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1.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(9): 1093-1101, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451768

RESUMO

Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase functions in two multiprotein complexes: lysosomal mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2 at the plasma membrane. mTORC1 modulates the cell response to growth factors and nutrients by increasing protein synthesis and cell growth, and repressing the autophagy-lysosomal pathway1-4; however, dysfunction in mTORC1 is implicated in various diseases3,5,6. mTORC1 activity is regulated by phosphoinositide lipids7-10. Class I phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated production of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate6,11 at the plasma membrane stimulates mTORC1 signalling, while local synthesis of phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate by starvation-induced recruitment of class II PI3K-ß (PI3KC2-ß) to lysosomes represses mTORC1 activity12. How the localization and activity of PI3KC2-ß are regulated by mitogens is unknown. We demonstrate that protein kinase N (PKN) facilitates mTORC1 signalling by repressing PI3KC2-ß-mediated phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate synthesis downstream of mTORC2. Active PKN2 phosphorylates PI3KC2-ß to trigger PI3KC2-ß complex formation with inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins. Conversely, loss of PKN2 or inactivation of its target phosphorylation site in PI3KC2-ß represses nutrient signalling via mTORC1. These results uncover a mechanism that couples mTORC2-dependent activation of PKN2 to the regulation of mTORC1-mediated nutrient signalling by local lipid signals.

2.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 47(4): 1173-1185, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383818

RESUMO

Lysosomes are the main degradative compartments of mammalian cells and serve as platforms for cellular nutrient signaling and sterol transport. The diverse functions of lysosomes and their adaptation to extracellular and intracellular cues are tightly linked to the spatiotemporally controlled synthesis, turnover and interconversion of lysosomal phosphoinositides, minor phospholipids that define membrane identity and couple membrane dynamics to cell signaling. How precisely lysosomal phosphoinositides act and which effector proteins within the lysosome membrane or at the lysosomal surface recognize them is only now beginning to emerge. Importantly, mutations in phosphoinositide metabolizing enzyme cause lysosomal dysfunction and are associated with numerous diseases ranging from neurodegeneration to cancer. Here, we discuss the phosphoinositides and phosphoinositide metabolizing enzymes implicated in lysosome function and homeostasis and outline perspectives for future research.

3.
Cell Rep ; 27(10): 3049-3061.e6, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167147

RESUMO

Adaptor protein 2 (AP2) is a major constituent of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). Whether it is essential for all forms of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in mammalian cells is an open issue. Here, we demonstrate, by live TIRF microscopy, the existence of a subclass of relatively short-lived CCPs lacking AP2 under physiological, unperturbed conditions. This subclass is retained in AP2-knockout cells and is able to support the internalization of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) but not of transferrin receptor (TfR). The AP2-independent internalization mechanism relies on the endocytic adaptors eps15, eps15L1, and epsin1. The absence of AP2 impairs the recycling of the EGFR to the cell surface, thereby augmenting its degradation. Accordingly, under conditions of AP2 ablation, we detected dampening of EGFR-dependent AKT signaling and cell migration, arguing that distinct classes of CCPs could provide specialized functions in regulating EGFR recycling and signaling.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1060-1072, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104773

RESUMO

The developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) are heterogeneous disorders with a strong genetic contribution, but the underlying genetic etiology remains unknown in a significant proportion of individuals. To explore whether statistical support for genetic etiologies can be generated on the basis of phenotypic features, we analyzed whole-exome sequencing data and phenotypic similarities by using Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) in 314 individuals with DEEs. We identified a de novo c.508C>T (p.Arg170Trp) variant in AP2M1 in two individuals with a phenotypic similarity that was higher than expected by chance (p = 0.003) and a phenotype related to epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures. We subsequently found the same de novo variant in two individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and generalized epilepsy in a cohort of 2,310 individuals who underwent diagnostic whole-exome sequencing. AP2M1 encodes the µ-subunit of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2), which is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and synaptic vesicle recycling. Modeling of protein dynamics indicated that the p.Arg170Trp variant impairs the conformational activation and thermodynamic entropy of the AP-2 complex. Functional complementation of both the µ-subunit carrying the p.Arg170Trp variant in human cells and astrocytes derived from AP-2µ conditional knockout mice revealed a significant impairment of CME of transferrin. In contrast, stability, expression levels, membrane recruitment, and localization were not impaired, suggesting a functional alteration of the AP-2 complex as the underlying disease mechanism. We establish a recurrent pathogenic variant in AP2M1 as a cause of DEEs with distinct phenotypic features, and we implicate dysfunction of the early steps of endocytosis as a disease mechanism in epilepsy.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6768, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043663

