-specific ERK2 overexpression (ERK2tg) were studied. At baseline, cardiac ERK1/2 phosphorylation in ERK2tg mice remained unchanged compared with WT littermates, and no overt cardiac phenotype was observed; however, cardiac expression of the atrial natriuretic peptide was increased on messenger RNA (3.6-fold, P < 0.05) and protein level (3.1-fold, P < 0.05). Following Shunt, left ventricular dilation and hypertrophy were similar in ERK2tg mice and WT littermates. Left ventricular function was maintained, and changes in gene expression indicated reactivation of the foetal gene program in both genotypes. No differences in cardiac fibrosis and kinase activation was found amongst all experimental groups, whereas apoptosis was similarly increased through Shunt in ERK2tg and WT mice. CONCLUSIONS: VO-induced eccentric hypertrophy is associated with reduced cardiac ERK1/2 activation in vivo. Cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of ERK2, however, does not alter cardiac remodelling during VO. Future studies need to define the pathophysiological relevance of decreased ERK1/2 signalling during VO.

6.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286143

RESUMO

AIMS: Identifying the key components in cardiomyocyte cell cycle regulation is of relevance for the understanding of cardiac development and adaptive and maladaptive processes in the adult myocardium. BRCA1-associated protein (BRAP) has been suggested as a cytoplasmic retention factor for several proteins including Cyclin-dependent-kinase inhibitor p21Cip. We observed profound expressional changes of BRAP in early postnatal myocardium and investigated the impact of BRAP on cardiomyocyte cell cycle regulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: General knockout of Brap in mice evoked embryonic lethality associated with reduced myocardial wall thickness and lethal cardiac congestion suggesting a prominent role for BRAP in cardiomyocyte proliferation. αMHC-Cre driven cardiomyocyte specific knockout of Brap also evoked lethal cardiac failure shortly after birth. Likewise, conditional cardiomyocyte specific Brap deletion using tamoxifen induced knockout in adult mice resulted in marked ventricular dilatation and heart failure 3 weeks after induction. Several lines of evidence suggest that Brap deletion evoked marked inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression. In cardiomyocytes with proliferative capacity this causes developmental arrest, whereas in adult hearts loss of BRAP induced apoptosis. This is explained by altered signaling through p21Cip which we identify as the link between BRAP and cell cycle/apoptosis. BRAP deletion enhanced p21Cip expression, while BRAP overexpression in cardiomyocyte-specific transgenic mice impeded p21Cip expression. That was paralleled by enhanced nuclear Ki-67 expression and DNA synthesis. CONCLUSION: By controlling p21Cip activity BRAP expression controls cell cycle activity and prevents developmental arrest in developing cardiomyocytes and apoptosis in adult cardiomyocytes.

7.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the importance of patients' quality of life (QoL) in chronic cardiac or pulmonary disease is uncontroversial, the burden of an acute pulmonary embolism (PE) on QoL has received little attention thus far. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to validate the German PEmb-QoL questionnaire, identify associations between QoL and clinical/functional parameters, and investigate the prognostic relevance of QoL for long-term survival in survivors of an acute PE episode. PATIENTS/METHODS: Patients were invited for a clinical follow-up visit including assessment of QoL using the German PEmb-QoL questionnaire 6 months after an objectively confirmed PE at a single center. Internal consistency reliability, construct-related validity, and regressions between PEmb-QoL and clinical patient-characteristics were assessed using standard scale construction techniques. RESULTS: Overall, 101 patients [median age, 69 ([interquartile range] IQR 57-75) years; women, 48.5%] were examined 208 (IQR 185-242) days after PE. Internal consistency reliability and construct-related validity of the PEmb-QoL questionnaire were acceptable. As many as 47.0% of patients reported dyspnea, 27.5% had right ventricular (RV) dysfunction on transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), and 25.3% were diagnosed with post-PE impairment (PPEI) at 6-month follow-up. Furthermore, 15.9% of patients were diagnosed with depression 6 months after an acute PE. The QoL was affected by dyspnea, preexisting pulmonary disease, and PPEI, and a reduced QoL was associated with an increased risk for long-term mortality after an observation period of 3.6 years. CONCLUSIONS: The German PEmb-QoL questionnaire is a reliable instrument for assessing QoL 6 months after PE. The QoL was affected by dyspnea, preexisting pulmonary disease, and PPEI and was associated with long-term mortality.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9889, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285482

