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1.
Trauma Violence Abuse ; : 1524838020925773, 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452296

RESUMO

Some groups of women are more vulnerable to intimate partner violence (IPV) due to particular risks and/or experiences: women with disabilities, elderly women, and immigrant women (DEI). Too often, their reality goes unnoticed, especially for those belonging to more than one of these groups. In this literature review, researchers used an intersectional approach to document the similarities and differences in how DEI women experience IPV, in terms of forms and consequences, as well as related risk factors, explanatory theories, and prevention strategies. Researchers selected 56 articles for review based on the following inclusion criteria: studies on adults living in a situation of IPV, studies on one of the three demographics under study (DEI), studies about one or multiple research questions, and studies based on empirical data relying on research methodology in either French or English. Researchers evaluated each selected article for its quality according to a chart that was specially developed for this review. The results highlight existing "intersections" between these groups to help understand the influence of belonging to more than one vulnerability group on these women's experiences with IPV. The importance to better training social workers and developing policies and programs that target the social determinants of health to prevent IPV experienced by DEI is also discussed.

2.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 90(4): 406-418, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985240

RESUMO

The upsurge in violent radicalization is associated with a global increase in social inequalities and conflicts related to different markers of identity. To date, literature on the factors associated with legitimizing violence toward others is cross-sectional and does not provide information on the possible change of this phenomenon over time. Such information is necessary to design primary prevention programs that are adapted to and address a rapidly evolving social context. We use a repeated cross-sectional study design to explore the association between sociodemographic characteristics and scores on the Sympathy for Violent Radicalization Scale (SVR) in Quebec (Canada) college students at 2 times points. Results from an online survey completed by students of 6 colleges in 2015 (n = 854) and 2017 (n = 702) indicate that although overall scores on the SVR scale remained stable, there were changes in the association between age, identity, and the outcome at the two time points. Specifically, scores on the SVR were significantly higher among younger students in 2017 than in 2015. In addition, in 2017 we observed a relationship between collective identity and SVR that was not present in 2015. These results align with other recent studies in Canada and the U.S. documenting the emergence of new forms of youth politicized bullying associated with race, ethnicity, and religion. A close monitoring of the phenomenon is warranted to both better understand the impact of populist policies on the increase in hate incidents and crimes and develop programs to address these forms of violence from a public health perspective. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Emoções , Grupos Étnicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Quebeque , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Arch Public Health ; 77: 45, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666951

RESUMO

Background: Discrepancies among studies suggest that the relation between social adversity and sympathy for violent radicalization (SVR) is multifaceted and may differ according to social context. This paper examines the role of depression, religiosity and social support in the relation between social adversity (i.e., discrimination and exposure to violence) and SVR among college students in Quebec, Canada. Methods: A total of 1894 students responded to an online questionnaire posted on the internet of eight colleges. Multilevel analyses were first conducted to account for the clustered nature of the data, followed by mediation and moderation analyses. Results: First generation migrants reported less SVR than second generation youth and non-immigrants. The mediating and/or moderating role of depression, religiosity and social support was examined through causal inference models. Depression mediated the relation between social adversity and SVR, with depression scores accounting for 47% and 25% of the total effect between discrimination and exposure to violence and SVR scores, respectively. Religiosity and social support moderated the association between social adversity and SVR. Conclusions: These results suggest that prevention programs should consider violent radicalization as a systemic issue which involves both minorities and the majority, although the specific balance between risk and protective factors may be influenced by local dynamics. They also question intervention measures targeting specifically migrants or ethno-cultural communities because of the risk of increasing profiling and stigmatization. Prevention programs should prioritize decreasing discrimination in colleges, as well as the provision of psychosocial support to depressed youth who experience social adversity.