RESUMO

The Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is essential for normal electrical conductance in the heart, but its role in the postnatal brain is largely unknown. Using brain specific CAR knockout mice (KO), we discovered an unexpected role of CAR in neuronal communication. This includes increased basic synaptic transmission at hippocampal Schaffer collaterals, resistance to fatigue, and enhanced long-term potentiation. Spontaneous neurotransmitter release and speed of endocytosis are increased in KOs, accompanied by increased expression of the exocytosis associated calcium sensor synaptotagmin 2. Using proximity proteomics and binding studies, we link CAR to the exocytosis machinery as it associates with syntenin and synaptobrevin/VAMP2 at the synapse. Increased synaptic function does not cause adverse effects in KO mice, as behavior and learning are unaffected. Thus, unlike the connexin-dependent suppression of atrioventricular conduction in the cardiac knockout, communication in the CAR deficient brain is improved, suggesting a role for CAR in presynaptic processes.

6.
PLoS Genet ; 15(4): e1008088, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034465

RESUMO

PIK3C2A is a class II member of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family that catalyzes the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) into PI(3)P and the phosphorylation of PI(4)P into PI(3,4)P2. At the cellular level, PIK3C2A is critical for the formation of cilia and for receptor mediated endocytosis, among other biological functions. We identified homozygous loss-of-function mutations in PIK3C2A in children from three independent consanguineous families with short stature, coarse facial features, cataracts with secondary glaucoma, multiple skeletal abnormalities, neurological manifestations, among other findings. Cellular studies of patient-derived fibroblasts found that they lacked PIK3C2A protein, had impaired cilia formation and function, and demonstrated reduced proliferative capacity. Collectively, the genetic and molecular data implicate mutations in PIK3C2A in a new Mendelian disorder of PI metabolism, thereby shedding light on the critical role of a class II PI3K in growth, vision, skeletal formation and neurological development. In particular, the considerable phenotypic overlap, yet distinct features, between this syndrome and Lowe's syndrome, which is caused by mutations in the PI-5-phosphatase OCRL, highlight the key role of PI metabolizing enzymes in specific developmental processes and demonstrate the unique non-redundant functions of each enzyme. This discovery expands what is known about disorders of PI metabolism and helps unravel the role of PIK3C2A and class II PI3Ks in health and disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Catarata/genética , Transtornos da Motilidade Ciliar/genética , Nanismo/genética , Mutação , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Structure ; 27(6): 977-987.e5, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031201

RESUMO

The scaffolding protein intersectin 1 plays important roles in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and in the replenishment of release-ready synaptic vesicles (SV). Two splice variants of intersectin's SH3A domain are expressed in the brain, and association of the neuron-specific variant with synapsin I has been shown to enable sustained neurotransmission and to be regulated by an adjacent C-terminal motif. Here, we demonstrate that the ubiquitously expressed short SH3A variant of intersectin 1 interacts with an N-terminal intramolecular sequence that operates synergistically with the C-terminal motif. NMR spectroscopic investigations show that the five-amino acid insertion into the ß strand 2 of the neuronal SH3A variant introduces conformational plasticity incompatible with binding of the N-terminal sequence. The difference in the autoregulatory mechanism of the domain's variants differentially affects its synaptic binding partners, thereby establishing alternative splicing in conjunction with autoinhibitory motif variation as a mechanism to regulate protein interaction networks.