RESUMO

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II delta (CaMKIIδ), the predominant CaMKII isoform expressed in the heart, has been implicated in the progression of myocardial infarction- and pressure overload-induced pathological remodeling. However, the role of CaMKIIδ in volume overload (VO) has not been explored. We have previously reported an activation of CaMKII during transition to HF in long-term VO. Here, we address whether CaMKIIδ is critically involved in the mortality, myocardial remodeling, and heart failure (HF) progression in response to VO. CaMKIIδ knockout (δ-KO) and wild-type (WT) littermates were exposed to aortocaval shunt-induced VO, and the progression of adverse myocardial remodeling was assessed by serial echocardiography, histological and molecular analyses. The mortality rates during 10 weeks of VO were similar in δ-KO and WT mice. Both genotypes displayed comparable eccentric myocardial hypertrophy, altered left ventricle geometry, perturbed systolic and diastolic functions after shunt. Additionally, cardiomyocytes hypertrophy, augmented myocyte apoptosis, and up-regulation of hypertrophic genes were also not significantly different in δ-KO versus WT hearts after shunt. Therefore, CaMKIIδ signaling seems to be dispensable for the progression of VO-induced maladaptive cardiac remodeling. Accordingly, we hypothesize that CaMKIIδ-inhibition as a therapeutic approach might not be helpful in the context of VO-triggered HF.

9.
JCI Insight ; 4(12)2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217359

RESUMO

Atrial dysfunction is highly prevalent and associated with increased severity of heart failure. While rapid excitation-contraction coupling depends on axial junctions in atrial myocytes, the molecular basis of atrial loss of function remains unclear. We identified approximately 5-fold lower junctophilin-2 levels in atrial compared with ventricular tissue in mouse and human hearts. In atrial myocytes, this resulted in subcellular expression of large junctophilin-2 clusters at axial junctions, together with highly phosphorylated ryanodine receptor (RyR2) channels. To investigate the contribution of junctophilin-2 to atrial pathology in adult hearts, we developed a cardiomyocyte-selective junctophilin-2-knockdown model with 0 mortality. Junctophilin-2 knockdown in mice disrupted atrial RyR2 clustering and contractility without hypertrophy or interstitial fibrosis. In contrast, aortic pressure overload resulted in left atrial hypertrophy with decreased junctophilin-2 and RyR2 expression, disrupted axial junctions, and atrial fibrosis. Whereas pressure overload accrued atrial dysfunction and heart failure with 40% mortality, additional junctophilin-2 knockdown greatly exacerbated atrial dysfunction with 100% mortality. Strikingly, transgenic junctophilin-2 overexpression restored atrial contractility and survival through de novo biogenesis of polyadic junctional membrane complexes maintained after pressure overload. Our data show a central role of junctophilin-2 cluster disruption in atrial hypertrophy and identify transgenic augmentation of junctophilin-2 as a disease-mitigating rationale to improve atrial dysfunction and prevent heart failure deterioration.

10.
Thromb Haemost ; 119(8): 1332-1346, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation and incomplete thrombus resolution leading to obstructive fibrotic remodelling are considered critical mechanisms for the development of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) after pulmonary embolism (PE). Osteopontin (OPN) is involved in a variety of biological processes including inflammation and tissue fibrosis. METHODS: OPN plasma concentrations were measured in 70 CTEPH and 119 PE patients. Tissue material from 6 CTEPH patients removed during pulmonary endarterectomy and murine venous thrombi induced by subtotal ligation of the inferior vena cava in C57BL/6 mice were analysed by (immuno)histochemistry. RESULTS: CTEPH patients had higher OPN plasma concentrations (median, 106.9 [interquartile range, 75.6-155.9]) compared to PE patients (90.4 [53.3-123.9] ng/mL, p = 0.001). OPN- and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9-positive cells were predominantly present in myofibroblast-rich and profibrotic areas of CTEPH tissue material. Early stages of murine thrombus resolution were characterised by high numbers of OPN- and MMP-2-positive cells while OPN was almost absent in fresh thrombi of CTEPH tissue material. PE patients with OPN plasma concentrations of < 55 ng/mL had a 15.2-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.7-135.5, p = 0.015) increased risk for a diagnosis of CTEPH during follow-up. CONCLUSION: The results of the present observational translational study point to a possible involvement of OPN in the pathogenesis of CTEPH by affecting early inflammatory and late fibrotic processes.

