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1.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 72: 82-87, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146380

RESUMO

An international panel of movement disorders specialists explored the views and perceptions of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) about their condition and its treatment, including the potential mismatch between the clinician's view of the patient's condition and their own view of what aspects of the disease most affect their daily lives. The initiative was focused on Asian countries, so participants comprised experts in the management of PD from key centers in Asia, with additional insight provided by European and the North American movement disorders experts. Analysis of peer-reviewed publications on patient perceptions of PD and the factors that they consider important to their wellbeing identified several contributing factors to the mismatch of views, including gaps in knowledge of PD and its treatment, an understanding of the clinical heterogeneity of PD, and the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to patient care. The faculty proposed options to bridge these gaps to ensure that PD patients receive the personalized treatment they need to achieve the best possible outcomes. It was considered essential to improve patient knowledge about PD and its treatment, as well as increasing the awareness of clinicians of PD heterogeneity in presentation and treatment response. A multidisciplinary and shared-care approach to PD was needed alongside the use of patient-centered outcome measures in clinical trials and clinical practice to better capture the patient experience and improve the delivery of individualized therapy.

2.
J Neurochem ; 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128811

RESUMO

Bilirubin, the end product of heme redox metabolism, has cytoprotective properties and is an essential metabolite associated with cardiovascular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, type 2 diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is characterized by progressive degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons and is associated with elevated oxidative stress due to mitochondrial dysfunction. In this study, using a ratiometric bilirubin probe, we revealed that the mitochondrial inhibitor, rotenone, which is widely used to create a PD model, significantly decreased intracellular bilirubin levels in HepG2 cells. Chemical screening showed that BRUP-1 was a top hit that restored cellular bilirubin levels that were lowered by rotenone. We found that BRUP-1 up-regulated the expression level of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), one of the rate-limiting enzyme of bilirubin production via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation. In addition, we demonstrated that this Nrf2 activation was due to a direct inhibition of the interaction between Nrf2 and Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) by BRUP-1. Both HO-1 up-regulation and bilirubin restoration by BRUP-1 treatment were significantly abrogated by Nrf2 silencing. In neuronal PC12D cells, BRUP-1 also activated the Nrf2-HO-1 axis and increased bilirubin production, resulted in the suppression of neurotoxin-induced cell death, reactive oxygen species production, and protein aggregation, which are hallmarks of PD. Furthermore, BRUP-1 showed neuroprotective activity against rotenone-treated neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. These findings provide a new member of Keap1-Nrf2 direct inhibitors and suggest that chemical modulation of heme metabolism using BRUP-1 may be beneficial for PD treatment.

3.
Brain ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201884

RESUMO

Recently, the genetic variability in lysosomal storage disorders has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Here, we found that variants in prosaposin (PSAP), a rare causative gene of various types of lysosomal storage disorders, are linked to Parkinson's disease. Genetic mutation screening revealed three pathogenic mutations in the saposin D domain of PSAP from three families with autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. Whole-exome sequencing revealed no other variants in previously identified Parkinson's disease-causing or lysosomal storage disorder-causing genes. A case-control association study found two variants in the intronic regions of the PSAP saposin D domain (rs4747203 and rs885828) in sporadic Parkinson's disease had significantly higher allele frequencies in a combined cohort of Japan and Taiwan. We found the abnormal accumulation of autophagic vacuoles, impaired autophagic flux, altered intracellular localization of prosaposin, and an aggregation of α-synuclein in patient-derived skin fibroblasts or induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons. In mice, a Psap saposin D mutation caused progressive motor decline and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Our data provide novel genetic evidence for the involvement of the PSAP saposin D domain in Parkinson's disease.

4.
Neuroscience ; 433: 163-173, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194229

RESUMO

The human right inferior frontal cortex (IFC) plays a critical role in response inhibition. It has also been demonstrated that the IFC is heterogeneous and that the ventral part of the IFC (vIFC) is more critical to inhibition of prepotent response tendency. Recent areal parcellation analyses based on resting-state functional connectivity have revealed that the right vIFC consists of multiple functional areas. In the present study, we characterized the parcellated areas (parcels) in the right vIFC using graph theory analysis, which characterizes local connectivity properties of a brain network by referring to its global structure of functional connectivity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained during performance of a stop-signal task and during resting state. The cerebral cortex was parcellated into areas using resting-state functional connectivity. The parcels were then subjected to graph theory analysis to reveal central areas. Two parcels, ventral and dorsal, in the posterior part of the vIFC, exhibited significant brain activity during response inhibition. The ventral parcel exhibited a positive correlation between betweenness centrality and brain activity while the dorsal parcel did not. Correlations were significantly stronger in the ventral parcel. Moreover, the ventral parcel exhibited a negative correlation between brain activity during response inhibition and stop-signal reaction time (SSRT), a behavioral measure used to evaluate stopping performance. These dissociation results suggest that the ventral region in the vIFC plays a more central role in the brain network by increasing brain activity, which may further predict better performance of response inhibition.