8.
Nat Chem Biol ; 15(6): 641-649, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011214

RESUMO

Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a highly conserved and essential cellular process in eukaryotic cells, but its dynamic and vital nature makes it challenging to study using classical genetics tools. In contrast, although small molecules can acutely and reversibly perturb CME, the few chemical CME inhibitors that have been applied to plants are either ineffective or show undesirable side effects. Here, we identify the previously described endosidin9 (ES9) as an inhibitor of clathrin heavy chain (CHC) function in both Arabidopsis and human cells through affinity-based target isolation, in vitro binding studies and X-ray crystallography. Moreover, we present a chemically improved ES9 analog, ES9-17, which lacks the undesirable side effects of ES9 while retaining the ability to target CHC. ES9 and ES9-17 have expanded the chemical toolbox used to probe CHC function, and present chemical scaffolds for further design of more specific and potent CHC inhibitors across different systems.


Assuntos
Derivados de Benzeno/farmacologia , Cadeias Pesadas de Clatrina/antagonistas & inibidores , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis , Derivados de Benzeno/química , Cadeias Pesadas de Clatrina/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Tiofenos/farmacologia
9.
Curr Opin Cell Biol ; 59: 50-57, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029845

RESUMO

Phosphoinositides (PIs) and their spatiotemporally controlled production, turnover, and interconversion is catalyzed by specific PI phosphatases and kinases and their regulators to allow rapid switching of subcompartmental PI identity. Recent studies have begun to decipher such PI switches at the molecular level and to unravel their physiological functions in endocytosis and endolysosomal membrane dynamics as well as in the control of autophagy and nutrient signaling at late endosomes/lysosomes. In this review, we summarize recent conceptual progress in the field and outline remaining perspectives and challenges for future research. As dysfunctional PI switches underlie a growing number of developmental disturbances and diseases, understanding how PI switches control endocytosis and endolysosomal function may serve to delineate new avenues for potential drug-based therapies to combat these disorders.

10.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4849, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451841

RESUMO

Myotubular myopathy (MTM) is a severe X-linked disease without existing therapies. Here, we show that tamoxifen ameliorates MTM-related histopathological and functional abnormalities in mice, and nearly doubles survival. The beneficial effects of tamoxifen are mediated primarily via estrogen receptor signaling, as demonstrated through in vitro studies and in vivo phenotypic rescue with estradiol. RNA sequencing and protein expression analyses revealed that rescue is mediated in part through post-transcriptional reduction of dynamin-2, a known MTM modifier. These findings demonstrate an unexpected ability of tamoxifen to improve the murine MTM phenotype, providing preclinical evidence to support clinical translation.

11.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462278

RESUMO

Locked nucleic acid based antisense oligonucleotides (LNA-ASOs) can reach their intracellular RNA targets without delivery modules. Functional cellular uptake involves vesicular accumulation followed by translocation to the cytosol and nucleus. However, it is yet unknown how many LNA-ASO molecules need to be delivered to achieve target knock down. Here we show by quantitative fluorescence imaging combined with LNA-ASO microinjection into the cytosol or unassisted uptake that ∼105 molecules produce >50% knock down of their targets, indicating that a substantial amount of LNA-ASO escapes from endosomes. Microinjected LNA-ASOs redistributed within minutes from the cytosol to the nucleus and remained bound to nuclear components. Together with the fact that RNA levels for a given target are several orders of magnitude lower than the amounts of LNA-ASO, our data indicate that only a minor fraction is available for RNase H1 mediated reduction of target RNA. When non-specific binding sites were blocked by co-administration of non-related LNA-ASOs, the amount of target LNA-ASO required was reduced by an order of magnitude. Therefore, dynamic processes within the nucleus appear to influence the distribution and activity of LNA-ASOs and may represent important parameters for improving their efficacy and potency.

