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1.
J Community Health ; 46(1): 147-155, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542551

RESUMO

Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is a primary risk factor for the development of melanoma. However, adults and adolescents often do not engage in preventive behaviors to reduce UVR exposure. Rural residents may be at higher risk for melanoma due to lower use of sun protection strategies, which increases their overall UVR exposure compared to those who live in urban areas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in UVR exposure between rural and urban residents in a geographic area with high incidence of melanoma. Children (aged 8-17 years) and adults (≥ 18 years) from rural and urban areas of Utah were asked to wear a UVR monitoring device for 14 days. The sample included 97 children and 97 adults. Data was collected from June to October 2018. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney tests and quantile regression were used to compare UVR exposure levels between urban and rural participants, separately for adults and children. For adults, rural residence significantly increased total UVR dose ( ß: 24.6; 95% CI 3.75, 42.74) and the UVR dose during peak UVR hours among participants with the highest UVR doses (ß: 16.3; 95% CI 17.4, 24.63). Rural children exhibited significantly higher UVR doses for peak UVR hours for the entire study period (ß: 4.14; 95% CI 0.83, 7.46) and on weekdays (ß: 0.39; 95% CI 0.05, 0.73). The findings from this study indicate that rural residents may receive higher levels of UVR exposure than urban residents, and that prevention efforts could be tailored to address these geographical differences.

2.
Oral Dis ; 27(1): 73-93, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569410

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the latest evidence on head and neck cancer epidemiology from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: INHANCE was established in 2004 to elucidate the etiology of head and neck cancer through pooled analyses of individual-level data on a large scale. We summarize results from recent INHANCE-based publications updating our 2015 overview. RESULTS: Seventeen papers were published between 2015 and May 2020. These studies further define the nature of risks associated with tobacco and alcohol, and occupational exposures on head and neck cancer. The beneficial effects on incidence of head and neck cancer were identified for good oral health, endogenous and exogenous hormonal factors, and selected aspects of diet related to fruit and vegetables. INHANCE has begun to develop risk prediction models and to pool follow-up data on their studies, finding that ~30% of cases had cancer recurrence and 9% second primary cancers, with overall- and disease-specific 5-year-survival of 51% and 57%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The number and importance of INHANCE scientific findings provides further evidence of the advantages of large-scale internationally collaborative projects and will support the development of prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Uso de Tabaco
3.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000001423, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252300

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Contemporary treatment modalities for localized prostate cancer provide comparable overall and cancer-specific survival. However, the degree of financial burden imposed by treatment, the factors contributing to that burden, and how different treatments compare with regard to financial toxicity remain poorly understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery and Radiation (CEASAR) study enrolled men with localized prostate cancer from 2011 to 2012. Questionnaires were collected at 6, 12, 36, and 60 months after enrollment. Differences in patient-reported financial burden were compared between active surveillance, radical prostatectomy, and external beam radiotherapy using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 2,121 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 15% reported large or very large burden of treatment costs within 6 months, declining to 3% by year 5. When controlling for age, education, income and other covariates, external beam radiotherapy was associated with greater financial burden than active surveillance and radical prostatectomy at 1 year (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.1 and OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.3, respectively) and 3 years (OR 3.1 95% CI 1.1-8.8 and OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7, respectively). Radical prostatectomy and active surveillance had similar rates of financial burden at all time points. Age, race, education, and D'Amico risk group were associated with financial burden. CONCLUSIONS: External beam radiotherapy was associated with the highest financial burden, even when controlling for age, education and income. Prospective studies that directly measure out-of-pocket and indirect costs and account more thoroughly for baseline socioeconomic differences are warranted in order to identify those most at risk.

4.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 69: 101824, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there is some evidence of positive associations between both the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with cancer risk, the relationships with lung cancer risk remain largely unexplored. We evaluated the associations between GI and GL with lung cancer. METHODS: The analyses were performed using data from a population-based case-control study recruited between 1999 and 2004 in Los Angeles County. Dietary factors were collected from 593 incident lung cancer cases and 1026 controls using a modified food frequency questionnaire. GI and GL were estimated using a food composition table. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Dietary GI was positively associated with lung cancer (OR for upper vs. lower tertile = 1.62; 95 % CI: 1.17, 2.25). For histologic subtypes, positive associations were observed between GI and adenocarcinoma (OR for upper vs. lower tertile = 1.82; 95 % CI: 1.22, 2.70) and small cell carcinoma (OR for upper vs. lower tertile = 2.68; 95 % CI: 1.25, 5.74). No clear association between GL and lung cancer was observed. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that high dietary GI was associated with increased lung cancer risk, and the positive associations were observed for both lung adenocarcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma. Replication in an independent dataset is merited for a broader interpretation of our results.

