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2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(7): e018803, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733818

RESUMO

Background Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have been associated with inflammation in several autoimmune diseases. However, their relation to ischemic stroke remains unclear. This study attempted to elucidate the role of MAIT cells in acute ischemic stroke in mice. Methods and Results We used MR1 knockout C57BL/6 (MR1-/-) mice and wild-type littermates (MR1+/+). After performing a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO), we evaluated the association with inflammation and prognosis in the acute cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, we analyzed the tMCAO C57BL/6 mice administered with the suppressive MR1 ligand and the vehicle control. We also evaluated the infiltration of MAIT cells into the ischemic brain by flow cytometry. Results showed a reduction of infarct volume and an improvement of neurological impairment in MR1-/- mice (n=8). There was a reduction in the number of infiltrating microglia/macrophages (n=3-5) and in their activation (n=5) in the peri-infarct area of MR1-/- mice. The cytokine levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-17 at 24 hours after tMCAO (n=3-5), and for interleukin-17 at 72 hours after tMCAO (n=5), were lower in the MR1-/- mice. The administration of the suppressive MR1 ligand reduced the infarct volume and improved functional impairment (n=5). Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated there was a reduction of MAIT cells infiltrating into the ischemic brain at 24 hours after tMCAO (n=17). Conclusions Our results showed that MAIT cells play an important role in neuroinflammation after focal cerebral ischemia and the use of MAIT cell regulation has a potential role as a novel neuroprotectant for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

3.
Mol Brain ; 14(1): 58, 2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757554

RESUMO

Mitochondrial structural changes are associated with the regulation of mitochondrial function, apoptosis, and neurodegenerative diseases. PRKN is known to be involved with various mechanisms of mitochondrial quality control including mitochondrial structural changes. Parkinson's disease (PD) with PRKN mutations is characterized by the preferential degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, which has been suggested to result from the accumulation of damaged mitochondria. However, ultrastructural changes of mitochondria specifically in dopaminergic neurons derived from iPSC have rarely been analyzed. The main reason for this would be that the dopaminergic neurons cannot be distinguished directly among a mixture of iPSC-derived differentiated cells under electron microscopy. To selectively label dopaminergic neurons and analyze mitochondrial morphology at the ultrastructural level, we generated control and PRKN-mutated patient tyrosine hydroxylase reporter (TH-GFP) induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines. Correlative light-electron microscopy analysis and live cell imaging of GFP-expressing dopaminergic neurons indicated that iPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons had smaller and less functional mitochondria than those in non-dopaminergic neurons. Furthermore, the formation of spheroid-shaped mitochondria, which was induced in control dopaminergic neurons by a mitochondrial uncoupler, was inhibited in the PRKN-mutated dopaminergic neurons. These results indicate that our established TH-GFP iPSC lines are useful for characterizing mitochondrial morphology, such as spheroid-shaped mitochondria, in dopaminergic neurons among a mixture of various cell types. Our in vitro model would provide insights into the vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons and the processes leading to the preferential loss of dopaminergic neurons in patients with PRKN mutations.

4.
Acta Neuropathol ; 141(5): 725-754, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694021

RESUMO

The mechanisms by which parkin protects the adult human brain from Parkinson disease remain incompletely understood. We hypothesized that parkin cysteines participate in redox reactions and that these are reflected in its posttranslational modifications. We found that in post mortem human brain, including in the Substantia nigra, parkin is largely insoluble after age 40 years; this transition is linked to its oxidation, such as at residues Cys95 and Cys253. In mice, oxidative stress induces posttranslational modifications of parkin cysteines that lower its solubility in vivo. Similarly, oxidation of recombinant parkin by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) promotes its insolubility and aggregate formation, and in exchange leads to the reduction of H2O2. This thiol-based redox activity is diminished by parkin point mutants, e.g., p.C431F and p.G328E. In prkn-null mice, H2O2 levels are increased under oxidative stress conditions, such as acutely by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine toxin exposure or chronically due to a second, genetic hit; H2O2 levels are also significantly increased in parkin-deficient human brain. In dopamine toxicity studies, wild-type parkin, but not disease-linked mutants, protects human dopaminergic cells, in part through lowering H2O2. Parkin also neutralizes reactive, electrophilic dopamine metabolites via adduct formation, which occurs foremost at the primate-specific residue Cys95. Further, wild-type but not p.C95A-mutant parkin augments melanin formation in vitro. By probing sections of adult, human midbrain from control individuals with epitope-mapped, monoclonal antibodies, we found specific and robust parkin reactivity that co-localizes with neuromelanin pigment, frequently within LAMP-3/CD63+ lysosomes. We conclude that oxidative modifications of parkin cysteines are associated with protective outcomes, which include the reduction of H2O2, conjugation of reactive dopamine metabolites, sequestration of radicals within insoluble aggregates, and increased melanin formation. The loss of these complementary redox effects may augment oxidative stress during ageing in dopamine-producing cells of mutant PRKN allele carriers, thereby enhancing the risk of Parkinson's-linked neurodegeneration.