11.
Thromb Res ; 178: 173-181, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039477

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sex-specific differences regarding risk factors, symptoms and prognosis have been reported for several cardiovascular diseases. For patients with pulmonary embolism (PE), sex-specific data are limited and inconsistent. We aimed to investigate sex-specific differences in PE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a 10-year period (01/2003-09/2013), patients with confirmed PE were enrolled in a prospective single-centre cohort study. RESULTS: We prospectively examined 569 PE patients (55.9% women). Men more often had cancer (20.7% vs. 13.5%, p = 0.024) and unprovoked PE (61.0% vs. 47.5%, p = 0.001) while women more frequently presented with risk factors for venous thromboembolism such as older age (median, 71 [IQR, 55-79] vs. 67 [53-75] years, p = 0.008), surgery/trauma/immobilisation (38.4% vs. 29.5%, p = 0.026) and sex-hormone therapy (14.8% vs. 0.8%, p < 0.001). Overall, 84 patients (14.8%) had an adverse 30-day outcome and 43 (7.6%) died within 30 days; outcomes did not differ between males and females and were not influenced by the patients' sex. Risk stratification markers and models such as right ventricular dysfunction on TTE/CT, cardiac troponin, sPESI, Bova score and 2014 ESC guidelines algorithm predicted adverse outcome in normotensive female patients only, while tachycardia, hypoxia, NT-proBNP and modified FAST score were able to predict an adverse outcome in both sexes. Using sex-specific biomarker cut-off values, the 2014 ESC guidelines algorithm was able to predict adverse outcome in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: The 30-day adverse outcomes did not differ between male and female PE patients and were not influenced by the patients' sex despite sex-specific differences in the prognostic performance of risk stratification markers/models.

12.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-world data on the impact of advances in risk-adjusted management on the outcome of patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) are limited. METHODS: To investigate temporal trends in treatment, in-hospital adverse outcomes and 1-year mortality, we analysed data from 605 patients [median age, 70 years (IQR 56-77) years, 53% female] consecutively enrolled in a single-centre registry between 09/2008 and 08/2016. RESULTS: Over the 8-year period, more patients were classified to lower risk classes according to the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2014 guideline algorithm while the number of high-risk patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) increased. Although patients with OHCA had an exceptionally high in-hospital mortality rate of 59.3%, the rate of PE-related in-hospital adverse outcomes (12.2%) in the overall patient cohort remained stable over time. The rate of reperfusion treatment was 9.6% and tended to increase in high-risk patients. We observed a decrease in the median duration of in-hospital stay from 10 (IQR 6-14) to 7 (IQR 4-15) days, an increase of patients discharged early from 2.1 to 12.2% and an increase in the use of non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants (NOACs) from 12.6 to 57.2% in the last 2 years (09/2014-08/2016) compared to first 6 years (09/2008-08/2014). The 1-year mortality rate (16.9%) remained stable throughout the study period. CONCLUSION: In-hospital adverse outcomes and 1-year mortality remained stable despite more patients with OHCA, shorter in-hospital stays, more patients discharged early and a more frequent NOAC use.

13.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) function is prognostically relevant in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) but data on profound assessment of RV and right atrial (RA) interaction in HFpEF are lacking. The current study characterizes RV and RA interaction using invasive pressure-volume-loop analysis and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) data. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed CMR and myocardial feature-tracking in 24 HFpEF patients and 12 patients without HFpEF. Invasive pressure-volume-loops were obtained to evaluate systolic and diastolic RV properties. RV early filling was determined from CMR RV volume-time curves. RV systolic function was slightly increased in HFpEF (RV EF 68 ± 8 vs. 60 ± 9%, p = 0.01), while no differences in RV stroke volume were found (45 ± 7 vs 42 ± 9 ml/m2, p = 0.32). RV early filling was decreased in HFpEF (21 ± 11 vs. 40 ± 11% of RV filling volume, p < 0.01) and RV early filling was the strongest predictor for VO2max even after inclusion of invasively derived RV stiffness and relaxation constant (Beta 0.63, p < 0.01). RA conduit-function was lower in HFpEF (RA conduit-strain - 11 ± 5 vs. - 16 ± 4%, p < 0.01) while RA booster-pump-function was increased (RA active-strain - 18 ± 6 vs. - 12 ± 6%, p = 0.01) as a compensation. RV filling was associated with RA conduit-function (r = - 0.55, p < 0.01) but not with invasively derived RV relaxation constant. CONCLUSION: In compensated HFpEF patients RV early filling was impaired and compensated by increased RA booster pump function, while RV systolic function was preserved. Impaired RV diastology and RA-RV interaction were linked to impaired exercise tolerance and RA-RV-coupling seems to be independent of RV relaxation, suggestive of an independent pathophysiological contribution of RA dysfunction in HFpEF. CLINICAL-TRIAL-REGISTRATION: NCT02459626 ( www.clinicaltrials.gov ).