5.
Urol Oncol ; 38(12): 930.e23-930.e32, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736934

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The timing of radiotherapy (RT) after prostatectomy is controversial, and its effect on sexual, urinary, and bowel function is unknown. This study seeks to compare patient-reported functional outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP) and postprostatectomy radiation as well as elucidate the timing of radiation to allow optimal recovery of function. METHODS: The Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery and Radiation (CEASAR) study is a prospective, population-based, observational study of men with localized prostate cancer. Patient-reported sexual, urinary, and bowel functional outcomes were measured using the 26-item Expanded Prostate Index Composite at baseline and at 6, 12, 36, and 60 months after enrollment. Functional outcomes were compared among men undergoing RP alone, post-RP adjuvant radiation (RP + aRT), and post-RP salvage radiation (RP + sRT) using multivariable models controlling for baseline clinical, demographic, and functional characteristics. RESULTS: Among 1,482 CEASAR participants initially treated with RP for clinically localized prostate cancer, 11.5% (N = 170) received adjuvant (aRT, N = 57) or salvage (sRT, N = 113) radiation. Men who received post-RP RT had worse scores in all domains (sexual function [-9.0, 95% confidence interval {-14.5, -3.6}, P < 0.001], incontinence [-8.8, {-14.0, -3.6}, P < 0.001], irritative voiding [-5.9, {-9.0, -2.8}, P < 0.001], bowel irritative [-3.5, {-5.8, -1.2}, P = 0.002], and hormonal function [-4.5, {-7.2, -1.7}, P = 0.001]) compared to RP alone at 5 years of follow-up. Compared to men treated with RP alone in an adjusted linear model, sRT was associated with significantly worse scores in all functional domains. aRT was associated with significantly worse incontinence, urinary irritation, and hormonal function domain scores compared to RP alone at 5 years of follow-up. On multivariable modeling, RT administered approximately 24 months after RP was associated with the smallest decline in sexual domain score, with an adjusted mean decrease of 8.85 points (95% confidence interval [-19.8, 2.1]) from post-RP, pre-RT baseline. CONCLUSIONS: In men with localized prostate cancer, post-RP RT was associated with significantly worse sexual, urinary, and bowel function domain scores at 5 years compared to RP alone. Radiation delayed for approximately 24 months after RP may be optimal for preserving erectile function compared to radiation administered closer to the time of RP.

6.
J Urol ; 204(6): 1236-1241, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568605

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prior studies suggest that nationally endorsed quality measures for prostate cancer care are not linked closely with outcomes. Using a prospective, population based cohort we measured clinically relevant variation in structure, process and outcome measures in men undergoing radical prostatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery and Radiation (CEASAR) Study enrolled men with clinically localized prostate cancer diagnosed from 2011 to 2012 with 1,069 meeting the final inclusion criteria. Quality of life was assessed using the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC-26) and clinical data by chart review. Six quality measures were assessed, including pelvic lymphadenectomy with risk of lymph node involvement 2% or greater, appropriate nerve sparing, negative surgical margins, urinary and sexual function, treatment by high volume surgeon, and 30-day and 1-year complications. Receipt of high quality care was compared across categories of race, age, surgeon volume and surgical approach via multivariable analysis. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in quality across race, age or surgeon volume strata, except for worse urinary incontinence in Black men. However, robotic surgery patients experienced fewer complications (3% vs 9.3% short-term and 11% vs 16% long-term), were more likely to be treated by a high volume surgeon (47% vs 25%) and demonstrated better sexual function. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort we did not identify meaningful variation in quality of care across racial groups, age groups and surgeon volume strata, suggesting that men are receiving comparable quality of care across these strata. However, we did find variation between open and robotic surgery with fewer complications, improved sexual function and increased use of high volume surgeons in the robotic group, possibly reflecting differences in quality between approaches, differences in practice patterns and/or biases in patient selection.


