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1.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 249: 133-152, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879139

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) is an environmental contaminant that has been reported in many wildlife species worldwide. The organic form of Hg bioaccumulates in higher trophic levels, and thus, long-lived predators are at risk for higher Hg exposure. Although ecological risk assessments for contaminants such as Hg include pertinent receptor species, snakes are rarely considered, despite their high trophic status and potential to accumulate high levels of Hg. Our current knowledge of these reptiles suggests that snakes may be useful novel biomarkers to monitor contaminated environments. The few available studies show that snakes can bioaccumulate significant amounts of Hg. However, little is known about the role of snakes in Hg transport in the environment or the individual-level effects of Hg exposure in this group of reptiles. This is a major concern, as snakes often serve as important prey for a variety of taxa within ecosystems (including humans). In this review, we compiled and analyzed the results of over 30 studies to discuss the impact of Hg on snakes, specifically sources of exposure, bioaccumulation, health consequences, and specific scientific knowledge gaps regarding these moderate to high trophic predators.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Serpentes/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Humanos
2.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 77(3): 330-335, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350589

RESUMO

The global decline of amphibians is a major conservation issue. Many stressors are recognized for this decline including exposure to environmental contaminants. Mercury (Hg) is an environmental contaminant that bioaccumulates in wildlife and can cause a variety of negative impacts across taxa, including amphibians. Amphiuma and Siren spp. can comprise a large portion of biomass within their respective ecosystems, and thus, likely serve as important predators or prey in wetland communities. However, due to their cryptic nature, little is known about their ecology, diet, and accumulation potential. We sought to validate a nonlethal sampling method to quantify total mercury (THg) in two enigmatic species of aquatic salamanders: the two-toed amphiuma (Amphiuma means) and the lesser siren (Siren intermedia). We examined relationships between THg content in lethal (whole-body) and nonlethal (tail clip) samples. Tail clips were statistically significant predictors of whole-body THg (all p < 0.001), explaining 84-89% of variation in whole-body THg. Average whole-body THg (mg/kg) did not significantly differ between the two species (p = 0.97), and overall, they had similar whole-body THg content (S. intermedia = 0.330 ± 0.04, n = 18; A. means = 0.333 ± 0.07, n = 11). To our knowledge, these data represent the first reported Hg burdens in A. means and S. intermedia.

3.
Environ Pollut ; 243(Pt A): 346-353, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196204

RESUMO

Coal combustion is a major energy source in the US. The solid waste product of coal combustion, coal combustion residue (CCR), contains potentially toxic trace elements. Before 1980, the US primarily disposed of CCR in aquatic settling basins. Animals use these basins as habitat and can be exposed to CCR, potentially affecting their physiology. To investigate the effects of CCR on eastern mud turtles (Kinosternon subrubrum), we sampled 30 turtles exposed to CCRs and 17 unexposed turtles captured in 2015-2016 from the Savannah River Site (Aiken, SC, USA). For captured turtles, we (1) quantified accumulation of CCR in claw and blood samples, (2) used bacterial killing assays to assess influences of CCR on immune responses, (3) compared hemogregarine parasite loads, and (4) compared metabolic rates via flow-through respirometry between CCR-exposed and unexposed turtles when increased temperature was introduced as an added stressor. Turtles exposed to CCR accumulated CCR-associated trace elements, corroborating previous studies. Blood Se and Sr levels and claw As, Se, and Sr levels were significantly higher in turtles from contaminated sites. Average bacterial killing efficiency was not significantly different between groups. Neither prevalence nor average parasite load significantly differed between CCR-exposed and reference turtles, although parasite load increased with turtle size. Regardless of site, temperature had a significant impact on turtle metabolic rates; as temperature increased, turtle metabolic rates increased. The effect of temperature on turtle metabolic rates was less pronounced for CCR-exposed turtles, which resulted in CCR-exposed turtles having lower metabolic rates than reference turtles at 30 and 35 °C. Our results demonstrate that turtles accumulate CCR from their environment and that accumulation of CCR is associated with changes in turtle physiological functions when additional stressors are present.

4.
Vet Pathol ; 55(3): 473-477, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29291674

RESUMO

Selenosis, or selenium toxicosis, occurs in wildlife and livestock, usually because of excessive intake of selenium via selenium-containing plants. Although it is known that wild slider turtles can accumulate large amounts of selenium, little is known about how selenium exposure may affect these reptiles. In this study, the authors report histopathologic changes in yellow-bellied sliders ( Trachemys scripta scripta) caused by experimental exposure to selenomethionine. Microscopic changes in kidney and claw tissue were most significant and resembled those reported in birds. Turtles in the selenium treatment groups had acute tubular degeneration and regeneration in the kidney, with hyaline droplets in the high-dose animals, and changes in the claws ranging from epidermal hyperplasia with disorganization and intercellular edema to ulceration, and accumulation of seroheterophilic exudate between the epidermis and cornified layer. Although selenium burdens in this study are comparable with values found in wild slider turtles, more data are needed to determine if similar histopathologic abnormalities arise in wild animals exposed to high levels of selenium.