14.
Circ Res ; 125(1): 90-103, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104567

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The immature presentation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) is currently a challenge for their application in disease modeling, drug screening, and regenerative medicine. Long-term culture is known to achieve partial maturation of iPSC-CMs. However, little is known about the molecular signaling circuitries that govern functional changes, metabolic output, and cellular homeostasis during long-term culture of iPSC-CMs. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify and characterize critical signaling events that control functional and metabolic transitions of cardiac cells during developmental progression, as recapitulated by long-term culture of iPSC-CMs. METHODS AND RESULTS: We combined transcriptomic sequencing with pathway network mapping in iPSC-CMs that were cultured until a late time point, day 200, in comparison to a medium time point, day 90, and an early time point, day 30. Transcriptomic landscapes of long-term cultured iPSC-CMs allowed mapping of distinct metabolic stages during development of maturing iPSC-CMs. Temporally divergent control of mitochondrial metabolism was found to be regulated by cAMP/PKA (protein kinase A)- and proteasome-dependent signaling events. The PKA/proteasome-dependent signaling cascade was mediated downstream by Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90), which in turn modulated mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins and their metabolic output. During long-term culture, this circuitry was found to initiate upregulation of iPSC-CM metabolism, resulting in increased cell contractility that reached a maximum at the day 200 time point. CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal a PKA/proteasome- and Hsp90-dependent signaling pathway that regulates mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins and determines cardiomyocyte energy production and functional output. These findings provide deeper insight into signaling circuitries governing metabolic homeostasis in iPSC-CMs during developmental progression.

15.
Eur Heart J ; 40(26): 2142-2151, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098611

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the frequency, clinical features, and prognostic implications of cardiac arrest (CA) in takotsubo syndrome (TTS). METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed the records of patients with CA and known heart rhythm from the International Takotsubo Registry. The main outcomes were 60-day and 5-year mortality. In addition, predictors of mortality and predictors of CA during the acute TTS phase were assessed. Of 2098 patients, 103 patients with CA and known heart rhythm during CA were included. Compared with patients without CA, CA patients were more likely to be younger, male, and have apical TTS, atrial fibrillation (AF), neurologic comorbidities, physical triggers, and longer corrected QT-interval and lower left ventricular ejection fraction on admission. In all, 57.1% of patients with CA at admission had ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia, while 73.7% of patients with CA in the acute phase had asystole/pulseless electrical activity. Patients with CA showed higher 60-day (40.3% vs. 4.0%, P < 0.001) and 5-year mortality (68.9% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001) than patients without CA. T-wave inversion and intracranial haemorrhage were independently associated with higher 60-day mortality after CA, whereas female gender was associated with lower 60-day mortality. In the acute phase, CA occurred less frequently in females and more frequently in patients with AF, ST-segment elevation, and higher C-reactive protein on admission. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac arrest is relatively frequent in TTS and is associated with higher short- and long-term mortality. Clinical and electrocardiographic parameters independently predicted mortality after CA.

