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1.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 110, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent paradigm shift has highlighted the importance of considering how sleep, physical activity and sedentary behaviour work together to influence health, rather than examining each behaviour individually. We aimed to determine how adherence to 24-h movement behavior guidelines from infancy to the preschool years influences mental health and self-regulation at 5 years of age. METHODS: Twenty-four hour movement behaviors were measured by 7-day actigraphy (physical activity, sleep) or questionnaires (screen time) in 528 children at 1, 2, 3.5, and 5 years of age and compared to mental health (anxiety, depression), adaptive skills (resilience), self-regulation (attentional problems, hyperactivity, emotional self-control, executive functioning), and inhibitory control (Statue, Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task) outcomes at 5 years of age. Adjusted standardised mean differences (95% CI) were determined between those who did and did not achieve guidelines at each age. RESULTS: Children who met physical activity guidelines at 1 year of age (38.7%) had lower depression (mean difference [MD]: -0.28; 95% CI: -0.51, -0.06) and anxiety (MD: -0.23; 95% CI: -0.47, 0.00) scores than those who did not. At the same age, sleeping for 11-14 h or having consistent wake and sleep times was associated with lower anxiety (MD: -0.34; 95% CI: -0.66, -0.02) and higher resilience (MD: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.68) scores respectively. No significant relationships were observed at any other age or for any measure of self-regulation. Children who consistently met screen time guidelines had lower anxiety (MD: -0.43; 95% CI: -0.68, -0.18) and depression (MD: -0.36; 95% CI: -0.62, -0.09) scores at 5. However, few significant relationships were observed for adherence to all three guidelines; anxiety scores were lower (MD: -0.42; 95% CI: -0.72, -0.12) in the 20.2% who adhered at 1 year of age, and depression scores were lower (MD: -0.25; 95% CI: -0.48, -0.02) in the 36.7% who adhered at 5 years of age compared with children who did not meet all three guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Although adherence to some individual movement guidelines at certain ages throughout early childhood was associated with improved mental health and wellbeing at 5 years of age, particularly reduced anxiety and depression scores, there was little consistency in these relationships. Future work should consider a compositional approach to 24-h time use and how it may influence mental wellbeing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00892983.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Saúde Mental , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Tempo de Tela , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tools that assess all three components of 24 h movement guidelines (sleep, physical activity, and screen use) are scarce. Our objective was to use a newly developed Screen Time and Activity Recall (STAR-24) to demonstrate how this tool could be used to illustrate differences in time-use across the day between two independent samples of male adolescents collected before and during the COVID-19 lockdown. METHODS: Adolescent boys aged 15-18 years (n = 109) each completed the STAR-24 twice, n = 74 before lockdown and n = 35 during lockdown. RESULTS: During lockdown more than 50% of the sample reported gaming between 10 a.m. and 12 noon, transport was not reported as an activity, and activities of daily living spiked at mealtimes. Gaming and screen time were more prevalent in weekends than weekdays, with the highest prevalence of weekday screen use (before lockdown) occurring between 8 and 9 p.m. Differences in estimates of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity prior to and during lockdown (mean difference (95% CI); 21 (-9 to 51) min) and sleep (0.5 (-0.2 to 1.2) h) were small. Total and recreational screen time were higher during lockdown (2 h (0.7 to 3.3 h) and 48 min (-36 to 132 min), respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The STAR-24 holds promise as a single tool that assesses compliance with 24 h movement guidelines. This tool also allows clear illustration of how adolescent boys are using their time (instead of only providing summary measures), providing richer data to inform public health initiatives.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Atividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Sedentário
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of adolescents do less physical activity than is recommended by the World Health Organization. Active commuting and participation in organised sport and/or physical education individually have been shown to increase physical activity in adolescents. However, how these domains impact physical activity both individually and in combination has yet to be investigated in a sample of New Zealand female adolescents from around the country. METHODS: Adolescent females aged 15-18 y (n = 111) were recruited from 13 schools across eight locations throughout New Zealand to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed questions about active commuting, and participation in organised sport and physical education, before wearing an Actigraph GT3X (Actigraph, Pensacola, FL, USA) +24 h a day for seven consecutive days to determine time spent in total, MVPA and light physical activity. RESULTS: Active commuters accumulated 17 min/d (95% CI 8 to 26 min/d) more MVPA compared to those who did not. Those who participated in sport accumulated 45 min/d (95% CI 20 to 71 min/d) more light physical activity and 14 min/d (95% CI 5 to 23 min/d) more MVPA compared to those who did not. Participation in physical education did not seem to have a large impact on any component of physical activity. Participation in multiple domains of activity, e.g., active commuting and organised sport, was associated with higher accumulation of MVPA but not light activity. Conclusion Active commuting and sport both contribute a meaningful amount of daily MVPA. Sport participation has the potential to increase overall activity and displace sedentary behaviour. A combination of physical activity domains may be an important consideration when targeting ways to increase physical activity in adolescent females.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Educação Física e Treinamento , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Transportes
4.
Appetite ; 167: 105661, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437924

