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1.
BJOG ; 127(1): 18-26, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anterior compartment prolapse is the most common pelvic organ prolapse (POP) with a range of surgical treatment options available. OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of surgical treatments for the repair of anterior POP. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials comparing surgical treatments for women with POP. Network meta-analysis was possible for anterior POP, same-site recurrence outcome. A Markov model was used to compare the cost-utility of surgical treatments for the primary repair of anterior POP from a UK National Health Service perspective. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 27 eligible trials for the network meta-analysis involving eight surgical treatments tested on 3194 women. Synthetic mesh was the most effective in preventing recurrence at the same site. There was no evidence to suggest a difference between synthetic non-absorbable mesh, synthetic partially absorbable mesh, and biological mesh. The cost-utility analysis, which incorporated effectiveness, complications and cost data, found non-mesh repair to have the highest probability of being cost-effective. The conclusions were robust to model inputs including effectiveness, costs and utility values. CONCLUSIONS: Anterior colporrhaphy augmented with mesh appeared to be cost-ineffective in women requiring primary repair of anterior POP. There is a need for further research on long-term effectiveness and the safety of mesh products to establish their relative cost-effectiveness with a greater certainty. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: New study finds mesh cost-ineffective in women with anterior pelvic organ prolapse.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/economia , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/cirurgia , Telas Cirúrgicas/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/métodos , Humanos , Meta-Análise em Rede , Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/economia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Prevenção Secundária/economia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
BJOG ; 127(1): 28-35, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesh surgery for stress urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse can result in complications such as mesh exposure, mesh extrusion, voiding dysfunction, dyspareunia, and pain. There is limited knowledge or guidance on the effective management for mesh-related complications. OBJECTIVE: To determine the best management of mesh complications; a systematic review was conducted as part of the national clinical guideline 'Urinary incontinence (update) and pelvic organ prolapse in women: management'. SEARCH STRATEGY: Search strategies were developed for each indication for referral. SELECTION CRITERIA: Relevant interventions included complete or partial mesh removal, mesh division, and non-surgical treatments such as vaginal estrogen. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Characteristics and outcome data were extracted, and as a result of the heterogeneous nature of the data a narrative synthesis was conducted. MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-four studies were included; five provided comparative data and four studies stated the indication for referral. Reported outcomes (including pain, dyspareunia, satisfaction, quality of life, incontinence, mesh exposure, and recurrence) and the reported incidences of these varied widely. CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence base is limited in quantity and quality and does not permit firm recommendations to be made on the most effective management for mesh-related complications. Robust data are needed so that mesh complications can be managed effectively in the future. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Systematic review demonstrates that the outcomes following mesh revision surgery are highly variable.


Assuntos
Prolapso de Órgão Pélvico/cirurgia , Telas Cirúrgicas/efeitos adversos , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Dispareunia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Recidiva , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) ; 26(10): e21-46, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25059922

RESUMO

AIMS: Radiotherapy is standard treatment for localised prostate cancer and is often combined with hormone treatment to prevent androgen stimulation of prostate cancer. Hormone therapy carries significant morbidity and can only be justified in the radical treatment of localised disease if it can be balanced against a significant gain in disease control and survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched Medline, Premedline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science (SCI & SSCI) and Biomed Central for randomised controlled trials published in English comparing radiotherapy or hormone therapy alone with radiotherapy and hormone therapy in combination as first-line treatment in patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer reporting overall survival, disease-free survival, distant metastases-free survival, biochemical survival, adverse events (including cardiovascular) and/or health-related quality of life. RESULTS: Fourteen trials were included and showed that combination therapy was associated with better or similar survival and disease-free outcomes compared with single-modality treatment, and that this may particularly be the case for patients with higher risk disease. The results also suggested that combination therapy is associated with more and worse adverse events and quality of life, although this was not always the case. Some of the results are at risk of reporting bias. CONCLUSION: The published data support the use of combined treatment with androgen deprivation and radiotherapy for intermediate- and high-risk localised and locally advanced prostate cancer. Optimal timing, duration, formulation and the management of side-effects remain important questions for further research.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Quimiorradioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radioterapia , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico
5.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 96(19): 767-73, 2007 May 09.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17571632

