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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(2): 1145-1154, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400865

RESUMO

Very-short- (vSCCPs, C6-9), short- (SCCPs, C10-13), medium- (MCCPs, C14-17), and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (LCCPs, C>17) were analyzed in indoor air and dust collected from the living rooms and personal 24 h air of 61 adults from a Norwegian cohort. Relatively volatile CPs, i.e., vSCCPs and SCCPs, showed a greater tendency to partition from settled indoor dust to paired stationary indoor air from the same living rooms than MCCPs and LCCPs, with median logarithmic dust-air partition ratios of 1.3, 2.9, 4.1, and 5.4, respectively. Using the stationary indoor air and settled indoor dust concentrations, the combined median daily exposures to vSCCPs, SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs were estimated to be 0.074, 2.7, 0.93, and 0.095 ng/kg bw/d, respectively. Inhalation was the predominant exposure pathway for vSCCPs (median 99%) and SCCPs (59%), while dust ingestion was the predominant exposure pathway for MCCPs (75%) and LCCPs (95%). The estimated inhalation exposure to total CPs was ∼ 5 times higher when the personal 24 h air results were used rather than the corresponding stationary indoor air results in 13 paired samples, indicating that exposure situations other than living rooms contributed significantly to the overall personal exposure. The 95th percentile exposure for CPs did not exceed the reference dose.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314561

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Limited research has focused on the association between prenatal thyroid hormone replacement therapy (THRT) and motor function, communication skills, and behavior in preschool children. Here, we estimated the association between THRT during pregnancy and the first trimester and these developmental outcomes. METHODS: This study was based on the Norwegian Mother, Father, and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and other national registries. We included mother-child pairs exposed to THRT during pregnancy (n = 663), after delivery (n = 728), or unexposed (n = 28 040). Exposure to THRT was defined according to filled prescriptions. Child outcomes, presented as T-score differences, were parent-reported using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and Child Behavior Checklist. RESULTS: Of 29 431 mother-child pairs, 2.3% were prenatally exposed to THRT. We found no difference between prenatally exposed and unexposed children in regards to gross motor function (ß: 0.17, 95% CI -1.19, 1.54), fine motor function (ß: -0.17, 95% CI -1.14, 0.80), communication (ß: -0.31, 95% CI -1.58, 0.96), externalizing (ß: -0.03, 95% CI -1.07, 1.01), internalizing (ß: 0.89, 95% CI -0.20, 1.97), or social behaviors (ß: -0.04, 95% CI -0.92, 0.84). Somatic complaints were higher in THRT-exposed children (ß: 0.98, 95% CI 0.08, 1.87), and children whose mothers were exposed after delivery had more sleep problems than unexposed children (ß: 0.99, 95% CI 0.24, 1.74). CONCLUSIONS: Children prenatally exposed to THRT have developmental outcomes as positive as unexposed children on motor function, communication, and behavior. The association with somatic complaints and sleep were not clinically relevant.

3.
EFSA J ; 18(9): e06223, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994824

RESUMO

The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific evaluation on the risks to human health related to the presence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in food. Based on several similar effects in animals, toxicokinetics and observed concentrations in human blood, the CONTAM Panel decided to perform the assessment for the sum of four PFASs: PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and PFOS. These made up half of the lower bound (LB) exposure to those PFASs with available occurrence data, the remaining contribution being primarily from PFASs with short half-lives. Equal potencies were assumed for the four PFASs included in the assessment. The mean LB exposure in adolescents and adult age groups ranged from 3 to 22, the 95th percentile from 9 to 70 ng/kg body weight (bw) per week. Toddlers and 'other children' showed a twofold higher exposure. Upper bound exposure was 4- to 49-fold higher than LB levels, but the latter were considered more reliable. 'Fish meat', 'Fruit and fruit products' and 'Eggs and egg products' contributed most to the exposure. Based on available studies in animals and humans, effects on the immune system were considered the most critical for the risk assessment. From a human study, a lowest BMDL 10 of 17.5 ng/mL for the sum of the four PFASs in serum was identified for 1-year-old children. Using PBPK modelling, this serum level of 17.5 ng/mL in children was estimated to correspond to long-term maternal exposure of 0.63 ng/kg bw per day. Since accumulation over time is important, a tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 4.4 ng/kg bw per week was established. This TWI also protects against other potential adverse effects observed in humans. Based on the estimated LB exposure, but also reported serum levels, the CONTAM Panel concluded that parts of the European population exceed this TWI, which is of concern.

