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1.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430422

RESUMO

QUESTION ADDRESSED: Echocardiography is not currently considered as providing sufficient prognostic information to serve as an integral part of treatment goals in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We tested the hypothesis that incorporation of multiple parameters reflecting right heart function would improve the prognostic value of this imaging modality. METHODS AND MAIN RESULTS: We pooled individual patient data from a total of 517 patients (mean age 52±15 years, 64.8% females) included in seven observational studies conducted at five European and United States academic centers. Patients were subdivided into three groups representing progressive degrees of RV dysfunction based on a combination of echocardiographic measurements: group 1 (low-risk): normal tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and non-significant tricuspid regurgitation (TR) (n=129); group 2 (intermediate-risk): normal TAPSE and significant TR or impaired TAPSE and non-dilated inferior vena cava (IVC) (n=256); group 3 (high-risk): impaired TAPSE and dilated IVC (n=132). The 5-year cumulative survival rate was 82% in group 1, 63% in group 2, and 43% in group 3. Low-risk patients had better survival rates than intermediate-risk patients (log-rank χ2: 12.25 p<0.001) and intermediate-risk patients had better survival rates than high-risk patients (log-rank χ2: 26.25 p<0.001). Inclusion of other parameters such as right atrial area and pericardial effusion did not provide added prognostic value. ANSWER TO THE QUESTION: The proposed echocardiographic approach integrating the evaluation of TAPSE, TR grade and IVC is effective in stratifying the risk for all-cause mortality in PAH patients, outperforming the prognostic parameters suggested by current guidelines.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(10): e016031, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384024

RESUMO

Background Although right ventricular (RV) to pulmonary arterial (RV-PA) coupling is considered the gold standard in assessing RV dysfunction, its ability to predict clinically significant outcomes is poorly understood. We assessed the ability of RV-PA coupling, determined by the ratio of multi-beat (MB) end-systolic elastance (Ees) to effective arterial elastance (Ea), to predict clinical outcomes. Methods and Results Twenty-six subjects with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) underwent same-day cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, right heart catheterization, and RV pressure-volume assessment with MB determination of Ees/Ea. RV ejection fraction (RVEF), stroke volume/end-systolic volume, and single beat-estimated Ees/Ea were also determined. Patients were treated with standard therapies and followed prospectively until they met criteria of clinical worsening (CW), as defined by ≥10% decline in 6-minute walk distance, worsening World Health Organization (WHO) functional class, PAH therapy escalation, RV failure hospitalization, or transplant/death. Subjects were 57±14 years, largely WHO class III (50%) at enrollment, with preserved average RV ejection fraction (RVEF) (47±11%). Mean follow-up was 3.2±1.3 years. Sixteen (62%) subjects met CW criteria. MB Ees/Ea was significantly lower in CW subjects (0.7±0.5 versus 1.3±0.8, P=0.02). The optimal MB Ees/Ea cut-point predictive of CW was 0.65, defined by ROC (AUC 0.78, P=0.01). MB Ees/Ea below this cut-point was significantly associated with time to CW (hazard ratio 5.1, P=0.001). MB Ees/Ea remained predictive of outcomes following multivariate adjustment for timing of PAH diagnosis and PAH diagnosis subtype. Conclusions RV-PA coupling as measured by MB Ees/Ea has prognostic significance in human PAH, even in a cohort with preserved RVEF.