Assuntos
Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Prostatectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Qualidade de Vida , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Margens de Excisão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ereção Peniana/fisiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/cirurgia , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Prostatectomia/normas , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/normas , Resultado do Tratamento , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia
7.
JAAPA ; 33(6): 35-41, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The incidence of melanoma is increasing. Other than limiting UV exposure, few factors prevent or reduce the risk of melanoma. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D intake and melanoma risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial. METHODS: A secondary data analysis was performed on PLCO data. More than 1,300 participants developed melanoma. RESULTS: Melanoma risk may be increased among men within the highest quartile of vitamin D intake (HR 1.27, 95% CI 0.99, 1.61). Women in the highest quartile of vitamin D intake had a decreased risk of invasive melanoma (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.41, 0.96). Higher education and being white corresponded with deeper tumors (P < .001). CONCLUSION: High reported vitamin D intake resulted in an increased risk of melanoma among men. Vitamin D intake yielded a protective effect against invasive melanoma in women.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Melanoma/etiologia , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Fatores Sexuais , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Vitamina D/metabolismo
8.
Gynecol Oncol ; 157(2): 529-535, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122688

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While genitourinary complications during treatment for ovarian cancer are well-known, long-term adverse outcomes have not been well characterized. The number of ovarian cancer survivors has been increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term adverse genitourinary outcomes in a population-based cohort. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 1270 ovarian cancer survivors diagnosed between 1996 and 2012 from the Utah Cancer Registry, and 5286 cancer-free women were matched on birth year and state from the Utah Population Database. Genitourinary disease diagnoses were identified through ICD-9 codes from electronic medical records and statewide healthcare facilities data. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for genitourinary outcomes at 1 to <5 years and 5+ years after ovarian cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: Ovarian cancer survivors had increased risks for urinary system disorders (HR: 2.53, 95% CI: 2.12-3.01) and genital organ disorders (HR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.57-2.27) between 1 and <5 years after cancer diagnosis compared to the general population cohort. Increased risks were observed for acute renal failure, chronic kidney disease, calculus of kidney, hydronephrosis, pelvic peritoneal adhesions, and pelvic organ inflammatory conditions. Increased risks of several of these diseases were observed 5+ years after cancer diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian cancer survivors experience increased risks of various genitourinary diseases compared to women in the general population in the long-term. Understanding the multimorbidity trajectory among ovarian cancer survivors is important to improve clinical care after cancer treatment is completed.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Sistema de Registros , Utah/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Head Neck ; 42(4): 708-718, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited data exist regarding which head and head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors will suffer from long-term dysphagia. METHODS: From a population-based cohort of 1901 Utah residents with HNC and ≥3 years follow-up, we determined hazard ratio for dysphagia, aspiration pneumonia, or gastrostomy associated with various risk factors. We tested prediction models with combinations of factors and then assessed discrimination of our final model. RESULTS: Cancer site in the hypopharynx, advanced tumor classification, chemoradiation, preexisting dysphagia, stroke, dementia, esophagitis, esophageal spasm, esophageal stricture, gastroesophageal reflux, thrush, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were associated with increased risk of long-term dysphagia. Our final prediction tool gives personalized risk calculation for diagnosis of dysphagia, aspiration pneumonia, or gastrostomy tube placement at 5, 10, and 15 years after HNC based on 18 factors. CONCLUSION: We developed a clinically useful risk prediction tool to identify HNC survivors most at risk for dysphagia.

10.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(3): 241-253, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002718

