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PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(10): e1009460, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710086


Fifth generation networks (5G) will be associated with a partial shift to higher carrier frequencies, including wavelengths comparable in size to insects. This may lead to higher absorption of radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) by insects and could cause dielectric heating. The yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti), a vector for diseases such as yellow and dengue fever, favors warm climates. Being exposed to higher frequency RF EMFs causing possible dielectric heating, could have an influence on behavior, physiology and morphology, and could be a possible factor for introduction of the species in regions where the yellow fever mosquito normally does not appear. In this study, the influence of far field RF exposure on A. aegypti was examined between 2 and 240 GHz. Using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations, the distribution of the electric field in and around the insect and the absorbed RF power were found for six different mosquito models (three male, three female). The 3D models were created from micro-CT scans of real mosquitoes. The dielectric properties used in the simulation were measured from a mixture of homogenized A. aegypti. For a given incident RF power, the absorption increases with increasing frequency between 2 and 90 GHz with a maximum between 90 and 240 GHz. The absorption was maximal in the region where the wavelength matches the size of the mosquito. For a same incident field strength, the power absorption by the mosquito is 16 times higher at 60 GHz than at 6 GHz. The higher absorption of RF power by future technologies can result in dielectric heating and potentially influence the biology of this mosquito.

Aedes , Mosquitos Vetores , Ondas de Rádio , Aedes/fisiologia , Aedes/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos da radiação , Febre Amarela/transmissão
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3509, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083529


The nature of the "forbidden" local- and long-range polar order in nominally non-polar paraelectric phases of ferroelectric materials has been an open question since the discovery of ferroelectricity in oxide perovskites, ABO3. A currently considered model suggests locally correlated displacements of B-site atoms along a subset of <111> cubic directions. Such off-site displacements have been confirmed experimentally; however, being essentially dynamic in nature they cannot account for the static nature of the symmetry-forbidden polarization implied by the macroscopic experiments. Here, in an atomically resolved study by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy complemented by Raman spectroscopy, we reveal, directly visualize and quantitatively describe static, 2-4 nm large polar nanoclusters in the nominally non-polar cubic phases of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 and BaTiO3. These results have implications on understanding of the atomic-scale structure of disordered materials, the origin of precursor states in ferroelectrics, and may help answering ambiguities on the dynamic-versus-static nature of nano-sized clusters.

Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18082, 2021 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508109


The GABA molecule is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. Through binding to post-synaptic neurons, GABA reduces the neuronal excitability by hyperpolarization. Correct binding between the GABA molecules and its receptors relies on molecular recognition. Earlier studies suggest that recognition is determined by the geometries of the molecule and its receptor. We employed dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) to study the conformation and dielectric properties of the GABA molecule under physiologically relevant laboratory conditions. The dielectric properties of GABA investigated have given us new insights about the GABA molecule, such as how they interact with each other and with water molecules at different temperatures (22°C and 37.5°C). Higher temperature leads to lower viscosity, thus lower relaxation time. The change in the GABA relaxation time due to concentration change is more associated with the solution viscosity than with the GABA dipole moment. A resonance behavior was observed with high GABA concentrations at physiological temperature, where there might be a phase transition at a certain temperature for a given GABA concentration that leads to a sudden change of the dielectric properties.