6.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762500

RESUMO

A questionnaire survey was conducted on 8,402 members of the Japanese Neurological Society to examine the current status and countermeasures for physician burnout, and 1,261 respondents (15.0%) responded. In this paper, we report the results of a comparison between male and female physicians. There was a significant difference in working and living conditions only for married people. It was confirmed that men work under stricter conditions in terms of working hours, and that the burden on women is heavier in the division of housework. Analysis using the Japanese Burnout Scale revealed no gender differences in overall scores, but as for factors related to burnout, in addition to factors common to both men and women, factors specific to men or women were clarified.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7127, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782508

RESUMO

The detection of underlying atrial fibrillation (AF) has become increasingly possible by insertable cardiac monitoring (ICM). During hospitalization for cryptogenic stroke, factors related to the early and late development of AF have not been studied. CHALLENGE ESUS/CS is a multicenter registry of cryptogenic stroke patients undergoing transesophageal echocardiography. Twelve-lead electrocardiogram, continuous cardiac monitoring, and 24-h Holter electrocardiogram were all used for the detection of AF. Early and late detection of AF was determined with an allocation ratio of 1:1 among patients with AF. A total of 677 patients (68.7 ± 12.8 years; 455 men) were enrolled, and 64 patients developed AF during hospitalization. Four days after admission was identified as the approximate median day to classify early and late phases to detect AF: ≤ 4 days, 37 patients; > 4 days, 27 patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) (OR 5.91; 95% CI 2.19-15.97; p < 0.001) was associated with AF ≤ 4 days, whereas a large infarction > 3 cm in diameter (OR 3.28; 95% CI 1.35-7.97; p = 0.009) was associated with AF > 4 days. SEC and large infarctions were important predictors of in-hospital AF detection, particularly in the early and late stages, respectively; thus, they could serve as indications for recommending ICM.

9.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 128(3): 337-344, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630140

RESUMO

The double-blind part of the COMFORT-PD (COMt-inhibitor Findings from Opicapone Repeated Treatment for Parkinson's Disease) study in Japanese levodopa-treated patients with Parkinson's disease and motor fluctuations found that both opicapone 25 and 50 mg were significantly more effective than placebo. This 52-week open-label extension study evaluated the long-term safety and efficacy of opicapone 50 mg tablets in patients who completed the double-blind part of the COMFORT-PD study. Safety was monitored via adverse events, laboratory testing, and physical, cardiovascular and neurological examinations. Efficacy was primarily assessed by change in OFF-time. Secondary efficacy measures included: ON-time, percentage of OFF/ON-time responders, other outcomes from the double-blind part. 391/437 patients were transferred to the open-label extension period and included in the safety analysis set (full analysis set, n = 387; open-label completers, n = 316). Adverse events were frequently reported (n = 338, 86.4%), but < 50% were considered drug-related (39.9%) and few were considered serious (2.6%) or led to discontinuation (2.8%). Decreased OFF-time was consistently observed over the open-label period regardless of initial randomization. Change [LSM (SE)] in OFF-time from the open-label baseline to the last visit showed a persistent effect in patients initially randomized to opicapone 25 mg [- 0.37 (0.20) h, P = 0.0689] and opicapone 50 mg [- 0.07 (0.21) h, P = 0.6913] whereas opicapone 50 mg led to a statistically significant reduction in the previous placebo group [- 1.26 (0.19) h, P < 0.05]. Once-daily opicapone 50 mg was generally well tolerated and consistently reduced OFF-time over 52 weeks in Japanese levodopa-treated patients with motor fluctuations.Trial registration JapicCTI-153112; date of registration: December 25, 2015.