RESUMO

Rural areas of the U.S. experience disproportionate colorectal cancer (CRC) death compared to urban areas. The authors aimed to analyze differences in CRC survival between rural and urban Utah men and investigate potential prognostic factors for survival among these men. A cohort of Utah men diagnosed with CRC between 1997 and 2013 was identified from the Utah Cancer Registry. Survival and prognostic factors were analyzed via 5-year CRC survival and Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by rural/urban residence. Among 4,660 men diagnosed with CRC, 15.3% were living in rural Utah. Compared with urban men, rural CRC patients were diagnosed at older ages and in different anatomic subsites; more were overweight, and current smokers. Differences in stage and treatment were not apparent between rural and urban CRC patients. Compared with urban counterparts, rural men experienced a lower CRC survival (Hazard Ratio 0.55, 95% CI 0.53, 0.58 vs. 0.58, 95% CI 0.56, 0.59). Race and cancer treatment influenced CRC survival among men living in both urban and rural areas. Factors of CRC survival varied greatly among urban and rural men in Utah. The influence of social and environmental conditions on health behaviors and outcomes merits further exploration.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Risco , Utah/epidemiologia
11.
Eur Urol ; 78(2): 248-255, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shared decision making to guide treatment of localized prostate cancer requires delivery of the anticipated quality of life (QOL) outcomes of contemporary treatment options (including radical prostatectomy [RP], intensity-modulated radiation therapy [RT], and active surveillance [AS]). Predicting these QOL outcomes based on personalized features is necessary. OBJECTIVE: To create an easy-to-use tool to predict personalized sexual, urinary, bowel, and hormonal function outcomes after RP, RT, and AS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A prospective, population-based cohort study was conducted utilizing US cancer registries of 2563 men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer in 2011-2012. INTERVENTION: Patient-reported urinary, sexual, and bowel function up to 5 yr after treatment. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Patient-reported urinary, sexual, bowel, and hormonal function through 5 yr after treatment were collected using the 26-item Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC-26) questionnaire. Comprehensive models to predict domain scores were fit, which included age, race, D'Amico classification, body mass index, EPIC-26 baseline function, treatment, and standardized scores measuring comorbidity, general QOL, and psychosocial health. We reduced these models by removing the instrument scores and replacing D'Amico classification with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and Gleason score. For the final model, we performed bootstrap internal validation to assess model calibration from which an easy-to-use web-based tool was developed. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The prediction models achieved bias-corrected R-squared values of 0.386, 0.232, 0.183, 0.214, and 0.309 for sexual function, urinary incontinence, urinary irritative, bowel, and hormonal domains, respectively. Differences in R-squared values between the comprehensive and parsimonious models were small in magnitude. Calibration was excellent. The web-based tool is available at https://statez.shinyapps.io/PCDSPred/. CONCLUSIONS: Functional outcomes after treatment for localized prostate cancer can be predicted at the time of diagnosis based on age, race, PSA, biopsy grade, baseline function, and a general question regarding overall health. Providers and patients can use this prediction tool to inform shared decision making. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we studied patient-reported sexual, urinary, hormonal, and bowel function through 5 yr after treatment with radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, or active surveillance for localized prostate cancer. We developed a web-based predictive tool that can be used to predict one's outcomes after treatment based on age, race, prostate-specific antigen, biopsy grade, pretreatment baseline function, and a general question regarding overall health. We hope both patients and providers can use this tool to better understand expected outcomes after treatment, further enhancing shared decision making between providers and patients.