3.
Circulation ; 141(24): 1986-2000, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a lethal vasculopathy. Hereditary cases are associated with germline mutations in BMPR2 and 16 other genes; however, these mutations occur in <25% of patients with idiopathic PAH and are rare in PAH associated with connective tissue diseases. Preclinical studies suggest epigenetic dysregulation, including altered DNA methylation, promotes PAH. Somatic mutations of Tet-methylcytosine-dioxygenase-2 (TET2), a key enzyme in DNA demethylation, occur in cardiovascular disease and are associated with clonal hematopoiesis, inflammation, and adverse vascular remodeling. The role of TET2 in PAH is unknown. METHODS: To test for a role of TET2, we used a cohort of 2572 cases from the PAH Biobank. Within this cohort, gene-specific rare variant association tests were performed using 1832 unrelated European patients with PAH and 7509 non-Finnish European subjects from the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) as control subjects. In an independent cohort of 140 patients, we quantified TET2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. To assess causality, we investigated hemodynamic and histological evidence of PAH in hematopoietic Tet2-knockout mice. RESULTS: We observed an increased burden of rare, predicted deleterious germline variants in TET2 in PAH patients of European ancestry (9/1832) compared with control subjects (6/7509; relative risk=6; P=0.00067). Assessing the whole cohort, 0.39% of patients (10/2572) had 12 TET2 mutations (75% predicted germline and 25% somatic). These patients had no mutations in other PAH-related genes. Patients with TET2 mutations were older (71±7 years versus 48±19 years; P<0.0001), were more unresponsive to vasodilator challenge (0/7 versus 140/1055 [13.2%]), had lower pulmonary vascular resistance (5.2±3.1 versus 10.5±7.0 Wood units; P=0.02), and had increased inflammation (including elevation of interleukin-1ß). Circulating TET2 expression did not correlate with age and was decreased in >86% of PAH patients. Tet2-knockout mice spontaneously developed PAH, adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling, and inflammation, with elevated levels of cytokines, including interleukin-1ß. Long-term therapy with an antibody targeting interleukin-1ß blockade resulted in regression of PAH. CONCLUSIONS: PAH is the first human disease related to potential TET2 germline mutations. Inherited and acquired abnormalities of TET2 occur in 0.39% of PAH cases. Decreased TET2 expression is ubiquitous and has potential as a PAH biomarker.

4.
Chest ; 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with COPD who experience pulmonary hypertension (PH) have worse mortality than those with COPD alone. Predictors of poor outcomes in COPD-PH are not well-described. Diffusing capacity of the lung (Dlco) assesses the integrity of the alveolar-capillary interface and thus may be a useful prognostic tool among those with COPD-PH. RESEARCH QUESTION: Using a single center registry, we sought to evaluate Dlco as a predictor of mortality in a cohort of patients with COPD-PH. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study analyzed 71 COPD-PH patients from the Johns Hopkins Pulmonary Hypertension Registry with right-sided heart catheterization (RHC)-proven PH and pulmonary function testing data within one year of diagnostic RHC. Transplant-free survival was calculated from index RHC. Adjusted transplant-free survival was modelled using Cox proportional hazard methods; age, pulmonary vascular resistance, FEV1, oxygen use, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide were included as covariates. RESULTS: Overall unadjusted transplant-free 1-, 3-, and 5-year survivals were 87%, 60%, and 51%, respectively. Survival was associated with reduced Dlco across the observed range of pulmonary artery pressures and pulmonary vascular resistance. Severe Dlco impairment was associated with poorer survival (log-rank χ2 13.07) (P < .001); adjusting for covariates, for every percent predicted decrease in Dlco, mortality rates increased by 4% (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.07). INTERPRETATION: Among patients with COPD-PH, severe gas transfer impairment is associated with higher mortality, even with adjustment for airflow obstruction and hemodynamics, which suggests that Dlco may be a useful prognostic marker in this population. Future studies are needed to further investigate the association between Dlco and morbidity and to determine the utility of Dlco as a biomarker for disease risk and severity in COPD-PH.