10.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 61, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gait impairments are common in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Cholinesterase inhibitors are used to treat the symptoms of patients with Alzheimer's disease, but they have not been shown to reduce the severity of Alzheimer's disease-related gait disorders. METHODS: This was a prospective, single-arm, open-label, non-randomized study. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine on gait in 21 newly diagnosed patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. The outcome variables were velocity, stride length, and cadence during single-task and dual-task gait trials. The subjects were also assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination, Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living, Functional Assessment Staging, and Geriatric Depression Scale. RESULTS: After 12 weeks of treatment with rivastigmine, gait velocity was significantly improved in the dual-task gait trials; gait velocity was increased from 40.59 ± 13.59 m/min at baseline to 46.88 ± 12.73 m/min when counting backward from 100 in steps of 7 while walking, and gait velocity was increased from 37.06 ± 15.57 m/min at baseline to 42.03 ± 14.02 m/min when naming animals while walking. In the single-task gait trials, which consisted only of walking at their usual pace or at a fast pace, gait velocity was not increased by rivastigmine administration. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated that rivastigmine improved gait in subjects with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease during dual-task trials. The observed enhancement of dual-task gait might be caused by an improvement of cognitive function rather than motor function. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN, UMIN000025869. Registered December 16, 2016, https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/icdr/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000029744.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Marcha/efeitos dos fármacos , Rivastigmina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4625, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633189

RESUMO

Development of monoclonal antibody is critical for targeted drug delivery because its characteristics determine improved therapeutic efficacy and reduced side-effect. Antibody therapeutics target surface molecules; hence, internalization is desired for drug delivery. As an antibody-drug conjugate, a critical parameter is drug-to-antibody ratio wherein the quantity of drugs attached to the antibody influences the antibody structure, stability, and efficacy. Here, we established a cell-based immunotoxin screening system to facilitate the isolation of functional antibodies with internalization capacities, and discovered an anti-human CD71 monoclonal antibody. To overcome the limitation of drug-to-antibody ratio, we employed the encapsulation capacity of liposome, and developed anti-CD71 antibody-conjugated liposome that demonstrated antigen-antibody dependent cellular uptake when its synthesis was optimized. Furthermore, anti-CD71 antibody-conjugated liposome encapsulating doxorubicin demonstrated antigen-antibody dependent cytotoxicity. In summary, this study demonstrates the powerful pipeline to discover novel functional antibodies, and the optimal method to synthesize immunoliposomes. This versatile technology offers a rapid and direct approach to generate antibodies suitable for drug delivery modalities.

12.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 84: 47-51, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556765

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). Clinicians face various challenges in adjusting stimulation parameters and configurations in clinical DBS settings owing to inexperience, time constraints, and recent advances in DBS technology that have expanded the number of possible contact configurations. We aimed to assess the efficacy of a closed-loop algorithm (CLA) for the DBS-programming method using external motion sensor-based motor assessments in patients with PD. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, crossover study, we enrolled 12 patients who underwent eight-ring-contact DBS lead implantations bilaterally in the subthalamic nucleus. The DBS settings of the participants were programmed using a standard of care (SOC) and CLA method. The clinical effects of both programming methods were assessed in a randomized crossover fashion. The outcomes were evaluated using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Scale part III (UPDRS-III) and sensor-based scores for baseline (medication-off/stimulation-off) and both programming methods. The number of programming steps required for each programming method was also recorded. RESULTS: The UPDRS-III scores and sensor-based scores were significantly improved by SOC and CLA settings compared to the baseline. No statistical difference was observed between SOC and CLA. The programming steps were significantly reduced in the CLA settings compared to those in the SOC. No serious adverse events were observed. CONCLUSION: CLA can optimize DBS settings prospectively with similar therapeutic benefits as that of the SOC and reduce the number of programming steps. Automated optimization of DBS settings would reduce the burden of programming for both clinicians and patients.

13.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 84: 139-143, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611076