12.
JAMA ; 323(2): 149-163, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935027

RESUMO

Importance: Understanding adverse effects of contemporary treatment approaches for men with favorable-risk and unfavorable-risk localized prostate cancer could inform treatment selection. Objective: To compare functional outcomes associated with prostate cancer treatments over 5 years after treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective, population-based cohort study of 1386 men with favorable-risk (clinical stage cT1 to cT2bN0M0, prostate-specific antigen [PSA] ≤20 ng/mL, and Grade Group 1-2) prostate cancer and 619 men with unfavorable-risk (clinical stage cT2cN0M0, PSA of 20-50 ng/mL, or Grade Group 3-5) prostate cancer diagnosed in 2011 through 2012, accrued from 5 Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program sites and a US prostate cancer registry, with surveys through September 2017. Exposures: Treatment with active surveillance (n = 363), nerve-sparing prostatectomy (n = 675), external beam radiation therapy (EBRT; n = 261), or low-dose-rate brachytherapy (n = 87) for men with favorable-risk disease and treatment with prostatectomy (n = 402) or EBRT with androgen deprivation therapy (n = 217) for men with unfavorable-risk disease. Main Outcomes and Measures: Patient-reported function, based on the 26-item Expanded Prostate Index Composite (range, 0-100), 5 years after treatment. Regression models were adjusted for baseline function and patient and tumor characteristics. Minimum clinically important difference was 10 to 12 for sexual function, 6 to 9 for urinary incontinence, 5 to 7 for urinary irritative symptoms, and 4 to 6 for bowel and hormonal function. Results: A total of 2005 men met inclusion criteria and completed the baseline and at least 1 postbaseline survey (median [interquartile range] age, 64 [59-70] years; 1529 of 1993 participants [77%] were non-Hispanic white). For men with favorable-risk prostate cancer, nerve-sparing prostatectomy was associated with worse urinary incontinence at 5 years (adjusted mean difference, -10.9 [95% CI, -14.2 to -7.6]) and sexual function at 3 years (adjusted mean difference, -15.2 [95% CI, -18.8 to -11.5]) compared with active surveillance. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy was associated with worse urinary irritative (adjusted mean difference, -7.0 [95% CI, -10.1 to -3.9]), sexual (adjusted mean difference, -10.1 [95% CI, -14.6 to -5.7]), and bowel (adjusted mean difference, -5.0 [95% CI, -7.6 to -2.4]) function at 1 year compared with active surveillance. EBRT was associated with urinary, sexual, and bowel function changes not clinically different from active surveillance at any time point through 5 years. For men with unfavorable-risk disease, EBRT with ADT was associated with lower hormonal function at 6 months (adjusted mean difference, -5.3 [95% CI, -8.2 to -2.4]) and bowel function at 1 year (adjusted mean difference, -4.1 [95% CI, -6.3 to -1.9]), but better sexual function at 5 years (adjusted mean difference, 12.5 [95% CI, 6.2-18.7]) and incontinence at each time point through 5 years (adjusted mean difference, 23.2 [95% CI, 17.7-28.7]), than prostatectomy. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort of men with localized prostate cancer, most functional differences associated with contemporary management options attenuated by 5 years. However, men undergoing prostatectomy reported clinically meaningful worse incontinence through 5 years compared with all other options, and men undergoing prostatectomy for unfavorable-risk disease reported worse sexual function at 5 years compared with men who underwent EBRT with ADT.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Braquiterapia/efeitos adversos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Radioterapia/métodos , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia , Conduta Expectante
13.
Br J Cancer ; 122(6): 745-748, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929514

RESUMO

High dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) may increase cancer risk. However, limited information was available on GI and/or GL and head and neck cancer (HNC) risk. We conducted a pooled analysis on 8 case-control studies (4081 HNC cases; 7407 controls) from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of HNC, and its subsites, from fixed- or mixed-effects logistic models including centre-specific quartiles of GI or GL. GI, but not GL, had a weak positive association with HNC (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.02-1.31). In subsites, we found a positive association between GI and laryngeal cancer (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 1.60; 95% CI = 1.30-1.96) and an inverse association between GL and oropharyngeal cancer (ORQ4 vs. Q1 = 0.78; 95% CI = 0.63-0.97). This pooled analysis indicates a modest positive association between GI and HNC, mainly driven by laryngeal cancer.


Assuntos
Índice Glicêmico/fisiologia , Carga Glicêmica/fisiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Gynecol Oncol ; 156(1): 185-193, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839336

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The majority of endometrial cancer patients are overweight or obese at cancer diagnosis. Obesity is a shared risk factor for both endometrial cancer and diabetes, but it is unknown whether endometrial cancer patients have increased diabetes risks. The aim of our study was to investigate diabetes risk among endometrial cancer patients. METHODS: Endometrial cancer patients diagnosed between 1997 and 2012 in Utah (n = 2,314) were identified. Women from the general population (n = 8,583) were matched to the cancer patients on birth year and birth state. Diabetes diagnoses were identified from electronic medical records and statewide healthcare facility databases. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for diabetes after cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: Endometrial cancer survivors had a significantly higher risk of type II diabetes when compared to women from the general population in the first year after cancer diagnosis (HR = 5.22, 95% CI = 4.05, 6.71), >1-5 years after cancer diagnosis (HR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.31, 2.12), and >5 years after cancer diagnosis (HR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.29, 2.11). Endometrial cancer patients who were obese at cancer diagnosis had a three-fold increase in type II diabetes risk (HR = 2.99, 95%CI = 2.59, 3.45). Although endometrial cancer patients diagnosed at distant stage had a higher risk of diabetes, cancer treatment did not appear to contribute to any diabetes risks. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, endometrial cancer survivors had a higher risk of diabetes than women in the general population. These results suggest that long term monitoring for diabetes is indicated for endometrial cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias do Endométrio/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Programa de SEER , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Oral Oncol ; 100: 104487, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835136