4.
CMAJ ; 191(23): E644, 2019 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182463
5.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 58(8): 747-750, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235423

RESUMO

Although structural violence and social inequality affect youth physical and mental health throughout the world,1 the problem of violent radicalization (VR) has more recently emerged as an area of concern for professionals working with youth. Radicalization is a dynamic, complex process that is generated and fueled by intercommunity frictions and conflicting political, social, and economic discourses and interests.2 It takes the form of a shift away from a moderate point of view to a rigid one that rejects the status quo and demands drastic societal change, although not necessarily through violence.2 Violent radicalization is when radicalization includes the support of or the plan to use violent measures, including hate crimes and incidents and/or mass killings, often targeting a group characteristic (race, religion, gender orientation and identity, or political views), to achieve one's goals of social change.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Terrorismo/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Terrorismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Transcult Psychiatry ; : 1363461519853653, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180826

RESUMO

Identity issues have been at the forefront in studies on determinants of youth violent radicalization. Identity uncertainty and identity fusion appear to be associated with quests for meaning, which may find some answers in extremist discourses and radical engagements. This process has been considered to be particularly important for second-generation migrants who have to negotiate multiple identities, sometimes in situations of social adversity. This paper aims to understand the relations between collective identity, social adversity (discrimination and exposure to violence), and sympathy for violent radicalization in College students in Quebec. This mixed-method study consisted of a large online survey conducted at eight colleges in Quebec. Multilevel analysis accounted for the clustered nature of data while generalized additive mixed models were used to study nonlinear relations. Results highlight the complex associations between collective identity and youth sympathy for violent radicalization. They confirm that negative public representations of minority communities may lead to more sympathy for violent radicalization. Although results suggest that strong enough identities can act as protective anchorages for youth, they also indicate that when collective identity becomes too central in personal identity this may accentuate othering processes and legitimize violence toward the out-group. These results have implications for prevention programs. They indicate that improving the public image of minority communities through mainstream media or the social media may increase youth public self-esteem and decrease their sympathy for violent radicalization. They also invite the education field to foster the development of strong plural identities.

7.
J Trauma Stress ; 32(2): 186-195, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932228

RESUMO

Although working with trauma survivors can be a source of both deleterious and positive transformations in mental health professionals, little is known about the experience of clinicians in shared traumatic contexts, particularly in the Global South, where most humanitarian crises occur. In collective disasters or armed conflicts, the personal and professional experiences of mental health staff inform each other, situating the clinical space at the intersection between singular and collective spheres. Drawing on an intersubjective and socioecological perspective, this qualitative study explored the ways in which working in a shared traumatic context affected mental health and psychosocial staff in postearthquake Haiti. We interviewed 22 local mental health workers in the capital, Port-au-Prince, 2.5 years after the 2010 disaster. We coded and thematically analyzed interviews using an iterative process, based on grounded theory principles. Thematic analysis uncovered four dynamic poles in clinicians' narratives: balancing duty and desire to help, experiencing fragility and strength, negotiating separation and connection, and sharing hurt and hope. Our findings suggest clinicians considered their work mainly as a source of strength in the face of adversity, whereas experiences of trauma and growth transmissions were mutual and intimately intertwined. We discuss the complexities of clinical work in shared traumatic settings as well as the dynamic interplay between professionals' experiences of suffering and growth. We conclude with recommendations on ways to involve local mental health clinicians in postdisaster contexts while addressing the special needs that they may have to process their own trauma.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Vítimas de Desastres/psicologia , Feminino , Haiti , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
8.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 56(6): 1155-1169, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289362

RESUMO

The relationships between social identities are important when discussing the national and religious identities of Muslims in Western contexts. This study explored the identity narratives of second-generation Muslim young adults to consider the relevance of bicultural identity and acculturation theories commonly employed in research with this group. The sample comprised 20 Muslim young adults of diverse ethnicities and backgrounds from Montreal, Berlin, and Copenhagen who participated in semi-structured interviews that explored how they negotiate their social identities in light of their unique life course trajectories. This article focuses on two major themes underlying second-generation identity development: the importance of personal experience in the development of social identities; and the enmeshment of multiple social identities. We then discuss the results of our findings in light of the complex nature of social identity, group membership, and political categorization.