RESUMO

The Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is designed to measure 'usual' eating behaviour, with no time period attached, thus may not be suitable for assessing the effectiveness of short-term experimental studies. The aim of this study was to validate i) the CEBQ adapted to measure 'past week' rather than 'usual' eating behaviour, and ii) a computerized questionnaire assessing desire to eat core and non-core foods, against an objective measure of eating behaviour and food intake (eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) experiment). Children (n = 103) aged 8-12 years completed the desire to eat questionnaire followed by the EAH experiment while primary caregivers completed the adapted CEBQ. Results from the CEBQ showed that children with greater 'satiety responsiveness' (1-point higher) consumed less energy (-342 kJ; 95% CI -574, -110) whereas those with greater 'enjoyment of food' scale consumed more energy (380 kJ; 95% CI 124, 636) during the ad-libitum phase of the EAH experiment. Higher scores for slowness in eating (-705 kJ; 95% CI -1157, -254), emotional undereating (-590 kJ; 95% CI -1074, -106) and food fussiness (-629 kJ; 95% CI -1103, -155) were associated with lower total energy intake. Children who expressed greater desire to eat non-core foods consumed more energy in total (275 kJ; 95% CI 87, 463). Overall, this adapted CEBQ appears valid for measuring several short-term eating behaviours in children. The desire to eat questionnaire may be useful for identifying short-term susceptibility to overeating, however further investigation into how ratings of desire relate to the intake of highly palatable, energy dense foods is warranted.

5.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-9, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348827

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe meat consumption rationalisation and relationships with meat consumption patterns and food choice motivations in New Zealand adolescents. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of adolescents from high schools across New Zealand. Demographics, dietary habits, and motivations and attitudes towards food were assessed by online questionnaire and anthropometric measurements taken by researchers. The 4Ns questionnaire assessed meat consumption rationalisation with four subscales: 'Nice', 'Normal', 'Necessary' and 'Natural'. SETTING: Nineteen secondary schools from eight regions in New Zealand, with some purposive sampling of adolescent vegetarians in Otago, New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: Questionnaires were completed by 385 non-vegetarian and vegetarian (self-identified) adolescents. RESULTS: A majority of non-vegetarian adolescents agreed that consuming meat was 'nice' (65 %), but fewer agreed that meat consumption was 'necessary' (51 %). Males agreed more strongly than females with all 4N subscales. High meat consumers were more likely to agree than to disagree that meat consumption was nice, normal, necessary and natural, and vegetarians tended to disagree with all rationalisations. Adolescent non-vegetarians whose food choice was motivated more by convenience, sensory appeal, price and familiarity tended to agree more with all 4N subscales, whereas adolescents motivated by animal welfare and environmental concerns were less likely to agree. CONCLUSIONS: To promote a reduction in meat consumption in adolescents, approaches will need to overcome beliefs that meat consumption is nice, normal, necessary and natural.