4.
Environ Sci Technol Lett ; 7(3): 198-205, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32953926

RESUMO

Up to 18000 ng of total chlorinated paraffins (CPs) was found in hand wipes of individual adult participants in a Norwegian cohort study (n = 60), with a geometric mean (SD) value of 870 (2700) ng. The CPs covered a wide range of alkane chain lengths from C7 to C48 with variable chlorine substitution. Complex mixtures of very-short-chain (vSCCPs, C<10), short-chain (SCCPs, C10-13), medium-chain (MCCPs, C14-17), and long-chain (LCCPs, C>17) CPs were found, contributing on average 0.3%, 20%, 58%, and 22%, respectively, of the total CPs. Significant positive correlations were found between CP levels and factors related to the indoor environment and product use, including living in a house/apartment built before the ban of SCCPs, having a sofa, the number of TVs in the home, and owning a car, which mirrors CP usage as flame retardants and/or plasticizers in consumer products. Compared to previous studies of other organic contaminants in hand wipe samples from the same cohort, CPs were the most abundant flame retardants. This is the first report of CPs in hand wipes, and dermal exposure based on these data suggested that hand contact could be an important human exposure pathway for LCCPs.

5.
Hepatology ; 72(5): 1758-1770, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are widespread and persistent pollutants that have been shown to have hepatotoxic effects in animal models. However, human evidence is scarce. We evaluated how prenatal exposure to PFAS associates with established serum biomarkers of liver injury and alterations in serum metabolome in children. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We used data from 1,105 mothers and their children (median age, 8.2 years; interquartile range, 6.6-9.1) from the European Human Early-Life Exposome cohort (consisting of six existing population-based birth cohorts in France, Greece, Lithuania, Norway, Spain, and the United Kingdom). We measured concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate, perfluorononanoate, perfluorohexane sulfonate, and perfluoroundecanoate in maternal blood. We assessed concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase in child serum. Using Bayesian kernel machine regression, we found that higher exposure to PFAS during pregnancy was associated with higher liver enzyme levels in children. We also measured child serum metabolomics through a targeted assay and found significant perturbations in amino acid and glycerophospholipid metabolism associated with prenatal PFAS. A latent variable analysis identified a profile of children at high risk of liver injury (odds ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.92) that was characterized by high prenatal exposure to PFAS and increased serum levels of branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine), aromatic amino acids (tryptophan and phenylalanine), and glycerophospholipids (phosphatidylcholine [PC] aa C36:1 and Lyso-PC a C18:1). CONCLUSIONS: Developmental exposure to PFAS can contribute to pediatric liver injury.

6.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 229: 113593, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801111

RESUMO

Dechloranes, like Dechlorane Plus® are commonly used flame retardants identified by the EU as substances of very high concern (SVHC) because of their persistence and bioaccumulation potential. To characterize the dechlorane exposure of Germans in the last two decades, 180 archived blood plasma samples of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (students aged 20-29 years) collected at six time points between 1995 and 2017 were analyzed for four dechloranes; namely Dechlorane Plus® (syn- and anti-DDC-CO), dechlorane 602 (DDC-DBF), and dechlorane 603 (DDC-Ant). These were quantified using a GC-MS/MS method. Overall, anti- and syn-DDC-CO were detected in 88% and 98% of the samples, whereas DDC-DBF and DDC-Ant were found in 40% and 37% of the samples, respectively. The median (95th percentile) values were 1.0 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.) (3.0 ng/g l.w.). for anti-DDC-CO, 0.6 ng/g l.w (1.9 ng/g l.w.). for syn-DDC-CO, 0.1 ng/g l.w (0.6 ng/g l.w.). for DDC-DBF, and 0.1 ng/g l.w (0.2 ng/g l.w.). for DDC-Ant. The 95th percentile concentrations of the sum of syn- and anti-DDC-CO decreased from 4.2 ng/g l.w. in 1995, to 2.9 ng/g l.w. in 1999, and subsequently increased to 3.7 ng/g l.w. in 2008, and up to 5.9 ng/g l.w. in 2017. A statistically significant decrease with time was observed for DDC-DBF and DDC-Ant, but not for DDC-CO. Our medians found in blood samples in 2017 are similar to those observed in Germany in 2013/14, but higher compared to values reported in other European countries. Overall, more toxicological and monitoring data is needed to better characterize the potential impact on health.