RESUMO

Body weight and body mass index (BMI) were studied in non professional cyclists. BMI increased from 22.2 +/- 2.3 kg/m2 (20 to 29 y) to 23.8 +/- 1.7 kg/m2 (55 to 77 y) (mean +/- SD). The mean increase per decade was 0.5 kg/m2, markedly less than in the general Swiss population (0.8 to 1.0 kg/m2). Overweight (BMI 25.1-29.9 kg/m2) prevalence increased from 7.4% (20 to 29 y) to 25.5% (55 to 77 y) and obesity (BMI +/- 30.0 kg/m2) was rare (0.2%, n = 1). The amount of sport correlated negatively with BMI change. A high amount of moderate to heavy physical activity (five hours weekly) was required to avoid an increase in BMI. This amount is to high for the general population. Thus, control of energy intake should be advised together with physical activity.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estatura/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/fisiologia , Valores de Referência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça
6.
Med Eng Phys ; 24(2): 85-97, 2002 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11886827

RESUMO

The transplantation of osteochondral (cartilage-bone) plugs is an alternative approach to treat local, full thickness cartilage defects in young patients. It is technically difficult to control the amount of the press fit tolerance and the position of the osteochondral (OC) plug in the recipient hole. Inadequate placement of the OC plugs may produce abnormal stress and strain distributions within the cartilage, and thus influence the regeneration of the injured cartilage site and the maintenance of opposing, healthy cartilage surfaces. In the present study, the influence of press fit tolerance and the placement of the OC plug on the joint contact mechanics was simulated using finite element methods. The joint was assumed to be axi-symmetric with a spherical femur and tibia and a cylindrical OC plug. Our simulations showed that small misplacements of the OC plug induced abnormal tension in the articular cartilage of the opposing, healthy cartilage surface. Such tension might induce unpredictable adaptations, or possibly degenerations, in the opposing cartilage layer. The contact stress profiles in the joint were predicted to change discontinuously across the plug/recipient interface, even when the plug was perfectly placed in the recipient hole, i.e., the plug's surface was aligned with the recipient surface. For a fixed coefficient of friction and a fixed fit tolerance, the maximal sliding force was predicted to vary with the size of the plug and reached a maximum at a specific plug diameter. The present simulations should be helpful for the design of instruments for osteochondral transplantation and placement of OC plugs, for understanding articular cartilage adaptation following osteochondral repair, and for providing insight into the mechanics at the transplant/recipient interface where proper integration of the plug into the joint is most problematic.


Assuntos
Transplante Ósseo/fisiologia , Cartilagem Articular/fisiologia , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Simulação por Computador , Fêmur/fisiologia , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estresse Mecânico , Temperatura Ambiente , Tíbia/fisiologia , Suporte de Carga
7.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 9(6): 582-92, 2001 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11520173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reduction of compressive stiffness of articular cartilage has been reported as one of the first signs of cartilage degeneration. For the measurement of in situ compressive stiffness, a hand-held indentation probe has recently been developed and baseline data for macroscopically normal knee joint cartilage were provided. However, the histological stage of degeneration of the measured cartilage was not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between the in situ measured compressive stiffness, the histological stage of degeneration, and the biochemical composition of articular cartilage. DESIGN: Instantaneous compressive stiffness was measured for the articular cartilage of 24 human cadaver knees. Additionally, biochemical composition (total proteoglycan and collagen content) and histological appearance (according to the Mankin score) were assessed for each measurement location. RESULTS: Despite visually normal surfaces, various histological signs of degeneration were present. A high correlation between Mankin score and cartilage stiffness was observed for the lateral patellar groove (R(2)=0.81), the medial (R(2)=0.83) and the lateral femoral condyle (R(2)=0.71), whereas a moderate correlation was found for the medial patellar groove (R(2)=0.44). No correlation was observed between biochemical composition and cartilage compressive stiffness. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are in agreement with others and show that the instantaneous compressive stiffness is primarily dependent on the integrity of the extracellular matrix, and not on the content of the major cartilage constituents. The high correlation between stiffness and Mankin score in mild osteoarthrosis suggests that the stage of cartilage degeneration can be assessed quantitatively with the hand-held indentation probe. Moderate and severe case of osteoarthrosis remains to be investigated.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/fisiologia , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Colágeno/análise , Força Compressiva , Matriz Extracelular/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteoglicanas/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Suínos
8.
J Am Coll Nutr ; 20(1): 58-64, 2001 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11293469