7.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203997

RESUMO

Diet is one of the strongest modifiable risk factors for hypertension. In this study, we described the associations between dietary factors and blood pressure; and explored how weight status moderated these associations in a sample of New Zealand male adolescents. We collected demographics information, anthropometric, blood pressure, and dietary data from 108 male adolescents (15-17 years old). Mixed effects and logistic regression models were used to estimate relationships between dietary variables, blood pressure, and hypertension. Moderation effects of overweight status on the relationship between hypertension and diet were explored through forest plots. One-third (36%) of the sample was classified as hypertensive. Fruit intake was related to significantly lower systolic (-2.4 mmHg, p = 0.005) and diastolic blood pressure (-3.9 mmHg, p = 0.001). Vegetable and milk intake was related to significantly lower diastolic blood pressure (-1.4 mmHg, p = 0.047) and (-2.2 mmHg, p = 0.003), respectively. In overweight participants, greater vegetable and milk, and lower meat intake appeared to reduce the odds of hypertension. Certain dietary factors may have more prominent effects on blood pressure depending on weight status.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Dieta , Hipertensão/etiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Adolescente , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Leite , Nova Zelândia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(4): 1428-1437, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34192297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While insufficient sleep duration has emerged as a strong, independent risk factor for obesity, the mechanisms remain unclear. One possibility is greater "eating in the absence of hunger" (EAH) or energy intake beyond the point of satiety, when tired. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine whether mild sleep loss increases EAH in children. METHODS: A crossover study was undertaken in 105 healthy children (8-12 y) with normal sleep (∼8-11 h/night). After randomization, children went to bed 1 h earlier (sleep extension) or 1 h later (sleep restriction) than their usual bedtime, over 2 intervention weeks separated by a 1-wk washout. At the end of each intervention week, children underwent an EAH feeding experiment involving a preloading meal until satiation, followed by an ad libitum buffet (of highly palatable snacks) to measure EAH, with each food item weighed before and after consumption. RESULTS: Ninety-three children completed the EAH experiment. There was no evidence of a difference in energy intake from EAH between sleep restriction and extension conditions when analyzed as a crossover design. However, a learning effect was found, with children eating significantly less (-239 kJ; 95% CI: -437, -41 kJ; P = 0.018) during the preload phase and significantly more (181 kJ; 95% CI: 38, 322 kJ; P = 0.013) in the ad libitum phase in the second week. No significant differences were seen using an underpowered parallel analysis for energy intake during the ad libitum phase when sleep deprived (106 kJ; 95% CI: -217, 431 kJ; P = 0.514). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that measuring a difference in eating behavior in relation to sleep proved unsuitable using the EAH experiment in a crossover design in children, due to a learning effect. This trial was registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=367587&isReview=true) as ACTRN12618001671257 .

9.
Sleep Med Rev ; 59: 101498, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029803

RESUMO

This review investigated whether randomised controlled trials attempting to improve sleep or prevent sleep problems in 0-5 year olds influenced nocturnal sleep duration, day-time naps, or 24-h sleep. Medline (Ovid), EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched from inception until 9 July 2020 and supplemented with hand searching. Search results were screened, eligible data were extracted, and risk of bias was assessed by at least two reviewers. Of 8571 publications considered, 32 trials which used a variety of subjective and objective sleep measurements were included in generic inverse variance random effects meta-analysis of nocturnal (n = 24), day-time (n = 14), and 24-h (n = 13) sleep duration. Overall, sleep interventions increased nocturnal sleep duration by a mean of 9 min (95% CI 4.1 to 13.8, I228%) per night when compared with no sleep intervention. Increases were predominantly seen in sleep-only, rather than multi-component interventions. Total 24-h sleep duration tended to increase by a similar amount (8.6 min (95% CI -2.7 to 19.8, I2 = 59%)), but this was mainly only seen in studies that assessed sleep using diaries. There was no evidence that interventions changed day-time sleep duration. Future studies should involve sleep-only rather than multi-component interventions, and use objective sleep measures (reviewregistry857).