5.
Eur Respir J ; 55(4)2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029443

RESUMO

The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 has been associated with outcomes in small pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) cohorts composed largely of patients with severe idiopathic PAH (IPAH). It is unclear whether IL-6 is a marker of critical illness or a mechanistic biomarker of pulmonary vascular remodelling. We hypothesised that IL-6 is produced by pulmonary vascular cells and sought to explore IL-6 associations with phenotypes and outcomes across diverse subtypes in a large PAH cohort.IL-6 protein and gene expression levels were measured in cultured pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and endothelial cells (PAECs) from PAH patients and healthy controls. Serum IL-6 was measured in 2017 well-characterised PAH subjects representing each PAH subgroup. Relationships between IL-6 levels, clinical variables, and mortality were analysed using regression models.Significantly higher IL-6 protein and gene expression levels were produced by PASMCs than by PAECs in PAH (p<0.001), while there was no difference in IL-6 between cell types in controls. Serum IL-6 was highest in PAH related to portal hypertension and connective tissue diseases (CTD-PAH). In multivariable modelling, serum IL-6 was associated with survival in the overall cohort (hazard ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.08-1.38; p<0.01) and in IPAH, but not in CTD-PAH. IL-6 remained associated with survival in low-risk subgroups of subjects with mild disease.IL-6 is released from PASMCs, and circulating IL-6 is associated with specific clinical phenotypes and outcomes in various PAH subgroups, including subjects with less severe disease. IL-6 is a mechanistic biomarker, and thus a potential therapeutic target, in certain PAH subgroups.

6.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(3): e006363, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive hemodynamic evaluation through right heart catheterization plays an essential role in the diagnosis, categorization, and risk stratification of patients with pulmonary hypertension. METHODS: Subjects enrolled in the PVDOMICS (Redefining Pulmonary Hypertension through Pulmonary Vascular Disease Phenomics) program undergo an extensive invasive hemodynamic evaluation that includes repeated measurements at rest and during several provocative physiological challenges. It is a National Institutes of Health/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute initiative to reclassify pulmonary hypertension groups based on clustered phenotypic and phenomic characteristics. At a subset of centers, participants also undergo an invasive cardiopulmonary exercise test to assess changes in hemodynamics and gas exchange during exercise. CONCLUSIONS: When coupled with other physiological testing and blood -omic analyses involved in the PVDOMICS study, the comprehensive right heart catheterization protocol described here holds promise to clarify the diagnosis and clustering of pulmonary hypertension patients into cohorts beyond the traditional 5 World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension groups. This article will describe the methods applied for invasive hemodynamic characterization in the PVDOMICS program. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02980887.

7.
Chest ; 157(6): 1606-1616, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three biomarkers, soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2), galectin 3 (Gal3), and N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide prohormone (NT-proBNP), are approved for noninvasive risk assessment in left-sided heart failure, and small observational studies have shown their prognostic usefulness in heterogeneous pulmonary hypertension cohorts. We examined associations between these biomarkers and disease severity and survival in a large cohort of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) (ie, group 1 pulmonary hypertension). We hypothesized that additive use of biomarkers in combination would improve the prognostic value of survival models. METHODS: Biomarker measurements and clinical data were obtained from 2,017 adults with group 1 PAH. Associations among biomarker levels and clinical variables, including survival times, were examined with multivariable regression models. Likelihood ratio tests and the Akaike information criterion were used to compare survival models. RESULTS: Higher ST2 and NT-proBNP were associated with higher pulmonary pressures and vascular resistance and lower 6-min walk distance. Higher ST2 and NT-proBNP levels were associated with increased risk of death (hazard ratios: 2.79; 95% CI, 2.21-3.53; P < .001 and 1.84; 95% CI, 1.62-2.10; P < .001, respectively). The addition of ST2 to survival models composed of other predictors of survival, including NT-proBNP, significantly improved model fit and predictive capacity. CONCLUSIONS: ST2 and NT-proBNP are strong, noninvasive prognostic biomarkers in PAH. Despite its prognostic value in left-sided heart failure, Gal3 was not predictive in PAH. Adding ST2 to survival models significantly improves model predictive capacity. Future studies are needed to develop multimarker assays that improve noninvasive risk stratification in PAH.