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Different factors such as exercise habits and alcohol consumption may modulate postprandial lipid metabolism. What are the effects of alcohol on postprandial metabolism in untrained and trained individuals? METHODS: The postprandial lipid response to an oral fat load (1 g fat per kg body weight (bw)) with and without alcohol (0.5 g/kg bw) was evaluated in physically trained healthy young men (T, n = 12, mean +/- SD age 27 +/- 3 years. BMI 21.6 +/- 1.4 kg/m2) after a premeal running session and in untrained healthy young men (UT, n = 8, age 24 +/- 1 years, BMI 23.2 +/- 1.8 kg/m2) without a premeal exercise session. The T subjects ingested 35.5 +/- 2.7 g alcohol, the UT subjects 38 +/- 0.6 g. Fat was given as butter and the carbohydrates as marmalade and zwieback (rusk). The T subjects received 1.20 +/- 0.05 g fat and 1.02 +/- 0.04 g carbohydrates per kilogram lean body mass. The corresponding numbers for the UT subjects were 1.28 +/- 0.08 g and 1.20 +/- 0.06 g. The postprandial lipemia was observed for an eight-hour period. RESULTS: Alcohol led to an increase to the triacylglycerol area under the curve (AUC) in the T subjects from 7.4 +/- 0.4 mmol/L * h on the control day to 11.3 +/- 0.9 mmol/L * h (p = 0.001). The corresponding numbers in the UT subjects were 13.4 +/- 2.3 mmol/L * h to 19.4 +/- 3.5 mmol/L * h (p = 0.004). Alcohol intake and physical activity training were the major determinants of the triacylglycerol (TG) AUC in these subjects. CONCLUSION: The ingestion of a high fat meal in combination with alcohol leads to an increased in the postprandial lipemia independently from the level of training. It is suggested that this unfavorable effect of alcohol and a high fat diet could be modified by fat restriction or a combination of a premeal exercise session and a higher level of physical activity training.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Exercício , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Área Sob a Curva , Humanos , Masculino , Corrida , Triglicerídeos/sangue
9.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 88(7): 259-72, 1999 Feb 11.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10097646

RESUMO

Elevated plasma homocysteine levels may lead to an increased risk for atherosclerosis. Besides genetic factors a deficiency of folate, vitamin B6 and/or vitamin B12 may lead to an increase in the plasma concentration of this sulfur containing amino acid. Homocysteine may enhance by several direct and/or indirect mechanisms the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this review selected aspects of homocysteine in relation to clinical practice will be discussed.


Assuntos
Arteriosclerose/etiologia , Homocisteína/sangue , Animais , Arteriosclerose/fisiopatologia , Arteriosclerose/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
10.
Crit Rev Biomed Eng ; 27(6): 415-88, 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10952106

RESUMO

Articular cartilage has unique material properties that enable the cartilage to perform its physiological functions over a lifetime and under a wide range of loading conditions. Numerous studies have investigated the relationship between cartilage properties and composition/structure. For cartilage transplantation and regeneration, it is necessary to know how cartilage maintains its functionality and how cartilage responds to the ever-changing mechanical environment. In this review, we discuss theoretical and experimental studies on the behavior of articular cartilage to load. In the first part, the composition and structure of articular cartilage is presented. In the second part, theoretical models of the mechanical behavior of cartilage, experimental methods for the determination of cartilage properties, and material properties for normal, pathologic, and repair cartilage are summarized. In the third part, the relationship between mechanical loading of the cells and their corresponding biological responses are discussed. The goal for treating joint degeneration in the future lies in cartilage regeneration rather than prosthetic replacement. In order to achieve this goal, it has to be understood how structure and function, metabolic and biochemical properties, and biomechanical performance of articular cartilage can be restored.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/fisiologia , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Engenharia Biomédica/instrumentação , Engenharia Biomédica/métodos , Cartilagem Articular/anatomia & histologia , Cartilagem Articular/química , Força Compressiva , Humanos , Joelho/fisiologia
11.
Am J Hypertens ; 11(11 Pt 1): 1305-11, 1998 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9832173