Assuntos
Aculturação , Islamismo/psicologia , Identificação Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Narração , Política , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Quebeque/etnologia , Religião e Psicologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 56(6): 1139-1154, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27418583

RESUMO

This paper discusses results from a pilot study conducted in the spring of 2014 among young adults living in Montreal. The main objective of this study was to assess the relation between perception of the Charter of Quebec Values, 1 self-identification, perception of intercommunity relations, perceived discrimination, and psychological well-being in young students enrolled in undergraduate or graduate programs of a francophone university in Montreal. A total of 441 students (30.5% male, 69.5% female) took part in a web survey designed by the research team. The data analyses and results suggest that the debate around the Charter of Quebec values was associated with a shift from a predominantly positive perception of intercommunity relations to a predominantly negative one, particularly among women, immigrants, and those who self-identified as cultural or religious minorities. In addition, more than 30% of participants reported having experienced some form of ethnic or religious discrimination since the Charter was released (personally or as a witness). This was particularly the case among immigrants, as well as those who self-identified as bicultural or from cultural or religious minority groups. This study's results thus highlight the exacerbation of intercommunity tensions linked to the public debate around identity and intercommunity relations in Quebec.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Identificação Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Aculturação , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Quebeque/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
10.
Can J Public Health ; 108(5-6): e633-e635, 2018 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29356675

RESUMO

Violent radicalization is increasingly conceptualized as a public health issue, associated with psychological distress, a sharp increase in discrimination and profiling, and an increase in hate crime and some types of terrorist acts.This brief paper addresses the limitations of the current conceptual models of violent radicalization. Beyond understanding the path leading from radicalization of opinion to violent radicalization, it proposes to consider the non-violent outcomes of radicalization of opinions in the current social context and to study these outcomes in multiple settings for both minorities and majorities. Moving beyond the implicit linearity of current models and promoting a systemic vision would help to decrease the actual profiling of targeted communities and support the design of community-based prevention programs structured on these alternative outcomes, and in particular on the emergence of social solidarities in groups expressing discontent with the status quo.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Violência/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Violência/psicologia
11.
Sante Ment Que ; 43(1): 85-99, 2018.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32338697

RESUMO

Objectives This manuscript provides a first description of a specialized clinical work addressing the radicalization leading to violence phenomenon in Canada. Since July 2016, a multidisciplinary clinical team attached to a mental health and primary care program in Montreal proposes specialized consultations to support partners across Quebec.Methods This paper describes the clinical team approach, the consultation service organization and illustrates through clinical vignettes the main categories of social and clinical problems referred to the team during its first year of operation.Results Our preliminary observations confirm the relevance of a multidisciplinary assessment based on a systemic approach to the phenomenon of violent radicalization to provide an understanding of the different social, family and individual factors associated and to formulate a psychosocial and/or psychiatric intervention plan.Conclusion The presentation of clinical cases proposes to the social, community and mental health actors an understanding of the phenomenon of violent radicalization as it manifests in the health, youth protection and educational networks in Quebec and suggest intervention perspectives.

12.
Confl Health ; 11: 21, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29163666

RESUMO

Delivery of effective mental health and psychosocial support programs requires knowledge of existing health systems and socio-cultural context. To respond rapidly to humanitarian emergencies, international organizations often seek to design programs according to international guidelines and mobilize external human resources to manage and deliver programs. Familiarizing international humanitarian practitioners with local culture and contextualizing programs is essential to minimize risk of harm, maximize benefit, and optimize efficient use of resources. Timely literature reviews on traditional health practices, cultural beliefs and attitudes toward mental health and illness, local health care systems and previous experiences with humanitarian interventions can provide international practitioners with crucial background information to improve their capacity to work efficiently and with maximum benefit. In this paper, we draw on experience implementing desk review guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNHCR, the United Nations Refugee Agency (2012) in four diverse humanitarian crises (earthquakes in Haiti and Nepal; forced displacement among Syrians and Congolese). We discuss critical parameters for the design and implementation of desk reviews, and discuss current challenges and future directions to improve mental health care and psychosocial support in humanitarian emergencies.