8.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 62(4): 524-534, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922883

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an incurable disease characterized by disordered and dysfunctional angiogenesis leading to small-vessel loss and an obliterative vasculopathy. The pathogenesis of PAH is not fully understood, but multiple studies have demonstrated links between elevated angiostatic factors, disease severity, and adverse clinical outcomes. ES (endostatin), one such circulating angiostatic peptide, is the cleavage product of the proteoglycan COL18A1 (collagen α1[XVIII] chain). Elevated serum ES is associated with increased mortality and disease severity in PAH. A nonsynonymous variant of ES (aspartic acid-to-asparagine substitution at amino acid 104; p.D104N) is associated with differences in PAH survival. Although COL18A1/ES expression is markedly increased in remodeled pulmonary vessels in PAH, the impact of ES on pulmonary endothelial cell (PEC) biology and molecular contributions to PAH severity remain undetermined. In the present study, we characterized the effects of exogenous ES on human PEC biology and signaling. We demonstrated that ES inhibits PEC migration, proliferation, and cell survival, with significant differences between human variants, indicating that they are functional genetic variants. ES promotes proteasome-mediated degradation of the transcriptional repressor ID1, increasing expression and release of TSP-1 (thrombospondin 1). ES inhibits PEC migration via an ID1/TSP-1/CD36-dependent pathway, in contrast to proliferation and apoptosis, which require both CD36 and CD47. Collectively, the data implicate ES as a novel negative regulator of ID1 and an upstream propagator of an angiostatic signal cascade converging on CD36 and CD47, providing insight into the cellular and molecular effects of a functional genetic variant linked to altered outcomes in PAH.

9.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 39(4): 289-299, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a highly morbid disease characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and pathogenic right ventricular remodeling. Endothelial expression of the prometastatic protein NEDD9 is increased in fibrotic PAH arterioles, and NEDD9 inhibition decreases PVR in experimental PAH. We hypothesized that circulating NEDD9 is increased in PAH and informs the clinical profile of patients. METHODS: Clinical data and plasma samples were analyzed retrospectively for 242 patients from 5 referral centers (2010-2017): PAH (n = 139; female 82%, 58 [48-67] years), non-PAH pulmonary hypertension (PH) (n = 54; female 56%, 63.4 ± 12.2 years), and dyspnea non-PH controls (n = 36; female 75%, 54.2 ± 14.0 years). RESULTS: Compared with controls, NEDD9 was increased in PAH by 1.82-fold (p < 0.0001). Elevated NEDD9 correlated with PVR in idiopathic PAH (ρ = 0.42, p < 0.0001, n = 54), connective tissue disease (CTD)-PAH (ρ = 0.53, p < 0.0001, n = 53), and congenital heart disease-PAH (ρ = 0.68, p < 0.0001, n = 10). In CTD-PAH, NEDD9 correlated with 6-minute walk distance (ρ = -0.35, p = 0.028, n = 39). In contrast to the PAH biomarker N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (n = 38), NEDD9 correlated inversely with exercise pulmonary artery wedge pressure and more strongly with right ventricular ejection fraction (ρ = -0.41, p = 0.006, n = 45) in a mixed population. The adjusted hazard ratio for lung transplant-free survival was 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.22, p = 0.01) and 1.75 (95% CI, 1.12-2.73, p = 0.01) per 1 ng/ml and 5 ng/ml increase in plasma NEDD9, respectively, by Cox proportional hazard model. CONCLUSIONS: In PAH, plasma NEDD9 is increased and associates with key prognostic variables. Prospective studies that include hard end points are warranted to validate NEDD9 as a novel PAH biomarker.