5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(4): 104650, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are associated with the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage in stroke patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We investigated the association between CMBs and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with acute ischemic stroke and AF. METHODS: We retrospectively examined consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and AF who underwent brain gradient-echo T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The number and distribution (lobar, deep or infratentorial, and mixed) of CMBs were assessed. Kidney function was assessed according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), which was calculated using a modified version of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. RESULTS: Of the 357 included patients, 105 (29.4%) had CMBs. CKD (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) was found in 131 (36.7%) patients. Patients with CKD showed a higher prevalence of any form of CMB (41.2% versus 22.6%, P < .001), deep or infratentorial CMBs (19.9% versus 9.3%, P < .01), and mixed CMBs (14.5% versus 5.3%, P < .01) than those without CKD. After adjusting for age and other confounding factors, CKD was found to be independently associated with the presence of any form of CMB (odds ratio 1.89, P = .02) and mixed CMBs (odds ratio 3.10, P < .01). Moreover, moderate to severe CKD (eGFR < 45 mL/min/1.73 m2) was independently associated with the presence of multiple CMBs (odds ratio 2.31, P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: CMBs and CKD are common in acute ischemic stroke patients with AF, and CKD may be a risk factor for CMBs. Further longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate whether maintaining kidney function can prevent the development of CMBs.

6.
Brain Nerve ; 72(2): 119-129, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036337

RESUMO

To date, there have been several reports about the genes associated with familial Parkinson's disease. These genes are classified following the PARK nomenclature. The prevalence of these genes varies between countries. Moreover, each gene is associated with different symptoms during disease progression. In this review, we will summarize the clinical findings and molecular functions, with a focus on alpha-synuclein, along with recent discoveries and will try to associate them with sporadic Parkinson's disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , alfa-Sinucleína , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/genética
8.
Glia ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108971

RESUMO

As oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are vulnerable to ischemia, their differentiation to oligodendrocytes (OLG) is impaired in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Astrocyte-OLG interaction is important for white matter homeostasis. Recently, reactive astrocytes were separated into two types, A1 (cytotoxic) and A2 (neurotrophic). However, their role in prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion remains unclear. We analyzed the effects of interaction between A1-A2 astrocytes and OPC-OLG under hypoperfusion, focusing on mitochondrial migration. As an in vivo model, chronic hypoperfusion model mice were created by bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) using microcoils. As a matching in vitro study, rat primary cells were cocultured with a nonlethal concentration of CoCl2 . At 28 days after hypoperfusion, the number of OPC and astrocytes increased, whereas that of OLG decreased. Increased astrocytes were mainly A1-like astrocytes; however, the number of A2-like type decreased. In cell culture, OPC differentiation was interrupted under mimic chronic ischemia, but improved after astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) was added. However, injured-ACM was unable to improve OPC maturation. Incubation with CoCl2 changed astrocytes from A2-like to A1-like, and mitochondrial migration was also reduced. A Trkß agonist was able to maintain astrocytes from A1-like to A2-like even under hyperperfused conditions, and aided in OPC maturation and memory impairment via mitochondrial migration and drug effects in cell culture study and BCAS model. The reduction of A1-like astrocytes protects against white matter injury. Trkß agonists may play an important role in the impairment under chronic ischemic conditions. Mitochondrial migration may be a broad therapeutic strategy for cerebrovascular diseases. MAIN POINTS: Prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion leads to impaired oligodendrocyte (OLG) maturation and increased numbers of A1 astrocytes. Mitochondria migration maintained A2 astrocyte morphology, mature OLG, and myelinated white matter in vivo/vitro.

9.
J Neurosci Res ; 98(5): 936-949, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026517

RESUMO

Neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders have significant consequences for quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In the current study, we evaluated microstructural white matter (WM) alterations associated with neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders in PD using neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) and linked independent component analysis (LICA). The indices of NODDI were compared between 20 and 19 patients with PD with and without neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders, respectively, and 25 healthy controls using tract-based spatial statistics and tract-of-interest analyses. LICA was applied to model inter-subject variability across measures. A widespread reduction in axonal density (indexed by intracellular volume fraction [ICVF]) was demonstrated in PD patients with and without neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders, as compared with healthy controls. Compared with patients without neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders, patients with neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders exhibited more extensive (posterior predominant) decreases in axonal density. Using LICA, ICVF demonstrated the highest contribution (59% weight) to the main effects of diagnosis that reflected widespread decreases in axonal density. These findings suggest that axonal loss is a major factor underlying WM pathology related to neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders in PD, whereas patients with neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders had broader axonal pathology, as compared with those without. LICA suggested that the ICVF can be used as a useful biomarker of microstructural changes in the WM related to neurocognitive and psychiatric disorders in PD.