10.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806205

RESUMO

Anemia is a significant comorbidity for older adults not fully attributable to iron deficiency. Low-grade inflammation and other micronutrient deficiencies also contribute. This cross-sectional study examined the relationships between nutrient and non-nutrient factors with hemoglobin and anemia in 285 residents (>65 years) of 16 New Zealand aged-care facilities. Blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin, ferritin, sTfR, hepcidin, zinc, selenium, and interleukin-6 (IL-6), (with ferritin, sTfR, zinc and selenium adjusted for inflammation). Linear regression models examined the relationships between micronutrient biomarkers (iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin B-12 and D), age, sex, and health factors with hemoglobin. Thirty-two percent of participants exhibited anemia, although <2% had either depleted iron stores or iron deficiency. Plasma zinc and selenium deficiencies were present in 72% and 38% of participants, respectively. Plasma zinc and total body iron (TBI) were positively associated (p < 0.05) with hemoglobin, while gastric acid suppressing medications, hepcidin, and interleukin-6 were inversely associated. These relationships were maintained after the application of anemia cut-offs. These findings emphasize the importance of considering multiple micronutrient deficiencies as risk factors for anemia.


Assuntos
Anemia/sangue , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Ferro/sangue , Selênio/sangue , Zinco/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Humanos , Masculino , Micronutrientes/sangue , Nova Zelândia , Estado Nutricional
11.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670442

RESUMO

There has been an important shift in the New Zealand infant food market over the past decade, with the majority of complementary foods now sold in "pouches". Along with the increasing market share of commercial infant food pouches internationally, there have been growing concerns about their nutritional quality. However, research examining the nutritional quality of these pouches compared to other forms of commercial infant foods in New Zealand has not been undertaken. Nor have any studies reported the free sugars or added sugars content of these foods. To address this knowledge gap, a cross-sectional survey of infant foods sold in New Zealand supermarkets was conducted in 2019-2020. Recipes and nutrient lines were developed for the 266 foods identified (133 food pouches). The energy, iron, vitamin B12, total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars content of infant food pouches and other forms of commercial infant foods per 100 g were compared, both within food groups and by age group. Infant food pouches contained similar median amounts of energy, iron, and vitamin B12 to other forms of commercial infant foods but contained considerably more total sugars (8.4 g/100 g vs. 2.3 g/100 g). However, median free sugars and added sugars content was very low across all food groups except for "dairy" and "sweet snacks". All "dry cereals" were fortified with iron whereas none of the infant food pouches were. Therefore, consuming food pouches to the exclusion of other commercial infant foods may place infants at risk of iron deficiency if they do not receive sufficient iron from other sources.


Assuntos
Comércio/tendências , Indústria Alimentícia/tendências , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Açúcares da Dieta/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Ferro na Dieta/análise , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Vitamina B 12/análise
12.
Diabetologia ; 64(6): 1385-1388, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677626

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESES: We examined the effects of milling and cooking whole grains in water to achieve starch gelatinisation on postprandial blood glucose using a randomised crossover open-label design. Participants were adults with type 2 diabetes whose body weight or medications had not changed in at least 3 months. METHODS: Postprandial blood glucose (measured as incremental AUC [iAUC]) was measured following consumption of four nutrient-matched whole-wheat porridge test-meals. Test-meals included gelatinised or native starch and were made with either finely milled or intact whole-wheat. RESULTS: Eighteen adults (63.1 ± 9.8 years, HbA1c 57.0 ± 11.5 mmol/mol [7.4 ± 3.2%]) completed the study. iAUC was higher following cooked meals (gelatinised starch) than following uncooked meals (native starch) (mean difference [MD] 268, 95% CI 188, 348 mmol/l × min). Consuming finely milled whole-wheat produced a higher iAUC compared with intact whole-wheat (MD 173, 95% CI 80, 266 mmol/l × min). There was no evidence of an interaction effect (p = 0.841). CONCLUSIONS: Both the nature of starch and the grain structure of whole-wheat influence the glycaemic response of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. FUNDING: Baking Industry Research Trust of New Zealand and the Riddet Centre of Research Excellence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.anzctr.org.au ACTRN12617000328370.