11.
Pulm Circ ; 9(3): 2045894019859477, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384431

RESUMO

The object of this paper is to assess associations between serum uric acid (UA) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) risk, disease severity, and mortality in a well-characterized cohort of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients referred for evaluation of possible PAH. Consecutive SSc patients aged >18 years with serum UA drawn within two weeks of a diagnostic right heart catheterization (RHC) were included. Associations between baseline serum UA and PAH at RHC were examined using logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curves. Relationships between UA levels and metrics of disease severity were assessed using Pearson and Spearman correlation. Associations between UA and survival were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard modeling. A total of 162 SSc patients were included; 82 received a diagnosis of PAH at RHC. Patients found to have PAH had significantly higher UA than those without PAH. Elevated baseline UA was associated with significantly increased odds of PAH diagnosis at RHC (odds ratio [OR] = 4.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.11-7.87, P < 0.001). Each mg/dL higher UA was associated with a 14% increase in mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.02-1.28, P < 0.05). In multivariable models adjusting for potential confounders of the relationship between UA and survival, UA > 6.3 mg/dL remained significantly associated with increased mortality (HR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.02-3.32, P < 0.05). Among SSc patients with suspected PAH, elevated serum UA is associated with increased risk of SSc-PAH. Among individuals diagnosed with SSc-PAH by RHC, UA is associated with disease severity and survival. These results indicate UA is a useful predictor of PAH risk and prognosis in SSc.

13.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 123, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) angiogenesis has been associated with adaptive myocardial remodeling in pulmonary hypertension (PH), though molecular regulators are poorly defined. Endothelial cell VEGFR-2 is considered a "master regulator" of angiogenesis in other models, and the small molecule VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor SU5416 is commonly used to generate PH in rodents. We hypothesized that SU5416, through direct effects on cardiac endothelial cell VEGFR-2, would attenuate RV angiogenesis in a murine model of PH. METHODS: C57 BL/6 mice were exposed to chronic hypoxia (CH-PH) to generate PH and stimulate RV angiogenesis. SU5416 (20 mg/kg) or vehicle were administered at the start of the CH exposure, and weekly thereafter. Angiogenesis was measured after one week of CH-PH using a combination of unbiased stereological measurements and flow cytometry-based quantification of myocardial endothelial cell proliferation. In complementary experiments, primary cardiac endothelial cells from C57 BL/6 mice were exposed to recombinant VEGF (50 ng/mL) or grown on Matrigel in the presence of SU5416 (5 µM) or vehicle. RESULT: SU5416 directly inhibited VEGF-mediated ERK phosphorylation, cell proliferation, and Kdr transcription, but not Matrigel tube formation in primary murine cardiac endothelial cells in vitro. SU5416 did not inhibit CH-PH induced RV angiogenesis, endothelial cell proliferation, or RV hypertrophy in vivo, despite significantly altering the expression profile of genes involved in angiogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that SU5416 directly inhibited VEGF-induced proliferation of murine cardiac endothelial cells but does not attenuate CH-PH induced RV angiogenesis or myocardial remodeling in vivo.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Animais , Doença Crônica , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Hipóxia/patologia , Indóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Pirróis/farmacologia
14.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(10): 1691-1700, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066998

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A prognostic equation and risk score calculator derived from the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-term Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Disease Management (REVEAL) are being used to predict 1-year survival in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but little is known about the performance of these REVEAL survival prediction tools in systemic sclerosis (SSc)-associated PAH (SSc-PAH). METHODS: Prospectively gathered data from the Johns Hopkins Pulmonary Hypertension Program and Pulmonary Hypertension Assessment and Recognition of Outcome in Scleroderma Registries were used to evaluate the predictive accuracy of the REVEAL models for predicting the probability of 1-year survival in patients with SSc-PAH. Model discrimination was assessed by comparison of the Harrell's C-index, model fit was assessed using multivariable regression techniques, and model calibration was assessed by comparing predicted to observed survival estimates. RESULTS: The validation cohort consisted of 292 SSc-PAH patients with a 1-year survival rate of 87.4%. The C-index for predictive accuracy of the REVEAL prognostic equation (0.734, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.652-0.816) and for the risk score (0.743, 95% CI 0.663-0.823) demonstrated good discrimination, comparable to that in the model development cohort. The calibration slope was 0.707 (95% CI 0.400-1.014), indicating that the overall model fit was marginal (P = 0.06). The magnitude of risk assigned to low distance on the 6-minute walk test (6MWD) and elevated serum levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) was lower in the validation cohort than was originally seen in the REVEAL derivation cohort. Model calibration was poor, particularly for the highest risk groups. CONCLUSION: In predicting 1-year survival in patients newly diagnosed as having SSc-PAH, the REVEAL prognostic equation and risk score provide very good discrimination but poor calibration. REVEAL prediction scores should be interpreted with caution in newly diagnosed SSc-PAH patients, particularly those with higher predicted risk of poor 1-year survival resulting from a low 6MWD or a high BNP serum level.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/mortalidade , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Idoso , Pressão Atrial , Pressão Sanguínea , Comorbidade , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Hipertensão Arterial Pulmonar/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal/epidemiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resistência Vascular , Teste de Caminhada
17.
Curr Med Chem ; 26(16): 2844-2864, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29421995