Assuntos
Nefropatias/veterinária , Selenometionina/toxicidade , Tartarugas , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias/patologia , Selenometionina/administração & dosagem
5.
J Wildl Dis ; 54(1): 138-141, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28813170

RESUMO

: Ranaviruses have the ability to infect amphibians, fish, and reptiles, and they have caused multiple amphibian die-off events in the US and Europe. Their prevalence in amphibian populations is much more commonly studied than in chelonian populations. We examined blood samples ( n=286) from eight aquatic turtle species collected during 2008-14 on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, US, as part of long-term mark-recapture efforts. Previous studies in the southeastern US found high prevalence of Ranavirus in amphibians, but we did not detect Ranavirus in any of the turtles sampled, suggesting the absence of the virus or its presence at a very low prevalence in aquatic turtles across the Savannah River Site during the years tested.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Ranavirus , Rios , Tartarugas/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/virologia , Prevalência , South Carolina/epidemiologia
6.
Ecotoxicology ; 26(8): 1134-1146, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28780652

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) is a naturally occurring essential element that can be toxic to vertebrates at high concentrations. Despite studies that have documented that wild reptile species can accumulate copious amounts of Se, little is known regarding specific toxicologic effects of Se. In this study, 70 juvenile yellow-bellied sliders (Trachemys scripta scripta) were exposed to one of three seleno-L-methionine (SetMet) treatments (control, n = 24; 15 mg/kg, n = 23; and 30 mg/kg, n = 23) via weekly oral gavage for 5 weeks. At the conclusion of the experiment, kidney, liver, muscle, and blood samples were collected for quantitative Se analysis. Turtles in the SeMet treatment groups accumulated significantly higher amounts of Se in all tissue types relative to controls (all p < 0.001). Turtles in the 30 mg/kg SeMet group also accumulated significantly higher amounts of Se compared to the 15 mg/kg group (all p < 0.001). Although toxicity thresholds for reptiles have not been established, Se concentrations in liver tissue from both SeMet treatment groups exceeded reported avian toxicity thresholds for liver tissue. Neither oxygen consumption nor innate bactericidal capacity were impacted by SeMet exposure. However, turtles in the 30 mg/kg SeMet group exhibited anemia, which has been reported in other vertebrates exposed to Se. Furthermore, juvenile T. s. scripta in the 30 mg/kg SeMet group experienced 17% mortality compared to 0% in the 15 mg/kg treatment and control groups. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report dose-dependent Se-associated anemia and mortality in a chelonian species.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Selênio/toxicidade , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Metabolismo Basal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hematologia , Tartarugas/imunologia
7.
Environ Pollut ; 224: 810-819, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28284546

RESUMO

Anthropogenic activities such as industrial processes often produce copious amounts of contaminants that have the potential to negatively impact growth, survival, and reproduction of exposed wildlife. Coal combustion residues (CCRs) represent a major source of pollutants globally, resulting in the release of potentially harmful trace elements such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and selenium (Se) into the environment. In the United States, CCRs are typically stored in aquatic settling basins that may become attractive nuisances to wildlife. Trace element contaminants, such as CCRs, may pose a threat to biota yet little is known about their sublethal effects on reptiles. To assess the effects of CCR exposure in turtles, we sampled 81 yellow-bellied sliders (Trachemys scripta scripta) in 2014-2015 from CCR-contaminated and uncontaminated reference wetlands located on the Savannah River Site (Aiken, SC, USA). Specific aims were to (1) compare the accumulation of trace elements in T. s. scripta claw and blood samples between reference and CCR-contaminated site types, (2) evaluate potential immunological effects of CCRs via bacterial killing assays and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) assays, and (3) quantify differences in hemogregarine parasite loads between site types. Claw As, Cd, copper (Cu), and Se (all p ≤ 0.001) and blood As, Cu, Se, and strontium (Sr; p ≤ 0.015) were significantly elevated in turtles from CCR-contaminated wetlands compared to turtles from reference wetlands. Turtles from reference wetlands exhibited lower bacterial killing (p = 0.015) abilities than individuals from contaminated sites but neither PHA responses (p = 0.566) nor parasite loads (p = 0.980) differed by site type. Despite relatively high CCR body burdens, sliders did not exhibit apparent impairment of immunological response or parasite load. In addition, the high correlation between claw and blood concentrations within individuals suggests that nonlethal tissue sampling may be useful for monitoring CCR exposure in turtles.


Assuntos
Cinza de Carvão/análise , Carvão Mineral/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Tartarugas , Animais , Arsênico/análise , Cádmio/análise , Cinza de Carvão/imunologia , Cobre/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/imunologia , Rios , Selênio/análise , Tartarugas/imunologia , Áreas Alagadas
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