10.
Cells ; 9(2)2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046340

RESUMO

Evaluation of myelin by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a difficult challenge, but holds promise in demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Although multiple techniques have been developed, no gold standard has been established. This study aims to evaluate the correlation between synthetic MRI myelin volume fraction (SyMRIMVF) and myelin fraction estimated by other techniques, i.e., magnetization transfer saturation (MTsat), T1-weighted images divided by T2-weighted images (T1w/T2w), and radial diffusivity (RD) in patients with MS. We also compared the sensitivities of these techniques for detecting MS-related myelin damage. SyMRIMVF, MTsat, T1w/T2w, and RD were averaged on plaque, periplaque white matter, and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). Pairwise correlation was calculated using Spearman's correlation analysis. For all segmented regions, strong correlations were found between SyMRIMVF and T1w/T2w (Rho = 0.89), MTsat (Rho = 0.82), or RD (Rho = -0.75). For each technique, the average estimated myelin differed significantly among regions, but the percentage change of NAWM from both periplaque white matter and plaque were highest in SyMRIMVF. SyMRIMVF might be suitable for myelin evaluation in MS patients, with relevant results as compared to other well-studied techniques. Moreover, it presented better sensitivity for the detection of the difference between plaque or periplaque white matter and NAWM.

12.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 7(3): 307-317, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059082

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the oxidized albumin ratio, which is the redox ratio of human nonmercaptalbumin (HNA) to serum albumin (%HNA), as a biomarker in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD) and related neurodegenerative disorders. METHODS: This prospective study enrolled 216 iPD patients, 15 patients with autosomal recessive familial PD due to parkin mutations (PARK2), 30 multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients, 32 progressive nuclear palsy (PSP) patients, and 143 healthy controls. HNA was analyzed using modified high-performance liquid chromatography and was evaluated alongside other parameters. RESULTS: iPD and PARK2 patients had a higher %HNA than controls (iPD vs. controls: odds ratio (OR) 1.325, P < 0.001; PARK2 vs. controls: OR 1.712, P < 0.001). Even iPD patients at an early Hoehn & Yahr stage (I and II) showed a higher %HNA than controls. iPD patients had a higher %HNA than MSA and PSP patients (iPD vs. MSA: OR 1.249, P < 0.001, iPD vs. PSP: OR 1.288, P < 0.05). When discriminating iPD patients from controls, %HNA corrected by age achieved an AUC of 0.750; when discriminating iPD patients from MSA and PSP patients, an AUC of 0.747 was achieved. Furthermore, uric acid, an antioxidant compound, was decreased in iPD patients, similar to the change in %HNA. INTERPRETATION: %HNA was significantly increased in iPD and PARK2 patients compared with controls, regardless of disease course and severity. Oxidative stress might be increased from the early stages of iPD and PARK2 and play an important role in their pathomechanisms.

13.
J Neurol ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptogenic stroke encompasses diverse emboligenic mechanisms and pathogeneses. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) occur differently among stroke subtypes. The association of CMBs with cryptogenic stroke is essentially unknown. METHODS: CHALLENGE ESUS/CS (Mechanisms of Embolic Stroke Clarified by Transesophageal Echocardiography for ESUS/CS) is a multicenter registry with comprehensive data including gradient-echo T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of cryptogenic stroke patients who underwent transesophageal echocardiography. Patients' clinical characteristics were compared according to the presence and location of CMBs. RESULTS: A total of 661 patients (68.7 ± 12.7 years; 445 males) were enrolled, and 209 (32%) had CMBs. Age (odds ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.04, p = 0.020), male sex (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.18-2.91, p = 0.007), hypertension (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.03-2.86, p = 0.039), chronic kidney disease (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.11-2.43, p = 0.013), deep and subcortical white matter hyperintensity (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.16-2.85, p = 0.009), and periventricular hyperintensity (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.37-3.46, p = 0.001) were independently associated with the presence of CMBs. Aortic complicated lesions (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.12-2.84, p = 0.015) were associated with deep and diffuse CMBs, whereas prior anticoagulant therapy (OR 7.88, 95% CI, 1.83-33.9, p = 0.006) was related to lobar CMBs. CONCLUSIONS: CMBs were common, and age, male sex, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and cerebral white matter diseases were related to CMBs in cryptogenic stroke. Aortic complicated lesions were associated with deep and diffuse CMBs, while prior anticoagulant therapy was related to lobar CMBs.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2679, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042055