7.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 224: 113430, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978727

RESUMO

Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in buildings constructed with PCB-containing materials can lead to increased body burden of PCB for building users. Exposure to PCB from building related sources was assessed by measuring PCB in serum and hand wipes in two groups of tenants living in the same building estate in apartments constructed with and without PCB. The median serum levels of the sum of 19 PCB congeners was 777 ng/g lw (5-95th percentile: 219-2576 ng/g lw) for the exposed group and 282 ng/g lw (5-95th percentile: 49.8-797 ng/g lw) for the reference group. The congener pattern in serum of the exposed was shifted towards lower chlorinated congeners and was dominated by tri- and tetrachlorinated congeners. The largest difference in serum levels between the groups was observed for PCB-28, with median levels of the exposed being 70 times higher than in the reference group. For very persistent lower chlorinated congeners, like PCB-28, 66 and 74, an increase with residence times was observed as a result of accumulation over time. Less persistent congeners such as PCB-44 and 70 were also elevated in the exposed group -but independent of residence time. The less persistent congeners can therefore be used as markers of recent exposure to original PCB sources. The hand wipes also showed a large exposure contrast, e.g. PCB-28 being more than 60 times higher in the exposed group compared to the reference group (medians 14.4 and 0.23 ng/wipe, respectively) and no overlap between the groups. All measured di- to pentaPCB congeners were significantly higher in hand wipes from the exposed group compared with the reference group. Thus hand wipes seem to be a good, non-invasive screening tool for ongoing indoor exposure to PCB. Furthermore, the measured level of PCB on hand wipes was significantly correlated to PCB in blood for almost all congeners. In conclusion, PCB exposure in contaminated buildings can contribute significantly to the exposure and total body burden of PCB and the lower chlorinated congeners can make up the majority of the total PCB body burden.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Monitoramento Ambiental , Habitação , Humanos
8.
Environ Int ; 134: 105244, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711019

RESUMO

Exposure to PFASs may result in adverse health effects. This study aimed to characterise the exposure to PFASs from diet, house dust, indoor air, and dermal contact and the relative contribution from different external exposure pathways to human serum concentrations. Daily intakes of 18 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and 12 PFAA precursors from diet, dust ingestion, inhalation of indoor air and dermal absorption were estimated using a comprehensive dataset comprising 61 adults from the Oslo area, Norway. Concentrations of PFAAs and PFAA precursors in house dust, indoor air, hand wipes, foods and drinks were utilised to estimate the daily intakes. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant PFAS in serum for this study group. On a median level, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) contributed most to the total estimated daily intake of PFAAs, with a median intake of 280 (range: 72-1810) pg·kg bw-1·day-1, covering both direct and indirect (precursors) exposure. Out of this, only 3% (range: <1-48%) of the total PFOA intake came from indirect exposure. Dietary exposure from ingestion of food and drinks was in general the predominant exposure pathway, followed by exposure from ingestion of house dust, inhalation of indoor air, and dermal absorption, but considerable variations were observed among individuals. House dust ingestion and indoor air inhalation contributed most to the total intakes for some participants, for which most of them were among the 20% participants with the highest total estimated intakes. Some statistical significant associations between concentrations of PFASs measured in serum and estimated intakes were observed. Measured serum concentrations and modelled serum concentrations based on external exposure estimates were in the same order of magnitude for PFOS, PFHxS, PFOA, and PFNA, but only PFOA concentrations were comparable, 1.9 and 2.0 ng mL-1 for observed and modelled serum concentrations, respectively. The estimated daily intakes of PFASs in this study were lower than the health-based guidance values, e.g. the tolerable weekly intakes derived by EFSA. This study underlines the importance of performing studies considering multiple exposure pathways on an individual basis.