13.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247247, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600460

RESUMO

To reduce the burden of early-life linear growth faltering in low- and middle-income countries, interventions have focused on nutrition strategies, sometimes combined with water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). However, even when combined, their effects on linear growth have been inconsistent. Here, we investigate potential predictors of length-for-age z-scores (LAZ) in a cohort of resource-poor rural Indonesian infants to inform the optimal strategies to reduce linear growth faltering. Apparently healthy rural breastfed Indonesian infants were randomly selected from birth registries at age 6 months (n = 230) and followed up at 9 (n = 202) and 12 (n = 190) months. Using maximum likelihood estimation, we examined longitudinal relationships among socio-demographic status, maternal height, infant sex, age, water source, sanitation facility, energy, protein, micronutrient intakes and biomarkers (serum ferritin, zinc, retinol binding protein (RBP), selenium-adjusted for inflammation), and α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (systemic inflammation biomarkers) at age 6 and 9 months on LAZ at age 9 and 12 months. Stunting (LAZ <-2) at 6, 9, and 12 months was 15.7%, 19.3%, and 22.6%, respectively. In the full model, the predictor variable at age 6 months that was most strongly associated with infant LAZ at 9 months was maternal height (0.18 (95% CI 0.03, 0.32) SD). At age 9 months, the strongest predictors of LAZ at 12 months were improved drinking water source (-0.40 (95% CI -0.65, -0.14) vs. not improved), elevated AGP compared to not elevated (0.26 (95%CI -0.06, 0.58), maternal height (0.16 (95% CI 0.02, 0.31) SD), sex (0.22 (95% CI -0.02,0.45) female vs. male), serum RBP (0.12 (95% CI -0.01, 0.25) SD), and protein intake (0.17 (95% CI -0.01, 0.35) SD). Health promotion that includes exclusive breastfeeding up to the first six months and follows microbial water quality guidelines to ensure water intake is always safe should be considered.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Estatura , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Transtornos do Crescimento/metabolismo , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia , Lactente , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Microbiologia da Água
14.
J Nutr ; 151(3): 705-715, 2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When maternal micronutrient intakes and statuses are compromised, reductions in micronutrient concentrations in neonatal stores and human milk may result in suboptimal micronutrient intakes, statuses, and functional outcomes of breastfed infants during the critical first 6-month period. OBJECTIVES: We compared the adequacy of micronutrient intakes and statuses at 2 and/or 5 months and morbidity and growth faltering at 2, 5, and 12 months in a cohort of exclusively breastfed (EBF) and partially breastfed (PBF) infants from low-resource Indonesian households. METHODS: At 2 and 5 months, the breastfeeding status and human milk intake of 212 infants were determined using the deuterium oxide dose-to-mother technique, and intakes were calculated from milk micronutrient concentrations and 3-d weighed food intakes. At 5 months, five infant micronutrient biomarkers, hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, and α-1-acid-glycoprotein were measured. Infant morbidity, weight, and length were measured at 2, 5, and 12 months. Means, medians, or proportions were reported for each group and differences between groups were statistically determined. RESULTS: Median intakes of iron, thiamin, niacin, and vitamin B-12 were higher in PBF than EBF infants at 5 months (all P values < 0.05), but intakes in all infants were below adequate intakes. At 5 months, anemia was <20% in both groups, although fewer PBF versus EBF infants had vitamin B-12 deficiency (11.5% vs. 28.6%, respectively; P = 0.011). The mean ± SD length-for-age z-scores for EBF versus PBF infants at 2 months were 0.7 ± 0.9 versus -0.5 ± 1.1, respectively  (P = 0.158), declining to -1.4 ± 0.9 versus -1.1 ± 1.2, respectively, at 12 months (P = 0.059). Reported morbidity rates were generally low, with no evidence of a difference between infant groups (all P values > 0.126). CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of exclusive or partial breastfeeding status, micronutrient intakes of infants were low, statuses were compromised, and growth faltering during the critical 6 months period of early infancy was present. The findings highlight the importance of improving maternal nutritional statuses and evaluating their impacts on infant outcomes.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Pobreza , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Leite Humano/química
15.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 121(2): 305-313, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children consume ultra-processed food (UPF) from a young age, but the proportional contribution of UPF to young children's total energy intakes has not been evaluated in developed countries. OBJECTIVES: To describe UPF intake and associations with demographic factors in young children from 12 to 60 months of age. DESIGN: Cohort study comprising a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial. Demographic data were collected by questionnaire. At 12, 24, and 60 months of age validated food frequency questionnaires estimated percentage of energy intake from UPF (%kcal UPF). PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: The 669 children were born in Dunedin, New Zealand, between May 2009 and December 2010. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean percentage of energy intake from UPF at 12, 24, and 60 months of age, mean differences in %kcal UPF by demographic variables. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Mixed effects regression models were used to estimate relationships between demographics and %kcal UPF. Multiple imputation methods were used to impute missing UPF data. RESULTS: UPF contributed mean (95% confidence interval) 45% (44%, 47%), 42% (41%, 44%), and 51% (50%, 52%) of energy intake to the diets of children at 12, 24, and 60 months of age, respectively. Energy intake from UPF was moderately correlated between 24 and 60 months (r = 0.36). No demographic factors were associated with mean %kcal UPF across time points, except for maternal obesity predicting higher UPF intake at 12 months. Bread, yoghurt, crackers, whole-wheat breakfast cereal, sausages, and muesli bars were among the 10 foods making the greatest contribution to mean %kcal UPF intakes at all time points. CONCLUSIONS: UPF contribute a substantial proportion of energy to the diets of young children. A range of foods with varying nutritional profiles contribute to these high intakes.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Pré-Escolar , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 75(4): 602-610, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The relationship between postprandial glycaemic responses and cognitive performance, mood and satiety are inconsistent. The objective of this study is to compare the effects of different glycaemic responses, induced by beverages with different glycaemic index (GI) (sucrose and isomaltulose), and a non-glycaemic control (sucralose), on cognition, mood and satiety. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this double-blinded, randomised crossover trial, healthy adults (n = 55) received sucrose (GI 65), isomaltulose (GI 32) and sucralose (non-caloric negative control) drinks on separate occasions. The Complex Figure test, the Word Recall test, Trail Making Test Part B and the Stroop test were administered 60 min after beverages ingestion. Mood and satiety were tested along with cognitive performance. RESULTS: Comparing between isomaltulose and sucrose, there were no significant differences in the mean (95% CI) for the following: Complex Figure: immediate recall -0.6 (-1.7, 0.5), delayed recall -0.8 (-1.9, 0.3); Word recall: immediate recall 0.2 (-0.7, 1.1), delayed recall 0.5 (-0.4, 1.4); Trail Making: completing time -2.4 (-7.5, 2.7) s; Stroop: time used for correct congruent responses -9 (-31, 14) ms and correct incongruent responses -18 (-42, 6) ms. No differences among beverages were found in the mood and satiety scores with exception that participants felt more energetic 60 min after isomaltulose ingestion (p = 0.028 for difference with sucrose) and hungrier 30 min after isomaltulose ingestion (p = 0.036 for difference with sucrose; p = 0.022 for difference with sucralose). CONCLUSION: Under these study conditions there is no convincing evidence for an effect of glycaemic response on cognitive performance, mood or satiety.