12.
J Cell Sci ; 131(17)2018 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177505

RESUMO

Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is an essential cellular mechanism by which all eukaryotic cells regulate their plasma membrane composition to control processes ranging from cell signaling to adhesion, migration and morphogenesis. The formation of endocytic vesicles and tubules involves extensive protein-mediated remodeling of the plasma membrane that is organized in space and time by protein-protein and protein-phospholipid interactions. Recent studies combining high-resolution imaging with genetic manipulations of the endocytic machinery and with theoretical approaches have led to novel multifaceted phenomenological data of the temporal and spatial organization of the endocytic reaction. This gave rise to various - often conflicting - models as to how endocytic proteins and their association with lipids regulate the endocytic protein choreography to reshape the plasma membrane. In this Review, we discuss these findings in light of the hypothesis that endocytic membrane remodeling may be determined by an interplay between protein-protein interactions, the ability of proteins to generate and sense membrane curvature, and the ability of lipids to stabilize and reinforce the generated membrane shape through adopting their lateral distribution to the local membrane curvature.

13.
Cell ; 175(1): 239-253.e17, 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30197081

RESUMO

Many disease-causing missense mutations affect intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) of proteins, but the molecular mechanism of their pathogenicity is enigmatic. Here, we employ a peptide-based proteomic screen to investigate the impact of mutations in IDRs on protein-protein interactions. We find that mutations in disordered cytosolic regions of three transmembrane proteins (GLUT1, ITPR1, and CACNA1H) lead to an increased clathrin binding. All three mutations create dileucine motifs known to mediate clathrin-dependent trafficking. Follow-up experiments on GLUT1 (SLC2A1), the glucose transporter causative of GLUT1 deficiency syndrome, revealed that the mutated protein mislocalizes to intracellular compartments. Mutant GLUT1 interacts with adaptor proteins (APs) in vitro, and knocking down AP-2 reverts the cellular mislocalization and restores glucose transport. A systematic analysis of other known disease-causing variants revealed a significant and specific overrepresentation of gained dileucine motifs in structurally disordered cytosolic domains of transmembrane proteins. Thus, several mutations in disordered regions appear to cause "dileucineopathies."

14.
Neuron ; 99(6): 1216-1232.e7, 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174114

RESUMO

Nervous system function relies on the polarized architecture of neurons, established by directional transport of pre- and postsynaptic cargoes. While delivery of postsynaptic components depends on the secretory pathway, the identity of the membrane compartment(s) supplying presynaptic active zone (AZ) and synaptic vesicle (SV) proteins is unclear. Live imaging in Drosophila larvae and mouse hippocampal neurons provides evidence that presynaptic biogenesis depends on axonal co-transport of SV and AZ proteins in presynaptic lysosome-related vesicles (PLVs). Loss of the lysosomal kinesin adaptor Arl8 results in the accumulation of SV- and AZ-protein-containing vesicles in neuronal cell bodies and a corresponding depletion of SV and AZ components from presynaptic sites, leading to impaired neurotransmission. Conversely, presynaptic function is facilitated upon overexpression of Arl8. Our data reveal an unexpected function for a lysosome-related organelle as an important building block for presynaptic biogenesis.

15.
Nat Cell Biol ; 20(9): 994-995, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30154561
16.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1847: 51-64, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30129009

RESUMO

Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a universal and evolutionarily conserved process that enables the internalization of numerous cargo proteins, including receptors for nutrients and signaling molecules, as well as synaptic vesicle reformation. Multiple genetic and chemical approaches have been developed to interfere with this process. However, many of these tools do not selectively block CME, for example by targeting components shared with clathrin-independent endocytosis pathways or by interfering with other cellular processes that indirectly affect CME.Clathrin, via interactions of endocytic proteins with its terminal domain (TD), serves as a central interaction hub for coat assembly in CME. Here, we describe an ELISA-based, high-throughput screening method used to identify small molecules that inhibit these interactions. In addition, we provide protocols for the purification of recombinant protein domains used for screening, e.g., the clathrin TD and the amphiphysin B/C domain. The screen has been applied successfully in the past, and ultimately led to the discovery of the Pitstop® family of inhibitors, but remains in use to evaluate the inhibitory potency of derivatives of these compounds, and to screen for completely novel inhibitor families.