Assuntos
Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poeira , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais , Humanos , Noruega
9.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(10): 107005, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women and children are especially vulnerable to exposures to food contaminants, and a balanced diet during these periods is critical for optimal nutritional status. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to study the association between diet and measured blood and urinary levels of environmental contaminants in mother-child pairs from six European birth cohorts (n=818 mothers and 1,288 children). METHODS: We assessed the consumption of seven food groups and the blood levels of organochlorine pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), and heavy metals and urinary levels of phthalate metabolites, phenolic compounds, and organophosphate pesticide (OP) metabolites. Organic food consumption during childhood was also studied. We applied multivariable linear regressions and targeted maximum likelihood based estimation (TMLE). RESULTS: Maternal high (≥4 times/week) versus low (<2 times/week) fish consumption was associated with 15% higher PCBs [geometric mean (GM) ratio=1.15; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.29], 42% higher perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA) (GM ratio=1.42; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.68), 89% higher mercury (Hg) (GM ratio=1.89; 95% CI: 1.47, 2.41) and a 487% increase in arsenic (As) (GM ratio=4.87; 95% CI: 2.57, 9.23) levels. In children, high (≥3 times/week) versus low (<1.5 times/week) fish consumption was associated with 23% higher perfluorononanoate (PFNA) (GM ratio=1.23; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.40), 36% higher PFUnDA (GM ratio=1.36; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.64), 37% higher perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (GM ratio=1.37; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.54), and >200% higher Hg and As [GM ratio=3.87 (95% CI: 1.91, 4.31) and GM ratio=2.68 (95% CI: 2.23, 3.21)] concentrations. Using TMLE analysis, we estimated that fish consumption within the recommended 2-3 times/week resulted in lower PFAS, Hg, and As compared with higher consumption. Fruit consumption was positively associated with OP metabolites. Organic food consumption was negatively associated with OP metabolites. DISCUSSION: Fish consumption is related to higher PFAS, Hg, and As exposures. In addition, fruit consumption is a source of exposure to OPs. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5324.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Arsênico , Criança , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Funções Verossimilhança , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Praguicidas/sangue , Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue , Gravidez
10.
Environ Res ; 178: 108731, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539819