17.
J Hum Lact ; 37(1): 114-121, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A primary role of human donor milk banks is to provide pasteurized human milk for the sick and preterm infant populations and to support the mothers of these infants as they establish their own milk supply. The results of human milk pasteurization continue to be studied to provide information that enables optimal nutrition in this sick and preterm population. RESEARCH AIMS: The aims of our study were to determine macronutrient characteristics (fat, protein, carbohydrate) and energy content of human milk donated to the Christchurch Women's Hospital Human Milk Bank in New Zealand, and the influence of Holder pasteurization on this macronutrient composition. METHODS: This was a retrospective, pre/post pasteurization observational design to describe the macronutrient content within two groups of donors, mature preterm PDM (n = 13; 21%) and mature term PDM (n = 50; 79%). Sixty three samples of human milk donated to the human milk bank by 27 registered participants (mothers of preterm and term infants) were analyzed. This analysis took place July-September 2018 using a human milk analyzer before and after Holder pasteurization (62.5 °C for 30 min). RESULTS: Preterm milk contained on average 76 kcal/100 ml energy, 4.0 g/100 ml fat, 1.1 g/100 ml protein and 8.2 g/100 ml total carbohydrate; and mature term milk contained 68 kcal/100 ml energy, 3.5 g/100 ml fat, 0.8 g/100 ml protein and 7.9 g/100 ml total carbohydrate. Wide variation between single, donor-pooled samples was demonstrated and there was no major result of pasteurization. CONCLUSION: This research adds to the evidence regarding the macronutrient content of preterm and term milk and that these values are unaffected by Holder pasteurization. The variance in individual pooled donor human milk indicates the importance of determining the nutrient composition of donated milk to inform fortification procedures.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878296