13.
Reprod Health ; 14(1): 51, 2017 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28381290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While Female Genital Cutting (FGM/C) is a deeply entrenched cultural practice, there is now mounting evidence for a gradual decline in prevalence in a number of geographical areas in Africa and following migration to non-practicing countries. Consequently, there is now a growing number of women with FGM/C who are raising 'uncut' daughters. This study used a qualitative methodology to investigate the experience of women with FGM/C raising daughters who have not been subjected to the ritual. The aim of this study was to shed light on mothers' perception of the meaning and cultural significance of the practice and to gain insight into their mothering experience of 'uncut' girls. METHODS: To this end, in-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen mothers living in Abidjan, Ivory Coast and in Montreal, Canada (8 and 7, respectively). RESULTS: Thirteen mothers intrinsically refused to perpetuate FGM/C onto their daughters and two diasporic mothers were in favour of FGM/C but forewent the practice for fear of legal repercussions. Whether the eschewing of FGM/C was deliberate or legally imposed, raising 'uncut' daughters had significant consequences in terms of women's mothering experiences. Mothers faced specific challenges pertaining to community and family pressure to have daughters undergo FGM/C, and expressed concerns regarding their daughters' sexuality. Conversely, women's narratives were also infused with pride and hope for their daughters, and revealed an accrued dialogue between the mother-daughter dyad about cultural norms and sexuality. Interestingly, women's mothering experience was also bolstered by the existence of informal networks of support between mothers with FGM/C whose daughters were 'uncut'. These communities of mothers engaged in open dialogue about the consequences of FGM/C and offered reciprocal solidarity and support in their decision to forego FGM/C for their children. CONCLUSION: Women with FGM/C who are raising 'uncut' daughters in their homeland and in their country of immigration vastly report a positive experience. However, they also face specific challenges related to immigration, psychosocial, and psychosexual considerations, which must be tackled from a multidisciplinary perspective.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Feminina , Mães , Núcleo Familiar , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Circuncisão Feminina/etnologia , Circuncisão Feminina/psicologia , Circuncisão Feminina/estatística & dados numéricos , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Lactente , Entrevistas como Assunto , Mães/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Núcleo Familiar/etnologia , Núcleo Familiar/psicologia , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Percepção , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS Curr ; 82016 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27617167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to identify published models of coordination between entities funding or delivering health services in humanitarian crises, whether the coordination took place during or after the crises. METHODS: We included reports describing models of coordination in sufficient detail to allow reproducibility. We also included reports describing implementation of identified models, as case studies. We searched Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the WHO Global Health Library. We also searched websites of relevant organizations. We followed standard systematic review methodology. RESULTS: Our search captured 14,309 citations. The screening process identified 34 eligible papers describing five models of coordination of delivering health services: the "Cluster Approach" (with 16 case studies), the 4Ws "Who is Where, When, doing What" mapping tool (with four case studies), the "Sphere Project" (with two case studies), the "5x5" model (with one case study), and the "model of information coordination" (with one case study). The 4Ws and the 5x5 focus on coordination of services for mental health, the remaining models do not focus on a specific health topic. The Cluster approach appears to be the most widely used. One case study was a mixed implementation of the Cluster approach and the Sphere model. We identified no model of coordination for funding of health service. CONCLUSION: This systematic review identified five proposed coordination models that have been implemented by entities funding or delivering health service in humanitarian crises. There is a need to compare the effect of these different models on outcomes such as availability of and access to health services.