RESUMO

In this study we wanted to evaluate the relationship between the ob gene product leptin and blood pressure, as well as plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone levels. We studied 139 subjects with a mean+/-SD age of 50 +/-14 years and a body mass index of 26.5+/-5.3 kg/m2; 110 subjects had essential hypertension and 29 were healthy nonhypertensive controls. Blood pressure was measured in resting conditions in the morning and blood was drawn for the determination of the plasma renin activity, aldosterone, and leptin levels. The mean blood pressure of the population was 155/97 mm Hg. The relationship between these parameters was studied by univariate regression analysis according to gender and, whenever indicated, adjusted for age and body mass. The mean+/-SEM plasma leptin level in the whole population was 9.5+/-0.6 ng/mL (range, 1.1-43.3). Subjects with stage I hypertension had significantly higher plasma leptin levels than normotensive subjects. Systolic blood pressure correlated with the plasma leptin levels and the leptin levels adjusted for body weight in women (r = 0.422, P < .01) and nonhypertensive men (r = 0.644, P = .03) only. Plasma renin activity (r = 0.329, P = .03) and aldosterone levels (r = 0.342, P = .026) correlated with the leptin concentration. A significant relationship between the peripheral expression of the ob gene product leptin and systolic blood pressure was found in women and nonhypertensive men. In view of the multiple functions of leptin a causal relationship is postulated and potential mechanisms may involve modulatory effects of leptin on neuropeptide Y, angiotensinogen gene expression, the modulation of the autonomous nervous system, or effects on the pituitary adrenal axis. Direct relationships between both plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels and leptin support the potential importance of the relationship between leptin and blood pressure. Our observation may be of future importance for the understanding of the link between the increase in blood pressure and increasing body weight.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/etiologia , Obesidade/genética , Proteínas/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Angiotensinogênio/genética , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Leptina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas/análise , Renina/sangue
12.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 87(37): 1170-6, 1998 Sep 09.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9785996

RESUMO

Several recent studies reported a prevalence rate of overweight (25 < BMI < 30 kg/m2) of 4-30% as a function of age and gender. It is well known that the fat distribution pattern represents a major modifier of health risks associated with obesity. For clinical purposes the measurement of the waist to hip ratio represents one of the most valid tools for the assessment of the fat distribution pattern. During the air show AIR94 in Buochs (Nidwalden, Switzerland) 1568 visitors participated voluntarily in a study where several cardiovascular risk factors and behaviours were assessed with the help of a questionnaire, besides others the W/H ratio was measured. This study represents the first epidemiological study of the fat distribution pattern in a large population group in Switzerland. The mean (+/- SD) age of the whole population was 50.3 +/- 16.2 years, the mean body mass index (BMI) 25.5 +/- 3.7 kg/m2, the mean W/H ratio 0.89 +/- 0.09. The BMI and the W/H ratio for the different age decades was calculated. In women the normal value of 0.8 for the W/H ratio is bypassed in the 4th decade of age; the normal value of 0.95 for men is surpassed in the 6th decade of life. These findings are of great public health importance since they illustrate nicely the importance to control body weight and the fat distribution pattern early in life. The major modifiable risk factors for the abdominal accumulation of fat are the excess of calories (especially in form of fat), physical inactivity, smoking and alcohol consumption, stress and probably weight cycling. The control of these risk factors is strongly needed.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Constituição Corporal , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Somatotipos , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/classificação , Suíça
13.
J Biomech ; 31(3): 253-62, 1998 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9645540