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To identify and investigate patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) harboring VPS35 variants in Japan. METHODS: Using targeted gene panel screening, we analyzed 393 familial, 294 young-onset, and 52 late-onset sporadic PD patients derived from the Juntendo PD DNA bank, and obtained clinical information from the medical records on each patient in whom we found VPS35 p.D620N variants. RESULTS: We identified VPS35 p.D620N in three new patients: two patients with familial PD and one patient with sporadic PD. Additionally, we newly confirmed p.D620 from a patient of a family reported previously. The prevalence of familial PD was 0.7% (2/307), young-onset sporadic PD was 0.3% (1/294), and late-onset sporadic PD was 0% (0/52) in our cohort. Combining four patients with p.D620N from our previous reports, haplotype analysis indicated at least two founders in our cohort. Patients commonly showed a slow progression of parkinsonism with onset in middle or late age and mild parkinsonism with good response to levodopa and little cognitive decline even for more than 10 years of disease duration. Psychosis was occurred in two patients. One-half of patients required device-aided therapies such as deep brain stimulation or levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel. Brain magnetic resonance imaging mostly showed normal findings, even at more than 10 years after onset. 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy indicated normal heart-to-mediastinum ratio values among three of four patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with VPS35 p.D620N showed distinctive symptoms and neuroimaging. Our findings expand the clinical findings of patients with VPS35 variants.

14.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631794

RESUMO

Inactivation of constitutive autophagy results in the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions in neurons, but the relationship between impaired autophagy and Lewy bodies (LBs) remains unknown. α-Synuclein and p62, components of LBs, are the defining characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD). Until now, we have analyzed mice models and demonstrated p62 aggregates derived from an autophagic defect might serve as 'seeds' and can potentially be cause of LBs formation. P62 may be the key molecule for aggregate formation. To understand the mechanisms of LBs, we analyzed p62 homeostasis and inclusions formation using PD model mice. In PARK22-linked PD, intrinsically disordered mutant CHCHD2 initiates Lewy pathology. To determine the function of CHCHD2 for inclusions formation, we generated Chchd2-knockout (KO) mice and characterised the age-related pathological and motor phenotypes. Chchd2 KO mice exhibited p62 inclusion formation and dopaminergic neuronal loss in an age-dependent manner. These changes were associated with a reduction in mitochondria complex activity and abrogation of inner mitochondria structure. In particular, the OPA1 proteins, which regulate fusion of mitochondrial inner membranes, were immature in the mitochondria of CHCHD2 deficient mice. CHCHD2 regulates mitochondrial morphology and p62 homeostasis by controlling the level of OPA1. Our findings highlight the unexpected role of the homeostatic level of p62, which is regulated by a non-autophagic system, in controlling intracellular inclusion body formation, and indicate that the pathologic processes associated with the mitochondrial proteolytic system are crucial for loss of DA neurones.

15.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247443, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and olfactory dysfunction are useful for early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). RBD and severe olfactory dysfunction are also regarded as risk factors for cognitive impairment in PD. This study aimed to assess the associations between RBD, olfactory function, and clinical symptoms in patients with PD. METHODS: The participants were 404 patients with non-demented PD. Probable RBD (pRBD) was determined using the Japanese version of the RBD screening questionnaire (RBDSQ-J) and the RBD Single-Question Screen (RBD1Q). Olfactory function was evaluated using the odor identification test for Japanese. Clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Movement Disorder Society Revision of the Unified PD Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) parts I-IV. RESULTS: In total, 134 (33.2%) patients indicated a history of pRBD as determined by the RBD1Q and 136 (33.7%) by the RBDSQ-J based on a cutoff value of 6 points. Moreover, 101 patients were diagnosed as pRBD by both questionnaires, 35 by the RBDSQ-J only, and 33 by the RBD1Q only. The MDS-UPDRS parts I-III scores were significantly higher and disease duration significantly longer in the pRBD group. pRBD was significantly associated with male gender and the MDS-UPDRS part I score. The olfactory identification function was significantly reduced in the pRBD group. CONCLUSIONS: About 33% of the patients with PD had pRBD based on the questionnaires, and both motor and non-motor functions were significantly decreased in these patients. These results suggest that more extensive degeneration occurred in patients with non-demented PD with RBD.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389184

RESUMO

Dystonia is an abnormal involuntary movement or posture owing to sustained or intermittent muscle contraction. Standard treatment for dystonia includes medications, such as levodopa, anticholinergic and antiepileptic drugs, botulinum toxin, and baclofen pump, and surgeries, such as lesioning surgery and deep-brain stimulation. New treatment modalities aimed toward improving dystonia care in the future are under investigation. There are two main axes to improve dystonia care; one is non-invasive neuromodulation, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial electrical stimulation, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. The other is a quantitative evaluation of dystonia using a wearable device and motion-capturing system, which can be empowered by artificial intelligence. In this article, the current status of these axes will be reviewed.