15.
Can J Public Health ; 106(7 Suppl 2): eS45-56, 2016 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26978697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Study results on child maltreatment based on general population samples cannot be extrapolated with confidence to vulnerable immigrant or refugee families because of the specific characteristics and needs of these families. The aims of this paper are 1) to conduct an evidence review of the prevalence, risk factors and protective factors for child maltreatment in immigrant and refugee populations, and 2) to integrate the evidence in an analytical ecosystemic framework that would guide future research. METHODS: We used a 14-step process based on guidelines from Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and the Canadian Collaboration for Immigrant and Refugee Health. We searched major databases from "the oldest date available to July 2014". The eligibility criteria for paper selection included qualitative or quantitative methodologies; papers written in English or French; papers that describe, assess or review prevalence, risk and protection factors for child maltreatment; and a studied population of immigrants or refugees. SYNTHESIS: Twenty-four articles met the criteria for eligibility. The results do not provide evidence that immigrant or refugee children are at higher risk of child maltreatment. However, recently settled immigrants and refugees experience specific risk factors related to their immigration status and to the challenges of settlement in a new country, which may result in high risk of maltreatment. CONCLUSION: Future research must incorporate more immigrant and refugee samples as well as examine, within an ecosystemic framework, the interaction between migratory and cultural factors with regard to the prevalence, consequences and treatment of child maltreatment for the targeted groups.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco
18.
PLoS One ; 10(9): e0137159, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26332670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective coordination between organizations, agencies and bodies providing or financing health services in humanitarian crises is required to ensure efficiency of services, avoid duplication, and improve equity. The objective of this review was to assess how, during and after humanitarian crises, different mechanisms and models of coordination between organizations, agencies and bodies providing or financing health services compare in terms of access to health services and health outcomes. METHODS: We registered a protocol for this review in PROSPERO International prospective register of systematic reviews under number PROSPERO2014:CRD42014009267. Eligible studies included randomized and nonrandomized designs, process evaluations and qualitative methods. We electronically searched Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the WHO Global Health Library and websites of relevant organizations. We followed standard systematic review methodology for the selection, data abstraction, and risk of bias assessment. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Of 14,309 identified citations from databases and organizations' websites, we identified four eligible studies. Two studies used mixed-methods, one used quantitative methods, and one used qualitative methods. The available evidence suggests that information coordination between bodies providing health services in humanitarian crises settings may be effective in improving health systems inputs. There is additional evidence suggesting that management/directive coordination such as the cluster model may improve health system inputs in addition to access to health services. None of the included studies assessed coordination through common representation and framework coordination. The evidence was judged to be of very low quality. CONCLUSION: This systematic review provides evidence of possible effectiveness of information coordination and management/directive coordination between organizations, agencies and bodies providing or financing health services in humanitarian crises. Our findings can inform the research agenda and highlight the need for improving conduct and reporting of research in this field.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Administração de Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde/economia , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Socorro em Desastres/economia , Socorro em Desastres/organização & administração , Humanos
19.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 17(5): 1557-66, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25248622

RESUMO

We conducted a systematic review to examine first generation immigrant adolescents' likelihood of experiencing bullying, violence, and suicidal behaviours compared to their later-generation and native born counterparts, and to identify factors that may underlie these risks. Eighteen studies met full inclusion criteria. First generation immigrant adolescents experience higher rate of bullying and peer aggression compared to third generation and native counterparts. Refugee status and advanced parental age were associated with increased parent to child aggression among South East Asians. Family cohesion was associated with lower rates of violence. Suicidal ideation was lower across most immigrant adolescents' ethnicities, with the exception of Turkish and South Asian Surinamese female adolescents in the Netherlands. Bullying and peer aggression of immigrant children and adolescents and potential mitigating factors such as family cohesion warrant research and program attention by policymakers, teachers and parents.


Assuntos
Bullying , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Suicídio/etnologia , Violência/etnologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Relações Familiares , Humanos , Refugiados/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/etnologia
20.
Transcult Psychiatry ; 52(3): 353-75, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25501490

RESUMO

Few empirical studies have detailed the specificities of working with interpreters in mental healthcare for children. The integration of interpreters in clinical teams in child mental healthcare was explored in two clinics, in Montreal and Paris. Four focus groups were conducted with interpreters and clinicians. Participants described the development of the working alliance between interpreters and clinicians, the delineation of interpreters' roles, and the effects of translation on the people in the interaction. Integrating interpreters in a clinical team is a slow process in which clinicians and interpreters need to reflect upon a common framework. An effective framework favours trust, mutual understanding, and valorization of the contribution of each to the therapeutic task. The interpreter's presence and activities seem to have some therapeutic value.


Assuntos
Barreiras de Comunicação , Serviços de Saúde Mental/normas , Multilinguismo , Tradução , Confiança , Adolescente , Criança , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Paris , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Quebeque
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