16.
Eur Heart J ; 40(26): 2155-2163, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957868

RESUMO

Randomized clinical trials initially used heart failure (HF) patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to select study populations with high risk to enhance statistical power. However, this use of LVEF in clinical trials has led to oversimplification of the scientific view of a complex syndrome. Descriptive terms such as 'HFrEF' (HF with reduced LVEF), 'HFpEF' (HF with preserved LVEF), and more recently 'HFmrEF' (HF with mid-range LVEF), assigned on arbitrary LVEF cut-off points, have gradually arisen as separate diseases, implying distinct pathophysiologies. In this article, based on pathophysiological reasoning, we challenge the paradigm of classifying HF according to LVEF. Instead, we propose that HF is a heterogeneous syndrome in which disease progression is associated with a dynamic evolution of functional and structural changes leading to unique disease trajectories creating a spectrum of phenotypes with overlapping and distinct characteristics. Moreover, we argue that by recognizing the spectral nature of the disease a novel stratification will arise from new technologies and scientific insights that will shape the design of future trials based on deeper understanding beyond the LVEF construct alone.

17.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 21(1): 24, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) represents the clinical gold standard for the assessment of biventricular morphology and function. Since manual post-processing is time-consuming and prone to observer variability, efforts have been directed towards automated volumetric quantification. In this study, we sought to validate the accuracy of a novel approach providing fully automated quantification of biventricular volumes and function in a "real-world" clinical setting. METHODS: Three-hundred CMR examinations were randomly selected from the local data base. Fully automated quantification of left ventricular (LV) mass, LV and right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes (EDV/ESV), stroke volume (SV) and ejection fraction (EF) were performed overnight using commercially available software (suiteHEART®, Neosoft, Pewaukee, Wisconsin, USA). Parameters were compared to manual assessments (QMass®, Medis Medical Imaging Systems, Leiden, Netherlands). Sub-group analyses were further performed according to image quality, scanner field strength, the presence of implanted aortic valves and repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF). RESULTS: Biventricular automated segmentation was feasible in all 300 cases. Overall agreement between fully automated and manually derived LV parameters was good (LV-EF: intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] 0.95; bias - 2.5% [SD 5.9%]), whilst RV agreement was lower (RV-EF: ICC 0.72; bias 5.8% [SD 9.6%]). Lowest agreement was observed in case of severely altered anatomy, e.g. marked RV dilation but normal LV dimensions in repaired ToF (LV parameters ICC 0.73-0.91; RV parameters ICC 0.41-0.94) and/or reduced image quality (LV parameters ICC 0.86-0.95; RV parameters ICC 0.56-0.91), which was more common on 3.0 T than on 1.5 T. CONCLUSIONS: Fully automated assessments of biventricular morphology and function is robust and accurate in a clinical routine setting with good image quality and can be performed without any user interaction. However, in case of demanding anatomy (e.g. repaired ToF, severe LV hypertrophy) or reduced image quality, quality check and manual re-contouring are still required.

18.
Int J Cardiol ; 290: 144-149, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessment of bleeding risk in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) is challenging. Recently, the VTE-BLEED score was shown to predict major bleeding. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the VTE-BLEED score and assess the prognostic impact of major bleeding in a real-world cohort of PE patients. METHODS: Consecutive PE patients included in a prospective single-center cohort study between 09/2008 and 11/2016 were eligible for analysis; patients treated with thrombolysis were excluded. The VTE-BLEED was calculated post-hoc; in-hospital major bleeding was defined using the ISTH definition. RESULTS: Overall, 522 patients (median age 69, IQR 56-78 years; 53% female) were included in the present analysis; major bleeding occurred in 18 (3.5%) patients. A VTE-BLEED score ≥2 points identified patients at high-risk for major bleeding (OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.1-13.0, sensitivity 83%, specificity 42%). Additionally, a GFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m2 (OR 6.0, 95% CI 1.8-19.8) and previous surgery (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.4-9.3) were associated with major bleeding. A less frequent use of unfractionated heparin as initial treatment was associated with a decrease of major bleeding over time. Major bleeding was identified as strong predictor of in-hospital (OR 7.7, 95% CI 2.3-25.8) and 1-year mortality (HR 3.6, 95% CI 2.0-6.6), especially in normotensive patients (OR 12.1, 95% CI 3.5-43.0 and HR 6.0, 95% CI 2.9-12.6, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In a real-world cohort, the VTE-BLEED score identified PE patients at risk for in-hospital major bleeding. However, for assessment of bleeding risk, renal function and previous surgery should be considered. Major bleeding emerged as strong predictor of in-hospital and 1-year mortality.