RESUMO

Sixty-one serum samples from a Norwegian cohort were analyzed for 43 emerging and legacy halogenated flame retardants (HFRs). BDE-47, -153, -197 and -209 were detected in >56% of the samples with median concentrations of 0.23, 1.0, 0.64 and 1.5 ng/g lipid, respectively. BDE-49, -85, -99, -100, -154, -206, -207, -208 as well as HBB, syn- and anti-DDC-CO, OBTMPI, DBDPE, α-HBCDD and TBBPA were also detected in some serum samples (detection frequencies of 2-36%). Other tri-octaBDEs, TBP-AE, α- and ß-DBE-DBCH, BATE, pTBX, αß-TBCO, PBBz, TBCT, PBT, PBEB, DPTE, EH-TBB, BTBPE, BEH-TEBP, HCDBCO, ß- and γ-HBCDD were below the limits of detection (mLOD). Concentrations of individual BDE congeners detected in this study were within the range from previous European studies. Positive correlations were seen between concentrations of BDE-47 in dust and BDE-153 in serum, between BDE-153 in dust and BDE-153 in serum, and between BDE-153 masses in handwipes and BDE-47 concentrations in serum (Spearman's rank, 0.29 < r < 0.43). Associations between the number of phones/mobiles, numbers of electronic equipment per person in the home and the consumption of specific food categories (such as soups/spices/sauces and alcoholic beverages) with BDE-47 and -153 serum levels were confirmed by multivariate linear regression analyses. The measured median serum level of BDE-47 was slightly over-predicted by a factor of 5.5 whereas other BDE congeners were under-predicted by factors of 13-6000 when compared to serum concentrations predicted from external exposure media (inhalation, dermal uptake, dietary intake from duplicate diet and dust ingestion) using a simple one compartment pharmacokinetic (PK) model. BDE-153 was not detected and BDE-197 not analyzed in food so no dietary intake assessments for these could be made, which may partially explain the discrepancies between their measured and predicted serum concentrations. Overall, our results suggest that exposure via diet is the most important exposure pathway for BDE-47 and -209, with diet being responsible for more than 96% of the total daily intake of these two BDEs in the Norwegian cohort.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Noruega
11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(10): 1317-1328, 2019 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence exists about the fetal and environmental origins of hypertension, but mainly limited to single-exposure studies. The exposome has been proposed as a more holistic approach by studying many exposures simultaneously. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the association between a wide range of prenatal and postnatal exposures and blood pressure (BP) in children. METHODS: Systolic and diastolic BP were measured among 1,277 children from the European HELIX (Human Early-Life Exposome) cohort aged 6 to 11 years. Prenatal (n = 89) and postnatal (n = 128) exposures include air pollution, built environment, meteorology, natural spaces, traffic, noise, chemicals, and lifestyles. Two methods adjusted for confounders were applied: an exposome-wide association study considering the exposures independently, and the deletion-substitution-addition algorithm considering all the exposures simultaneously. RESULTS: Decreases in systolic BP were observed with facility density (ß change for an interquartile-range increase in exposure: -1.7 mm Hg [95% confidence interval (CI): -2.5 to -0.8 mm Hg]), maternal concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl 118 (-1.4 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.6 to -0.2 mm Hg]) and child concentrations of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE: -1.6 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.4 to -0.7 mm Hg]), hexachlorobenzene (-1.5 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.4 to -0.6 mm Hg]), and mono-benzyl phthalate (-0.7 mm Hg [95% CI: -1.3 to -0.1 mm Hg]), whereas increases in systolic BP were observed with outdoor temperature during pregnancy (1.6 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.2 to 2.9 mm Hg]), high fish intake during pregnancy (2.0 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.4 to 3.5 mm Hg]), maternal cotinine concentrations (1.2 mm Hg [95% CI: -0.3 to 2.8 mm Hg]), and child perfluorooctanoate concentrations (0.9 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.1 to 1.6 mm Hg]). Decreases in diastolic BP were observed with outdoor temperature at examination (-1.4 mm Hg [95% CI: -2.3 to -0.5 mm Hg]) and child DDE concentrations (-1.1 mm Hg [95% CI: -1.9 to -0.3 mm Hg]), whereas increases in diastolic BP were observed with maternal bisphenol-A concentrations (0.7 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.1 to 1.4 mm Hg]), high fish intake during pregnancy (1.2 mm Hg [95% CI: -0.2 to 2.7 mm Hg]), and child copper concentrations (0.9 mm Hg [95% CI: 0.3 to 1.6 mm Hg]). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that early-life exposure to several chemicals, as well as built environment and meteorological factors, may affect BP in children.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais , Hipertensão , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambiente Construído , Criança , Diclorodifenil Dicloroetileno/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/classificação , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Saúde Holística , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/análise , Masculino , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 671: 299-308, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inadequate stores or intakes of essential minerals in pregnancy, or too high exposure to both toxic and essential elements, can have adverse effects on mother and child. The main aims of this study were to 1) describe the concentrations and patterns of essential and toxic elements measured in maternal whole blood during pregnancy; 2) identify dietary, lifestyle and sociodemographic determinants of element status; and 3) explore the impact of iron deficiency on blood element concentrations. METHODS: This study is based on blood samples collected from 2982 women in gestational week 18 in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa) which were analyzed as part of the Norwegian Environmental Biobank. We derived blood element patterns by exploratory factor analysis, and associations between blood element patterns and diet were explored using sparse partial least squares (sPLS) regression. RESULTS: Blood concentrations were determined for the essential elements (in the order of most abundant) Zn > Cu > Se > Mn > Mo > Co, and the toxic metals Pb > As > Hg > Cd > Tl. The concentrations were in ranges that were similar to or sometimes more favorable than in other pregnant and non-pregnant European women. We identified two blood element patterns; one including Zn, Se and Mn and another including Hg and As. For the Zn-Se-Mn pattern, use of multimineral supplements was the most important dietary determinant, while a high score in the Hg-As pattern was mainly determined by seafood consumption. Concentrations of Mn, Cd and Co were significantly higher in women with iron deficiency (plasma ferritin < 12 µg/L) than in women with plasma ferritin ≥ 12 µg/L. CONCLUSION: Our study illustrates complex relationships and coexistence of essential and toxic elements. Their potential interplay adds to the challenges of studies investigating health effects related to either diet or toxicants.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Ferro/deficiência , Estilo de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Oligoelementos/sangue , Adulto , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Análise Química do Sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Noruega , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
13.
Environ Int ; 127: 462-472, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978481