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

16.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969533

RESUMO

AIMS: The ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to arachidonic acid (AA) is related to major adverse events and death in cardiovascular diseases. The association between long-term prognosis of ischemic stroke and EPA/AA ratio has not been clarified. METHODS: Acute ischemic stroke patients who had undergone blood examinations for polyunsaturated fatty acids were enrolled. Major cardiovascular events, including recurrence of ischemic stroke, occurrence of cardiovascular and peripheral artery diseases and hemorrhagic stroke, and death, were analyzed, retrospectively. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to explore factors, including clinical characteristics, laboratory data including EPA/AA ratio, and treatments associated with major cardiovascular events and death. RESULTS: A total of 269 patients (mean age, 70±13 years; 179 men) were enrolled. During follow-up (mean, 2.3 ±1.0 years), 64 patients exhibited major cardiovascular events and death (annualized rate, 10.5% per person-year). Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that EPA/AA ratio (hazard ratio, 0.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.07- 0.99; p=0.048) and statin therapy (hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.73; p=0.002) correlated inversely with major cardiovascular events and death. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, cumulative event-free rates were significantly lower among patients with EPA/AA ratio <0.33 and patients without statin therapy (p=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Low EPA/AA ratio at baseline and treatment without statins could predict mortality, recurrent ischemic stroke, cardiovascular and peripheral artery diseases, and hemorrhagic stroke among patients with acute ischemic stroke. The combination of baseline EPA/AA ratio and statin therapy could be critical in predicting the long-term prognosis of ischemic stroke patients.

17.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 91(3): 285-290, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937581

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe and clarify the factors affecting the prognosis of Japanese patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) undergoing tracheostomy invasive ventilation (TIV) therapy. METHODS: We conducted a prospective longitudinal observational case-control study using a multicentre registry. ALS patients who started TIV therapy after registration (TIV group) and those who did not receive TIV (non-TIV group) were included. We compared the survival time between the TIV group and the non-TIV group using a propensity score matching analysis and evaluated the prognostic factors in the TIV group. RESULTS: From February 2006 to January 2018, 190 patients in the TIV group and 1093 patients in the non-TIV group were included in this study. The mean age of disease onset and usage rate of gastrostomy and non-invasive ventilation therapy differed between the groups. In the propensity score matching analysis using known prognostic factors, the median overall survival time of the TIV group was significantly greater than that of the non-TIV group (11.33 years vs 4.61 years; p<0.001). Analysis using the Cox proportional hazard model suggested that older age of onset and respiratory onset was an independent factor for poor prognosis after starting TIV therapy. CONCLUSION: We showed that there was a significant difference of approximately 7 years in life expectancy between Japanese ALS patients who did and did not receive TIV therapy.

18.
Neuroradiology ; 62(2): 197-203, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680195

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Micro fractional anisotropy (µFA) is more accurate than conventional fractional anisotropy (FA) for assessing microscopic tissue properties and can overcome limitations related to crossing white matter fibres. We compared µFA and FA for evaluating white matter changes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: We compared FA and µFA measures between 25 patients with PD and 25 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis. We also examined potential correlations between changes, revealed by conventional FA or µFA, and disease duration or Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)-III scores. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, patients with PD had significantly reduced µFA values, mainly in the anterior corona radiata (ACR). In the PD group, µFA values (primarily those from the ACR) were significantly negatively correlated with UPDRS-III motor scores. No significant changes or correlations with disease duration or UPDRS-III scores with tissue properties were detected using conventional FA. CONCLUSION: µFA can evaluate microstructural changes that occur during white matter degeneration in patients with PD and may overcome a key limitation of FA.

19.
Intern Med ; 59(4): 577-579, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611526

RESUMO

A 67-year-old woman with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) developed severe somnolence. Ten days after admission, fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hyperintense areas around the bilateral hypothalamus, which were not present on MRI at admission. The orexin level, which is decreased in idiopathic narcolepsy, was slightly decreased in her cerebrospinal fluid. Immunosuppressive treatment and methylphenidate markedly improved her somnolence. This case shows that NMOSD in the acute phase can cause somnolence in a patient without apparent lesions in the hypothalamus.

20.
Intern Med ; 59(2): 267-270, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511489

RESUMO

A healthy 28-year-old woman presented suddenly with intractable status epilepticus: a focal seizure evolved into a generalized seizure preceded by a high fever. Brain magnetic resonance imaging indicated bilateral hyperintensities in the hippocampus on T2-weighted imaging. Electroencephalograms continuously demonstrated diffuse sharp waves and poly-spikes. Comprehensive immunomodulation therapies and anti-epileptic drugs did not lead to any improvements. We therefore diagnosed her with cryptogenic limbic encephalitis and new-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE). We detected positive anti-ganglioside antibodies, IgG-GQ1b, GD1a, and GT1b, which were negative at six months after the onset. We emphasize the heterogeneous pathogenesis and intractable conditions of NORSE.

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