19.
ESC Heart Fail ; 6(3): 516-525, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868756

RESUMO

AIMS: Health data captured by commercially available smart devices may represent meaningful patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in heart failure (HF) patients. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis by evaluating the feasibility of a new telemonitoring concept for patients following initial HF hospitalization. METHODS AND RESULTS: We designed a cardio patient monitoring platform (CPMP) that comprised mobile iOS-based applications for patients' smartphone/smartwatch and the equivalent application on a physicians' tablet. It allowed for safe and continuous data transmission of self-measured physiological parameters, activity data, and patient-reported symptoms. In a prospective feasibility trial with 692 patient days from 10 patients hospitalized for newly diagnosed HF with reduced ejection fraction (mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 26.5 ± 9.8%), we examined the CPMP during the first 2 months following discharge (69 ± 15 observation days per patient). The mean daily step count recorded by the mobile devices emerged as a promising new PROM. Its 14 day average increased over the study period (3612 ± 3311 steps/day at study inclusion and 7069 ± 5006 steps/day at end of study; P < 0.0001). It is unique for continuously reflecting real-life activity and correlated significantly with traditional surrogate parameters of cardiac performance including LVEF (r = 0.44; 95% CI 0.07-0.71; P = 0.0232), 6 min walk test (r = 0.67; 95% CI 0.38-0.84; P = 0.0002), and scores in health-related quality of life questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first patient monitoring platform for HF patients that relies on commercially available iOS/watchOS-based devices. Our study suggests it is ready for implementation as a tool for recording meaningful PROMs in future HF trials and telemonitoring.

20.
ESC Heart Fail ; 6(2): 262-270, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784226

RESUMO

AIMS: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in heart failure (HF), but its relevance in early stages of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is unknown. We tested the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] serum levels with mortality, hospitalizations, cardiovascular risk factors, and echocardiographic parameters in patients with asymptomatic diastolic dysfunction (DD) or newly diagnosed HFpEF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured 25(OH)D serum levels in outpatients with risk factors for DD or history of HF derived from the DIAST-CHF study. Participants were comprehensively phenotyped including physical examination, echocardiography, and 6 min walk test and were followed up to 5 years. Quality of life was evaluated by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. We included 787 patients with available 25(OH)D levels. Median 25(OH)D levels were 13.1 ng/mL, mean E/e' medial was 13.2, and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 59.1%. Only 9% (n = 73) showed a left ventricular ejection fraction <50%. Fifteen per cent (n = 119) of the recruited participants had symptomatic HFpEF. At baseline, participants with 25(OH)D levels in the lowest tertile (≤10.9 ng/L; n = 263) were older, more often symptomatic (oedema and fatigue, all P ≤ 0.002) and had worse cardiac [higher N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and left atrial volume index, both P ≤ 0.023], renal (lower glomerular filtration rate, P = 0.012), metabolic (higher uric acid levels, P < 0.001), and functional (reduced exercise capacity, 6 min walk distance, and SF-36 physical functioning score, all P < 0.001) parameters. Increased NT-proBNP, uric acid, and left atrial volume index and decreased SF-36 physical functioning scores were independently associated with lower 25(OH)D levels. There was a higher risk for lower 25(OH)D levels in association with HF, DD, and atrial fibrillation (all P ≤ 0.004), which remained significant after adjusting for age. Lower 25(OH)D levels (per 10 ng/mL decrease) tended to be associated with higher 5 year mortality, P = 0.05, hazard ratio (HR) 1.55 [1.00; 2.42]. Furthermore, lower 25(OH)D levels (per 10 ng/mL decrease) were related to an increased rate of cardiovascular hospitalizations, P = 0.023, HR = 1.74 [1.08; 2.80], and remained significant after adjusting for age, P = 0.046, HR = 1.63 [1.01; 2.64], baseline NT-proBNP, P = 0.048, HR = 1.62 [1.01; 2.61], and other selected baseline characteristics and co-morbidities, P = 0.043, HR = 3.60 [1.04; 12.43]. CONCLUSIONS: Lower 25(OH)D levels were associated with reduced functional capacity in patients with DD or HFpEF and were significantly predictive for an increased rate of cardiovascular hospitalizations, also after adjusting for age, NT-proBNP, and selected baseline characteristics and co-morbidities.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etiologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Áustria/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca Diastólica/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Precursores de Proteínas , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
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