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test the performance of an oral cancer prognostic 13-gene signature for the prediction of survival of patients diagnosed with HPV-negative and p16-negative oral cavity cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diagnostic formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded oral cavity cancer tumor samples were obtained from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center/University of Washington, University of Calgary, University of Michigan, University of Utah, and seven ARCAGE study centers coordinated by the International Agency of Research on Cancer. RNA from 638 Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-negative and p16-negative samples was analyzed for the 13 genes using a NanoString assay. Ridge-penalized Cox regressions were applied to samples randomly split into discovery and validation sets to build models and evaluate the performance of the 13-gene signature in predicting 2-year oral cavity cancer-specific survival overall and separately for patients with early and late stage disease. RESULTS: Among AJCC stage I/II patients, including the 13-gene signature in the model resulted in substantial improvement in the prediction of 2-year oral cavity cancer-specific survival. For models containing age and sex with and without the 13-gene signature score, the areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC) and partial AUC were 0.700 vs. 0.537 (p < 0.001), and 0.046 vs. 0.018 (p < 0.001), respectively. Improvement in predicting prognosis for AJCC stage III/IV disease also was observed, but to a lesser extent. CONCLUSIONS: If confirmed using tumor samples from a larger number of early stage oral cavity cancer patients, the 13-gene signature may inform personalized treatment of early stage HPV-negative and p16-negative oral cavity cancer patients.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Inclusão em Parafina , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Sobrevida , Fixação de Tecidos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Cancer ; 147(3): 866-875, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837000

RESUMO

Although tobacco smoking, pan chewing and alcohol drinking are important risk factors for head and neck cancer (HNC), the HNC risks conferred by products available in Nepal for these habits are unknown. We assessed the associations of tobacco smoking, chewing habits, and alcohol drinking with HNC risk in Nepal. A case-control study was conducted in Nepal with 549 incident HNC cases and 601 controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. We observed increased HNC risk for tobacco smoking (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.06), chewing habits (OR: 2.39; 95% CI: 1.77, 3.23), and alcohol drinking (OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.18). The population attributable fraction (PAF) was 24.3% for tobacco smoking, 39.9% for chewing habits and 23.0% for alcohol drinking. Tobacco smoking, chewing habits, and alcohol drinking might be responsible for 85.3% of HNC cases. Individuals who smoked tobacco, chewed products and drank alcohol had a 13-fold increase in HNC risk (OR: 12.83; 95% CI: 6.91, 23.81) compared to individuals who did not have any of these habits. Both high frequency and long duration of these habits were strong risk factors for HNC among the Nepalese with clear dose-response trends. Preventive strategies against starting these habits and support for quitting these habits are necessary to decrease the incidence of HNC in Nepal.

17.
Epidemiology ; 31(1): 145-154, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577634

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Various established occupational lung carcinogens are also suspected risk factors for laryngeal cancer. However, individual studies are often inadequate in size to investigate this relatively rare outcome. Other limitations include imprecise exposure assessment and inadequate adjustment for confounders. METHODS: This study applied a quantitative job exposure matrix (SYN-JEM) for four established occupational lung carcinogens to five case-control studies within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. We used occupational histories for 2256 laryngeal cancer cases and 7857 controls recruited from 1989 to 2007. We assigned quantitative exposure levels for asbestos, respirable crystalline silica, chromium-VI, and chromium-VI and nickel combined (to address highly correlated exposures) via SYN-JEM. We assessed effects of occupational exposure on cancer risk for males (asbestos, respirable crystalline silica, chromium-VI, and chromium-VI and nickel combined) and females (asbestos and respirable crystalline silica), adjusting for age, study, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and asbestos exposure where relevant. RESULTS: Among females, odds ratios (ORs) were increased for ever versus never exposed. Among males, P values for linear trend were <0.05 for estimated cumulative exposure (all agents) and <0.05 for exposure duration (respirable crystalline silica, chromium-VI, and chromium-VI and nickel combined); strongest associations were for asbestos at >90th percentile cumulative exposure (OR = 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 1.6), respirable crystalline silica at 30+ years duration (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.7) and 75th-90th percentile cumulative exposure (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.8), chromium-VI at >75th percentile cumulative exposure (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.2, 3.0), and chromium-VI and nickel combined at 20-29 years duration (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1, 2.2). CONCLUSIONS: These findings support hypotheses of causal links between four lung carcinogens (asbestos, respirable crystalline silica, chromium-VI, and nickel) and laryngeal cancer.