RESUMO

Organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) have largely replaced the market of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Concerns about PFR contamination and its impact on human health have consequently increased. A comprehensive investigation on the human exposure pathways to PFRs is to be endeavoured. This study investigated the occurrence of PFR metabolites in human urine, serum and hair, correlating them with external exposure data that was presented in our previous studies. Participants from Oslo (n = 61) provided a set of samples, including dust, air, handwipes, food, urine, serum and hair. Associations between PFR metabolites analyzed in the biological samples and the PFRs in environmental samples were explored. Different sampling strategies for dosimeters (e.g. floor/surface dust, personal/stationary air) were also compared to understand which is better for predicting human exposure to PFRs. Seven out of the eleven target PFR metabolites, including diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) and bis(1-chloro-2-propyl)-1-hydroxy-2-propyl phosphate (BCIPHIPP), were frequently detected (DF > 30%) in urine. DPHP was the most frequently detected metabolite in both serum and hair. Several PFR metabolites had higher levels in morning urine than in afternoon urine. Floor dust appeared to be a better proxy for estimating PFR internal exposure than surface dust, air, and handwipes. Some PFRs in handwipes and air were also correlated with their metabolites in urine and hair. Age, beverage consumption and food consumption were negatively associated with DPHP levels in urine. Discrepancies observed between the external and internal exposure for some PFRs call for further investigation on PFR bioaccessibility and clearance.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/análise , Organofosfatos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(4): 1985-1993, 2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663877

RESUMO

The indoor environment contributes considerably to human exposure to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). This study estimated the human exposure to PFASs from the indoor environment through hand-to-mouth and dermal contacts using hand wipes. An analytical method was developed to determine 25 PFASs in hand wipe samples collected as a composite sample from both hands of 60 adults. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) were the predominant PFASs in the hand wipe samples (medians between 0.21 and 0.54 ng per sample). Positive and significant correlations were observed between PAPs, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in hand wipes. Low frequency of daily hand washing (≤8 times day-1) was associated with 30-50% higher concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, and 8:2diPAP in hand wipes. Further, significant correlations between paired hand wipes and house dust samples were observed for PFOS, PFOA, and 6:2diPAP. Also, a significant correlation between PFOS in hand wipes and EtFOSE in indoor air was found. This finding indicates either a common source of exposure or a transformation of EtFOSE to PFOS in the environment or on the hands. The contributions of direct and indirect exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) showed that PFOA contributed the highest exposure to adults via hand-to-mouth and dermal contacts, followed by PFOS. The median of estimated daily intakes via hand-to-mouth and dermal contacts (for hands only) for PFOA were 0.83 and 0.50 pg·kg bw-1·day-1, respectively. This study gives a first indication that PFAS concentrations in hand wipes can be used as a proxy for the exposure to PFASs from indoor environments, but further studies are needed to confirm this.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Adulto , Poeira , Humanos , Boca
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 655: 1420-1426, 2019 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577133

RESUMO

Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling has gained attention in several scientific areas because of the low sampling burden. The study aimed to develop a method for the determination of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in DBS using a standardized blood volume. The DBS method using a simple methanol extraction followed by online solid phase extraction-ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantification was validated. Only 30 µL of blood is required. Based on the measurements of DBS dispersed areas from known blood volumes (20-70 µL), the blood volume on a 3 mm diameter DBS subsample was calculated to be 3.3 µL (median, n = 708 measurements, 59 adults). Strong correlations of PFAS concentrations between finger prick DBSs and venous whole blood samples (n = 57) were found (rho 0.72-0.97, p < 0.0001). Also, Passing-Bablok regressions and Bland-Altman plots demonstrated good agreements of PFAS concentrations in finger prick DBSs and venous whole blood samples. This finding indicates that the DBS method was satisfactory, and allows straightforward analysis of PFASs in DBS without hematocrit correction. This DBS method is reliable for accurate determination of PFASs and has a high potential for use of self-collected DBS in large-scale biomonitoring studies as well as for archived DBS samples.