17.
Neuroradiology ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481071

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate whether Parkinson's disease (PD) can be differentiated from healthy controls and to identify neural circuit disorders in PD by applying a deep learning technique to parameter-weighted and number of streamlines (NOS)-based structural connectome matrices calculated from diffusion-weighted MRI. METHODS: In this prospective study, 115 PD patients and 115 healthy controls were enrolled. NOS-based and parameter-weighted connectome matrices were calculated from MRI images obtained with a 3-T MRI unit. With 5-fold cross-validation, diagnostic performance of convolutional neural network (CNN) models using those connectome matrices in differentiating patients with PD from healthy controls was evaluated. To identify the important brain connections for diagnosing PD, gradient-weighted class activation mapping (Grad-CAM) was applied to the trained CNN models. RESULTS: CNN models based on some parameter-weighted structural matrices (diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI)-weighted, neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI)-weighted, and g-ratio-weighted connectome matrices) showed moderate performance (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) = 0.895, 0.801, and 0.836, respectively) in discriminating PD patients from healthy controls. The DKI-weighted connectome matrix performed significantly better than the conventional NOS-based matrix (AUC = 0.761) (DeLong's test, p < 0.0001). Alterations of neural connections between the basal ganglia and cerebellum were indicated by applying Grad-CAM to the NODDI- and g-ratio-weighted matrices. CONCLUSION: Patients with PD can be differentiated from healthy controls by applying the deep learning technique to the parameter-weighted connectome matrices, and neural circuit disorders including those between the basal ganglia on one side and the cerebellum on the contralateral side were visualized.

18.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 83: 49-53, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476877

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Perry disease (Perry syndrome), a hereditary TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) proteinopathy, is caused by dynactin subunit 1 (DCNT1) mutations and is characterized by rapidly progressive parkinsonism accompanied by depression, apathy, unexpected weight loss, and respiratory symptoms including central hypoventilation and central sleep apnea. Meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy is considered a diagnostic biomarker for Lewy body disease (LBD), as denervation of cardiac sympathetic nerves is a pathological feature in LBD. However, our previous studies have reported a decreased cardiac uptake of MIBG in patients with Perry disease. In this study, we aimed to correlate the MIBG myocardial scintigraphy findings with clinical features in Perry disease. METHODS: We evaluated data obtained from a multicenter survey of patients of Japanese origin with suspected Perry disease, who visited neurology departments in Japan from January 2010 to December 2018. We screened each patient's DNA for the DCTN1 mutation using Sanger sequencing and obtained the clinical details of all patients including findings from their MIBG myocardial scintigraphy. RESULTS: We identified two novel mutations, p.G71V and p.K68E, in DCTN1 in patients from two different families. The majority of patients (7/8, 87.5%) showed a decrease in cardiac uptake (heart to mediastinum ratio) in MIBG myocardial scintigraphy. These patients commonly presented with symptoms related to autonomic dysfunction: constipation, fecal incontinence, urinary disturbance, and orthostatic hypotension. CONCLUSIONS: MIBG myocardial scintigraphy may be a useful biomarker of autonomic dysfunction in Perry disease.

19.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 83: 105-109, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497892

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A dopamine agonist patch could be an important treatment option for Parkinson's disease. This study evaluated the long-term efficacy and safety of the ropinirole hydrochloride patch. The steady state plasma ropinirole concentration was also assessed. METHODS: In a multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled study, Parkinson's disease patients with/without basal levodopa and with/without prior dopamine agonist therapy (any of these four regimens) received application of a ropinirole patch once daily for up to 52 weeks with unforced titration from 8 to 64 mg. For patients with prior dopamine agonist therapy, the initial dose of ropinirole patch was determined from the prior dopamine agonist dose by using a conversion table. RESULTS: Most adverse events were mild or moderate. All application site adverse events were mild, except for moderate application site erythema in one patient. In patients with prior dopamine agonist therapy, switching to ropinirole patch did not lead to a significant early increase of adverse events. A change from baseline in the UPDRS Part III total score, the primary efficacy endpoint, showed improvement until Week 16 compared with baseline, followed by little subsequent change until Week 52, indicating maintenance of efficacy. The plasma ropinirole concentration was at steady state throughout the study period and showed a dose-proportional increase. CONCLUSION: Once-daily application of ropinirole patch showed long-term efficacy and safety (52 weeks) for Parkinson's disease. Switching from other dopamine agonists to ropinirole patch was effective and safe. The plasma ropinirole concentration was at steady state throughout the study period and showed a dose-proportional increase.

20.
Ann Nutr Metab ; : 1-3, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406517
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