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is typically diagnosed in humans in its final stage when joint movement becomes painful. Clinical information about the onset and the mechanisms triggering the degenerative responses are virtually non-existent. However, research on animal models of experimental OA shows that joint adaptations associated with the onset of OA can be detected as early as two to four weeks following disruption of the normal joint mechanics. Transection of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has been shown to cause OA-like symptoms in various animal models including the cat. However. the changes in joint loading responsible for the early tissue responses have not been quantified in vivo. Consequently, the relationship between abnormal joint loading and the onset of OA remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantify knee loading before and early after ACL transection in the cat. Knee mechanics were assessed by measuring patellar tendon forces, gastrocnemius forces, knee flexor and extensor EMGs, and hindlimb kinematics before and 5, 7, and 9 days following ACL transection in six experimental and two sham-operated animals. The knee mechanics were not affected by sham-surgery but the muscular forces. knee extensor EMGs, and knee range of motion were reduced following ACL transection compared to corresponding pre-intervention values. These results suggest that ACL transection causes a general unloading and changed kinematics of the knee. We speculate that the decrease in loading and the altered kinematics are responsible for the onset of biologic adaptations of the knee. Precise data about the local joint contact mechanics before and after ACL transection are now required to further relate the detailed changes in the knee mechanics to the early joint changes.


Assuntos
Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiologia , Membro Posterior , Articulações/fisiologia , Articulações/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite/fisiopatologia , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Gatos , Eletromiografia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite/etiologia , Tendões/fisiopatologia
14.
J Biomech ; 31(1): 37-44, 1998 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9596536

RESUMO

Altered knee loading following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) transection is believed to play an important role in initiating cartilage degeneration. Changes of in vivo joint contact forces pre- and post-ACL transection have not been quantified to date. Consequently, it is not known how knee loading changes following ACL transection, and how it contributes to cartilage degeneration. The objective of this study was to quantify in vivo patellofemoral contact forces in the cat knee prior to and up to nine days following uni-lateral ACL transection. Patellofemoral contact forces were predicted using a planar three-force model with knee extensor forces and patellofemoral geometry as input. Patellofemoral movements were expressed as functions of external knee kinematics. Kinematics and knee extensor forces were measured in both hindlimbs before and after ACL transection during unrestrained locomotion. Following ACL transection, resultant patellofemoral contact forces were decreased by approximately 30% in the ACL-deficient hindlimbs. These results suggest that decreased loading in the ACL-deficient knees may initiate the early degenerative changes observed in cartilage of ACL-transected animals. It remains to be shown, if the general unloading of the joint also results in locally decreased contact loads and altered joint kinematics. Alterations of in vivo patellofemoral loading following ACL transection have been quantified for the first time in this study. A next step will be to quantify the dynamic in vivo cartilage stresses in intact and injured knees which may help to elucidate the effects of mechanical stimuli on cartilage metabolism.


Assuntos
Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/fisiologia , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Fêmur/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Patela/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Gatos , Membro Posterior/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Período Pós-Operatório
15.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 87(5): 145-9, 152-6, 1998 Jan 28.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9522632

RESUMO

An increase in blood pressure represents one of the most common conditions in daily medical practice. Many different factors are regarded as risk factors for a stroke. Hypertension, cardiac diseases, atrial fibrillation, smoking, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption and dyslipidemia are central stroke risk factors. The pathophysiological importance of these different risk factors is discussed. Hypertension represents the most prevalent risk factor for stroke in the general population. A decrease in blood pressure leads in general to a reduction of the risk. Besides an optimal pharmacological control of blood pressure miscellaneous non-pharmacological means should be implemented in any patient with high blood pressure. The most important non-pharmacological means of blood pressure control are discussed in the context of stroke risk.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Estilo de Vida , Fatores de Risco
16.
J Hum Hypertens ; 11(7): 435-8, 1997 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9283060