Assuntos
Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Adulto , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
16.
Environ Int ; 121(Pt 1): 751-763, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Harmonized data describing simultaneous exposure to a large number of environmental contaminants in-utero and during childhood is currently very limited. OBJECTIVES: To characterize concentrations of a large number of environmental contaminants in pregnant women from Europe and their children, based on chemical analysis of biological samples from mother-child pairs. METHODS: We relied on the Early-Life Exposome project, HELIX, a collaborative project across six established population-based birth cohort studies in Europe. In 1301 subjects, biomarkers of exposure to 45 contaminants (i.e. organochlorine compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, toxic and essential elements, phthalate metabolites, environmental phenols, organophosphate pesticide metabolites and cotinine) were measured in biological samples from children (6-12 years) and their mothers during pregnancy, using highly sensitive biomonitoring methods. RESULTS: Most of the exposure biomarkers had high detection frequencies in mothers (35 out of 45 biomarkers with >90% detected) and children (33 out of 45 biomarkers with >90% detected). Concentrations were significantly different between cohorts for all compounds, and were generally higher in maternal compared to children samples. For most of the persistent compounds the correlations between maternal and child concentrations were moderate to high (Spearman Rho > 0.35), while for most non-persistent compounds correlations were considerably lower (Spearman Rho < 0.15). For mercury, PFOS and PFOA a considerable proportion of the samples of both mothers and their children exceeded the HBM I value established by The Human Biomonitoring Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency. DISCUSSION: Although not based on a representative sample, our study suggests that children across Europe are exposed to a wide range of environmental contaminants in fetal life and childhood including many with potential adverse effects. For values exceeding the HBM I value identification of specific sources of exposure and reducing exposure in an adequate way is recommended. Considerable variability in this "chemical exposome" was seen between cohorts, showing that place of residence is a strong determinant of one's personal exposome. This extensive dataset comprising >100,000 concentrations of environmental contaminants in mother-child pairs forms a unique possibility for conducting epidemiological studies using an exposome approach.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Mães , Gravidez
17.
Environ Int ; 115: 285-294, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29621716

RESUMO

There are few studies estimating dermal exposure to halogenated flame retardants in adults. To fill this gap, sixty-one hand wipe samples were collected from a Norwegian adult cohort using gauze pads immersed in isopropanol. BDE-47, BDE-209, bis(2­ethyl­hexyl)­3,4,5,6­tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP) and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) were the most frequently detected chemicals. The highest median mass in hand wipes was that of sumEHFR (570 ng), followed by sumHBCDD (180 ng) and sumPBDE (2.9 ng). The high EHFR level was mainly driven by tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) which accounted for 77% of the total mass. Positive and significant correlations were observed between FR levels in hand wipes and settled dust (0.26 < r < 0.56, p < 0.05), as well as between FR levels in hand wipes and the number of electronic consumer products at home (0.27 < r < 0.40, p < 0.05). Significant bivariate associations with number of laptops/tablets and phones/mobiles were further confirmed by multivariate linear regression analyses. Dermal exposure was estimated using the levels measured in handwipes. The estimated median dermal exposure was 2600, 840 and 6.2 pg/kg bw/d for sumEHFR, sumHBCDD and sumPBDE, respectively. Further, we compared these results with the dermal exposure as estimated indirectly by utilizing previously reported FR levels in settled dust collected from the residences of the same studied cohort. With the indirect approach, higher dermal exposures to sumPBDE but lower exposures to sumEHFR and sumHBCDD were observed compared to the direct dermal exposure estimated via hand wipes. Comparable exposure estimates between hand wipes and the indirect method were obtained for α­, ß­tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (DBE-DBCH), DBDPE, BDE-28, -35, -49, -99, -153, 154, and -183. For other individual HFRs, the exposure estimates obtained from the two approaches were significantly different (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.05). Both methods gave similar dermal exposure estimates for many individual FRs. However, it is important to be aware of the value and limitations of each method when using them to estimate human exposure.