18.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(1): 78-86, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are an estimated 1.4 million colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors in the United States. Research on endocrine and metabolic diseases over the long term in CRC survivors is limited. Obesity is a risk factor for CRC; thus it is of interest to investigate diseases that may share this risk factor, such as diabetes, for long-term health outcomes among CRC survivors. METHODS: A total of 7114 CRC patients were identified from the Utah Population Database and matched to a general population cohort of 25 979 individuals on birth year, sex, and birth state. Disease diagnoses (assessed over three time periods of 1-5 years, 5-10 years, and >10 years) were identified using electronic medical records and statewide ambulatory and inpatient discharge data. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the risk of endocrine and metabolic disease. RESULTS: Across all three time periods, risks for endocrine and metabolic diseases were statistically significantly greater for CRC survivors compared with the general population cohort. At 1-5 years postdiagnosis, CRC survivors' risk for diabetes mellitus with complications was statistically significantly elevated (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.36, 99% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 1.70). CRC survivors also experienced a 40% increased risk of obesity at 1-5 years postcancer diagnosis (HR= 1.40, 99% CI= 1.66 to 2.18) and a 50% increased risk at 5-10 years postdiagnosis (HR = 1.50, 99% CI= 1.16 to 1.95). CONCLUSIONS: Endocrine and metabolic diseases were statistically significantly higher in CRC survivors throughout the follow-up periods of 1-5 years, 5-10 years, and more than 10 years postdiagnosis. As the number of CRC survivors increases, understanding the long-term trajectory is critical for improved survivorship care.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Vigilância da População , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Programa de SEER , Utah/epidemiologia
19.
Cancer ; 126(4): 879-885, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors has been increasing because of improving survival in the United States. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of respiratory disease diagnoses in HNC survivors in comparison with cancer-free individuals. A second aim was to investigate risk factors for respiratory disease among HNC survivors. METHODS: Patients with HNC diagnosed from 1996 to 2012 were identified in the Utah Cancer Registry (n = 1901). Up to 5 cancer-free individuals from the general population (n = 7796) were matched to each HNC survivor by birth year, sex, birth state, and follow-up time. Electronic medical records and statewide health care facility data were used to identify a disease diagnosis after the cancer diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risks of respiratory diseases. RESULTS: The median follow-up times were 4.5 years for HNC survivors and 7.8 years for the general population cohort. The risks of respiratory infection (hazard ratio [HR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-1.90), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and bronchiectasis (HR, 2.65; 95% CI, 2.13-3.29), and aspiration pneumonitis (HR, 6.21; 95% CI, 3.98-9.68) were higher among HNC survivors than the general population cohort more than 5 years after the cancer diagnosis. Age at diagnosis, baseline body mass index, sex, baseline smoking status, treatment modality, primary site, and stage were associated with the risk of adverse respiratory outcomes among HNC survivors. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of adverse respiratory outcomes was much higher among HNC survivors than the general population cohort. Multidisciplinary care is needed to prevent the occurrence of adverse respiratory outcomes among HNC survivors.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/terapia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Utah/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(4): 330-342, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781743

RESUMO

Head and neck cancer (HNC) risk prediction models based on risk factor profiles have not yet been developed. We took advantage of the large database of the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium, including 14 US studies from 1981-2010, to develop HNC risk prediction models. Seventy percent of the data were used to develop the risk prediction models; the remaining 30% were used to validate the models. We used competing-risk models to calculate absolute risks. The predictors included age, sex, education, race/ethnicity, alcohol drinking intensity, cigarette smoking duration and intensity, and/or family history of HNC. The 20-year absolute risk of HNC was 7.61% for a 60-year-old woman who smoked more than 20 cigarettes per day for over 20 years, consumed 3 or more alcoholic drinks per day, was a high school graduate, had a family history of HNC, and was non-Hispanic white. The 20-year risk for men with a similar profile was 6.85%. The absolute risks of oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers were generally lower than those of oral cavity and laryngeal cancers. Statistics for the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were 0.70 or higher, except for oropharyngeal cancer in men. This HNC risk prediction model may be useful in promoting healthier behaviors such as smoking cessation or in aiding persons with a family history of HNC to evaluate their risks.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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