RESUMO

Altitude affects blood pressure (BP) depending on duration and absolute altitude of exposure. Until now changes in BP during exposure to altitude were studied only in Caucasians. It is not known whether BP is affected differently in black and white people in response to altitude. During a 6-day climb on Kilimanjaro, BP was measured in five white and four black people. All participants (mean +/- s.d.: age 31 +/- 8 years, body mass index 22 +/- 2 kg/m2, BP 125 +/- 11/84 +/- 9 mm Hg) had previous similar experience of high-altitude mountaineering. In the base camp (3040 m) systolic BP (SBP) was similar in both groups (131 +/- 9 vs 119 +/- 8 mm Hg). During ascent until 4600 m SBP increased in all whites (6.5 +/- 2.2 mm Hg) and decreased in all blacks (-7.3 +/- 4.6 mm Hg; P = 0.02, blacks vs whites). During descent SBP returned to initial values in whites, whereas it decreased further in blacks. Diastolic BP (DBP) and heart rate remained constant in all participants. During ascent body weight increased in all whites (1.0 +/- 0.8 kg) and decreased in all blacks (-1.9 +/- 1.4 kg; P = 0.02, blacks vs whites) whereas it returned approximately to initial levels during descent: +0.8 +/- 0.4 kg in blacks and -1.0 +/- 1.3 kg in whites (P = 0.03, blacks vs whites). In this study changes in SBP and body weight during exposure to high altitudes varied between whites and blacks. Fluid balance, acclimatisation, physical fitness or genetics could explain these findings.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Altitude , Pressão Sanguínea , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Perda de Peso
17.
Nutr Rev ; 55(5): 157-71, 1997 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9212692

RESUMO

Some studies have suggested that drinking in moderation may be beneficial for health, but many of these studies do not address body weight. Evidence suggests that consuming moderate amounts of alcohol is a risk factor for obesity, which is a risk factor for several adverse health outcomes. Recommendations regarding alcohol intake thus should take into account a variety of factors, including baseline body weight, location of body fat, and overall diet.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/etiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
19.
J Biomech ; 29(12): 1649-52, 1996 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8945667

RESUMO

Recently, an implantable force transducer (IFT) has been introduced [Xu et al. (1992, J. Biomech. Engng 114, 170-177)] which can be used in tight spaces where force recordings with established transducers, such as the buckle-type transducers, are not possible because of impingement artifacts. The IFT is easily implanted in chronic animal preparations; however, calibration of the IFT in terminal experiments has produced unreliable results. The problems of IFT calibration are that minute movements of the transducer within the tendon, slight misalignments of the tendon, or slight errors in the line of pull cause dramatic changes in the IFT voltage output for a given applied calibration load. Here, we propose a method that eliminates the above calibration problems primarily because the target tendon is left in situ, the calibration loads are applied by the muscles which insert into the target tendon, and the transducer is implanted into the target tendon about two weeks prior to calibration. The theoretical and experimental approaches are demonstrated for the cat patellar tendon, but in principle can be performed with any tendon. The results are repeatable, lie within expected values, and reproduce some of the basic properties which have been observed in prior IFT testing.


Assuntos
Próteses e Implantes , Tendões/fisiologia , Transdutores , Algoritmos , Animais , Artefatos , Calibragem , Gatos , Membro Posterior/fisiologia , Movimento , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/cirurgia , Ligamento Patelar/fisiologia , Ligamento Patelar/cirurgia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estresse Mecânico , Tendões/cirurgia
20.
Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) ; 11(6): 358-360, 1996 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11415646

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine how accurately calibration stains from pressure-sensitive film samples compressed between perfectly flat surfaces represent contact pressures measured with the film inserted between curved joint surfaces. DESIGN: Experimental study. BACKGROUND: Contact pressure distributions and areas in joints are often quantified using pressure-sensitive film inserted between the articular surfaces. Absolute pressure values are recovered from the film through a calibration procedure. Since the calibration is typically performed in a different environment from the experimental measurements, a systematic error in the pressure magnitudes may be introduced. METHODS: Calibration stains were produced with an Instron machine using a flat and a slightly curved indenter. Calibration curves were fitted to the raw data of both indenters using a model representing the functional characteristics of the pressure-sensitive film. RESULTS: No systematic differences between the calibration curves from the flat and the curved indenter were observed. CONCLUSIONS: It appears that calibration with the film in a flat configuration is adequate for contact pressure measurements between moderately curved articular surfaces.

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