RESUMO

Despite recent advances in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) treatment, this condition is still characterized by an extremely poor prognosis. In this review, we discuss the use of newly-approved drugs for PAH treatment with already known mechanisms of action (macitentan), innovative targets (riociguat and selexipag), and novel therapeutic approaches with initial up-front combination therapy. Secondly, we describe new potential signaling pathways and investigational drugs with promising role in the treatment of PAH.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar/terapia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Endotelina/farmacologia , Terapia Genética , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoterapia , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/farmacologia
18.
Eur Respir J ; 53(1)2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545976

RESUMO

The function of the right ventricle determines the fate of patients with pulmonary hypertension. Since right heart failure is the consequence of increased afterload, a full physiological description of the cardiopulmonary unit consisting of both the right ventricle and pulmonary vascular system is required to interpret clinical data correctly. Here, we provide such a description of the unit and its components, including the functional interactions between the right ventricle and its load. This physiological description is used to provide a framework for the interpretation of right heart catheterisation data as well as imaging data of the right ventricle obtained by echocardiography or magnetic resonance imaging. Finally, an update is provided on the latest insights in the pathobiology of right ventricular failure, including key pathways of molecular adaptation of the pressure overloaded right ventricle. Based on these outcomes, future directions for research are proposed.

19.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 199(12): 1550-1560, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557518

RESUMO

Rationale: Remodeling and fibrosis of the right ventricle (RV) may cause RV dysfunction and poor survival in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Objectives: To investigate the consequences of RV fibrosis modulation and the accompanying cellular changes on RV function. Methods: Expression of fibrotic markers was assessed in the RV of patients with pulmonary hypertension, the murine pulmonary artery banding, and rat monocrotaline and Sugen5416/hypoxia models. Invasive hemodynamic and echocardiographic assessment was performed on galectin-3 knockout or inhibitor-treated mice. Measurements and Main Results: Established fibrosis was characterized by marked expression of galectin-3 and an enhanced number of proliferating RV fibroblasts. Galectin-3 genetic and pharmacologic inhibition or antifibrotic treatment with pirfenidone significantly diminished RV fibrosis progression in the pulmonary artery banding model, without improving RV functional parameters. RV fibrotic regions were populated with mesenchymal cells coexpressing vimentin and PDGFRα (platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α), but generally lacked αSMA (α-smooth muscle actin) positivity. Serum levels of galectin-3 were increased in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension but did not correlate with cardiac function. No changes of galectin-3 expression were observed in the lungs. Conclusions: We identified extrapulmonary galectin-3 as an important mediator that drives RV fibrosis in pulmonary hypertension through the expansion of PDGFRα/vimentin-expressing cardiac fibroblasts. However, interventions effectively targeting fibrosis lack significant beneficial effects on RV function.


Assuntos
Fibrose/complicações , Fibrose/fisiopatologia , Galectina 3/imunologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/etiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Animais , Áustria , Baltimore , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Ratos , Função Ventricular Direita/efeitos dos fármacos
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