RESUMO

Despite activity guidelines moving towards a 24-h focus, we have a poor understanding of the 24-h activity patterns of adolescents. Therefore, this study aims to describe the 24-h activity patterns of a sample of adolescent females and investigate the association with body mass index (BMI). Adolescent females aged 15-18 years (n = 119) were recruited across 13 schools in 8 locations throughout New Zealand. Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers were worn 24-h a day for seven days and the output was used to identify time spent in each 24-h component (sleep, sedentary, light-intensity physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity). In a 24-h period, adolescent females spent approximately half their time sedentary, one third sleeping and the remainder in light-intensity physical activity (15%) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (5%). Higher BMI z-scores were associated with 16 min more time spent in light-intensity physical activity. Additionally, those with higher BMI were less likely to meet the sleep and physical activity guidelines for this age group. Compliance with the moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity guidelines, sleep guidelines, or both, was low, especially in those classified as overweight or obese. The association between BMI and light activity warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia
20.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(4): 1039-1050, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal micronutrient deficits during preconception and pregnancy may persist during lactation and compromise human milk composition. OBJECTIVE: We measured micronutrient concentrations in human milk and investigated their association with maternal micronutrient intakes, status, and milk volume. METHODS: Infant milk intake (measured via a deuterium dose-to-mother technique), milk micronutrient and fat concentrations, and maternal micronutrient intakes were assessed at 2 and 5 mo postpartum in 212 Indonesian lactating mother-infant pairs. Maternal hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin receptors, retinol binding protein (RBP), zinc, selenium, and vitamin B-12 were measured at 5 mo (n = 163). Multivariate or mixed effects regression examined associations of milk micronutrient concentrations with maternal micronutrient intakes, status, and milk volume. RESULTS: Prevalence of anemia (15%), and iron (15% based on body iron), selenium (2.5%), and vitamin B-12 deficiency (0%) were low compared with deficiencies of zinc (60%) and vitamin A (34%). The prevalence of inadequate intakes was >50% for 7 micronutrients at 2 and 5 mo. Median milk concentrations for most micronutrients were below reference values, and nearly all declined between 2 and 5 mo postpartum and were not associated substantially with milk volume (except for ß-carotene, α-carotene, and ß-cryptoxanthin). At 5 mo postpartum, associations between maternal micronutrient status and corresponding milk concentrations reported as mean percentage difference in human milk concentration for each unit higher maternal biomarker were significant for hemoglobin (1.9%), iron biomarkers (ranging from 0.4 to 7%), RBP (35%), selenium (70%), and vitamin B-12 (0.1%), yet for maternal intakes only a positive association with ß-carotene existed. CONCLUSIONS: Most milk micronutrient concentrations declined during lactation, independent of changes in human milk production, and few were associated with maternal micronutrient intakes. The significant associations between maternal biomarkers and milk micronutrient concentrations at 5 mo warrant further study to investigate whether the declines in milk micronutrients are linked to shifts in maternal status.


Assuntos
Dieta , Micronutrientes/análise , Leite Humano/química , Período Pós-Parto/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Gravidez
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