17.
Mol Cell ; 71(2): 343-351.e4, 2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029007

RESUMO

Class II phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K-C2) are large multidomain enzymes that control cellular functions ranging from membrane dynamics to cell signaling via synthesis of 3'-phosphorylated phosphoinositides. Activity of the alpha isoform (PI3K-C2α) is associated with endocytosis, angiogenesis, and glucose metabolism. How PI3K-C2α activity is controlled at sites of endocytosis remains largely enigmatic. Here we show that the lipid-binding PX-C2 module unique to class II PI3Ks autoinhibits kinase activity in solution but is essential for full enzymatic activity at PtdIns(4,5)P2-rich membranes. Using HDX-MS, we show that the PX-C2 module folds back onto the kinase domain, inhibiting its basal activity. Destabilization of this intramolecular contact increases PI3K-C2α activity in vitro and in cells, leading to accumulation of its lipid product, increased recruitment of the endocytic effector SNX9, and facilitated endocytosis. Our studies uncover a regulatory mechanism in which coincident binding of phosphoinositide substrate and cofactor selectively activate PI3K-C2α at sites of endocytosis.

18.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0193257, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617365

RESUMO

Inhibition of the phospholipid phosphatase and tumor suppressor PTEN leads to excessive polarized cell growth during directed cell migration and neurite outgrowth. These processes require the precise regulation of both the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. While PTEN is known to regulate actin dynamics through phospholipid modulation, whether and how PTEN regulates microtubule dynamics is unknown. Here, we show that depletion of PTEN leads to elevated levels of stable and post-translationally modified (detyrosinated) microtubules in fibroblasts and developing neurons. Further, PTEN depletion enhanced axon outgrowth, which was rescued by reducing the level of detyrosinated microtubules. These data demonstrate a novel role of PTEN in regulating the microtubule cytoskeleton. They further show a novel function of detyrosinated microtubules in axon outgrowth. Specifically, PTEN suppresses axon outgrowth by down-regulating the level of detyrosinated microtubules. Our results suggest that PTEN's role in preventing excessive cell growth in cancerous and neurodevelopmental phenotypes is partially exerted by stabilization and detyrosination of the microtubule cytoskeleton.


Assuntos
Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Crescimento Neuronal , Neurônios/citologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Tirosina/metabolismo , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Neurônios/metabolismo
19.
Curr Opin Neurobiol ; 48: 153-159, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29316491

RESUMO

Neuronal signaling depends on the exocytic fusion and subsequent endocytic retrieval and reformation of neurotransmitter-containing synaptic vesicles at synapses. Recent findings have uncovered surprising roles of presynaptic endocytic proteins in the formation and transport of autophagosomes. These include functions of the membrane remodelling protein endophilin and its downstream effector, the phosphoinositide phosphatase synaptojanin, in autophagosome formation and in Parkinson's disease, the endocytic sorting adaptor CALM in protein degradation via the autophagy/lysosomal pathway in Alzheimer's disease, and the clathrin adaptor complex AP-2 in retrograde transport of signaling autophagosomes to prevent neurodegeneration. These findings reveal unanticipated connections between the machineries for synaptic neurotransmission and neuronal proteostasis and identify presynaptic endocytic proteins as potential targets to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

20.
J Biol Chem ; 293(5): 1526-1535, 2018 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29282290

RESUMO

Phosphoinositides (PIs) are phospholipids that perform crucial cell functions, ranging from cell migration and signaling to membrane trafficking, by serving as signposts of compartmental membrane identity. Although phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, 3-phosphate, and 3,5-bisphosphate are commonly considered as hallmarks of the plasma membrane, endosomes, and lysosomes, these compartments contain other functionally important PIs. Here, we review the roles of PIs in different compartments of the endolysosomal system in mammalian cells and discuss the mechanisms that spatiotemporally control PI conversion in endocytosis and endolysosomal membrane dynamics during endosome maturation and sorting. As defective PI conversion underlies human genetic diseases, including inherited myopathies, neurological disorders, and cancer, PI-converting enzymes represent potential targets for drug-based therapies.


Assuntos
Endocitose/fisiologia , Endossomos/fisiologia , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Proteínas ras/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos
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