Assuntos
Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos
18.
EFSA J ; 16(12): e05194, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32625773

RESUMO

The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific evaluation on the risks to human health related to the presence of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in food. Regarding PFOS and PFOA occurrence, the final data set available for dietary exposure assessment contained a total of 20,019 analytical results (PFOS n = 10,191 and PFOA n = 9,828). There were large differences between upper and lower bound exposure due to analytical methods with insufficient sensitivity. The CONTAM Panel considered the lower bound estimates to be closer to true exposure levels. Important contributors to the lower bound mean chronic exposure were 'Fish and other seafood', 'Meat and meat products' and 'Eggs and egg products', for PFOS, and 'Milk and dairy products', 'Drinking water' and 'Fish and other seafood' for PFOA. PFOS and PFOA are readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, excreted in urine and faeces, and do not undergo metabolism. Estimated human half-lives for PFOS and PFOA are about 5 years and 2-4 years, respectively. The derivation of a health-based guidance value was based on human epidemiological studies. For PFOS, the increase in serum total cholesterol in adults, and the decrease in antibody response at vaccination in children were identified as the critical effects. For PFOA, the increase in serum total cholesterol was the critical effect. Also reduced birth weight (for both compounds) and increased prevalence of high serum levels of the liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (for PFOA) were considered. After benchmark modelling of serum levels of PFOS and PFOA, and estimating the corresponding daily intakes, the CONTAM Panel established a tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 13 ng/kg body weight (bw) per week for PFOS and 6 ng/kg bw per week for PFOA. For both compounds, exposure of a considerable proportion of the population exceeds the proposed TWIs.

19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(22): 13388-13396, 2017 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29056041

RESUMO

Currently, there is limited knowledge on the distribution of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in different blood matrices, particularly for novel PFASs such as polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) and perfluoroalkyl phosphonates (PFPAs). To explore this, serum, plasma, and whole blood from 61 adults in Oslo, Norway were collected. The largest number of PFASs were detected in whole blood. For PAPs and PFPAs, the highest frequencies of detection and concentrations were observed in plasma. PAPs contributed to 8% of total PFASs in plasma (median, 0.81 ng mL-1). Perfluorohexylphosphonate (PFHxPA) was the dominant PFPA, regardless of blood matrix. The relative composition profiles of PFASs in blood matrices differed. For some specific PFASs such as perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA) and perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), the highest concentrations were observed in whole blood. The PFAS concentration ratios varied between blood matrices, depending on the compounds. However, similar ratios were observed for 6:2 polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diester (6:2diPAP) as well as well-known PFASs such as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Besides the determination of 25 PFASs in human blood, this study also lead to better understanding of biomonitoring data from different blood matrices, which is key knowledge for performing both exposure assessments and epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Noruega , Plasma
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(14): 8176-8184, 2017 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28661659

RESUMO

In this study, we estimated human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs), and several emerging flame retardants (EFRs) via inhalation and dust ingestion. Sixty indoor stationary air samples, 13 personal air samples, and 60 settled dust samples were collected from a Norwegian cohort during winter 2013. PBDEs showed the highest median concentration in dust (1200 ng/g), followed by EFRs (730 ng/g) and HBCDDs (190 ng/g). The PBDE concentrations in dust were mainly driven by BDE-209 and those of EFRs by bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate. EFRs predominated in stationary air samples, with 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate and 4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-1,2-dibromocyclohexane having the highest median concentrations (150 and 25 pg/m3 (sum of α- and ß-isomers), respectively). Different profiles and concentrations were observed in personal air samples compared to the corresponding stationary air samples. In relation to inhalation exposure, dust ingestion appears to be the major exposure pathway to FRs (median total exposure 230 pg/kg bw/d, accounting for more than 65% of the total exposure) for the Norwegian cohort. The calculated exposure due to air inhalation was substantially lower when the stationary air concentrations were used rather than personal air concentrations (43 pg/kg bw/d versus 130 pg/kg bw/d). This suggests that other exposure situations (such as outdoors or in offices) contributed significantly to the overall personal exposure, which cannot be included by using only a stationary air sampling technique. The median and 95th percentile exposures for all target FRs did not exceed the reference dose.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Exposição por Inalação , Adulto , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Estudos de Coortes , Poeira , Humanos , Noruega
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