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1.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924180

RESUMO

Clinical trial results have recently demonstrated that inhibiting inflammation by targeting the interleukin-1ß pathway can offer a significant reduction in lung cancer incidence and mortality, highlighting a pressing and unmet need to understand the benefits of inflammation-focused lung cancer therapies at the genetic level. While numerous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have explored the genetic etiology of lung cancer, there remains a large gap between the type of information that may be gleaned from an association study and the depth of understanding necessary to explain and drive translational findings. Thus, in this study we jointly model and integrate extensive multiomics data sources, utilizing a total of 40 genome-wide functional annotations that augment previously published results from the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) GWAS, to prioritize and characterize single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that increase risk of squamous cell lung cancer through the inflammatory and immune responses. Our work bridges the gap between correlative analysis and translational follow-up research, refining GWAS association measures in an interpretable and systematic manner. In particular, reanalysis of the ILCCO data highlights the impact of highly associated SNPs from nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway genes as well as major histocompatibility complex mediated variation in immune responses. One consequence of prioritizing likely functional SNPs is the pruning of variants that might be selected for follow-up work by over an order of magnitude, from potentially tens of thousands to hundreds. The strategies we introduce provide informative and interpretable approaches for incorporating extensive genome-wide annotation data in analysis of genetic association studies.

2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 27, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911640

RESUMO

Impaired lung function is often caused by cigarette smoking, making it challenging to disentangle its role in lung cancer susceptibility. Investigation of the shared genetic basis of these phenotypes in the UK Biobank and International Lung Cancer Consortium (29,266 cases, 56,450 controls) shows that lung cancer is genetically correlated with reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1: rg = 0.098, p = 2.3 × 10-8) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC: rg = 0.137, p = 2.0 × 10-12). Mendelian randomization analyses demonstrate that reduced FEV1 increases squamous cell carcinoma risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% confidence intervals: 1.21-1.88), while reduced FEV1/FVC increases the risk of adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.17, 1.01-1.35) and lung cancer in never smokers (OR = 1.56, 1.05-2.30). These findings support a causal role of pulmonary impairment in lung cancer etiology. Integrative analyses reveal that pulmonary function instruments, including 73 novel variants, influence lung tissue gene expression and implicate immune-related pathways in mediating the observed effects on lung carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Capacidade Vital
3.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(1): 10-16, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425118

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the biological impact of occupational exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) including DE particles (DEP) from heavy-duty diesel-powered equipment in Norwegian tunnel finishing workers (TFW). METHODS: TFW (n=69) and referents (n=69) were investigated for bulky DNA adducts (by 32P-postlabelling) and expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) (by small RNA sequencing) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as well as circulating free arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosanoid profiles in plasma (by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). RESULTS: PBMC from TFW showed significantly higher levels of DNA adducts compared with referents. Levels of DNA adducts were also related to smoking habits. Seventeen miRNAs were significantly deregulated in TFW. Several of these miRNAs are related to carcinogenesis, apoptosis and antioxidant effects. Analysis of putative miRNA-gene targets revealed deregulation of pathways associated with cancer, alterations in lipid molecules, steroid biosynthesis and cell cycle. Plasma profiles showed higher levels of free AA and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and lower levels of prostaglandin D2 and 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid in TFW compared with referents. CONCLUSION: Occupational exposure to DE/DEP is associated with biological alterations in TFW potentially affecting lung homoeostasis, carcinogenesis, inflammation status and the cardiovascular system. Of particular importance is the finding that tunnel finishing work is associated with an increased level of DNA adducts formation in PBMC.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Adutos de DNA/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , MicroRNAs/sangue , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Leucócitos Mononucleares/química , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega
4.
Carcinogenesis ; 40(3): 432-440, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590402

RESUMO

DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS) are abundant in regulatory elements, such as promoter, enhancer and transcription factor binding sites. Many studies have revealed that disease-associated variants were concentrated in DHS-related regions. However, limited studies are available on the roles of DHS-related variants in lung cancer. In this study, we performed a large-scale case-control study with 20 871 lung cancer cases and 15 971 controls to evaluate the associations between regulatory genetic variants in DHS and lung cancer susceptibility. The expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and pathway-enrichment analysis were performed to identify the possible target genes and pathways. In addition, we performed motif-based analysis to explore the lung-cancer-related motifs using sequence kernel association test. Two novel variants, rs186332 in 20q13.3 (C>T, odds ratio [OR] = 1.17, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.10-1.24, P = 8.45 × 10-7) and rs4839323 in 1p13.2 (T>C, OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.95, P = 1.02 × 10-6) showed significant association with lung cancer risk. The eQTL analysis suggested that these two SNPs might regulate the expression of MRGBP and SLC16A1, respectively. What's more, the expression of both MRGBP and SLC16A1 was aberrantly elevated in lung tumor tissues. The motif-based analysis identified 10 motifs related to the risk of lung cancer (P < 1.71 × 10-4). Our findings suggested that variants in DHS might modify lung cancer susceptibility through regulating the expression of surrounding genes. This study provided us a deeper insight into the roles of DHS-related genetic variants for lung cancer.


Assuntos
Desoxirribonuclease I/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
5.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(3): 751-766, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence from observational studies of telomere length (TL) has been conflicting regarding its direction of association with cancer risk. We investigated the causal relevance of TL for lung and head and neck cancers using Mendelian Randomization (MR) and mediation analyses. METHODS: We developed a novel genetic instrument for TL in chromosome 5p15.33, using variants identified through deep-sequencing, that were genotyped in 2051 cancer-free subjects. Next, we conducted an MR analysis of lung (16 396 cases, 13 013 controls) and head and neck cancer (4415 cases, 5013 controls) using eight genetic instruments for TL. Lastly, the 5p15.33 instrument and distinct 5p15.33 lung cancer risk loci were evaluated using two-sample mediation analysis, to quantify their direct and indirect, telomere-mediated, effects. RESULTS: The multi-allelic 5p15.33 instrument explained 1.49-2.00% of TL variation in our data (p = 2.6 × 10-9). The MR analysis estimated that a 1000 base-pair increase in TL increases risk of lung cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-1.65] and lung adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.51-2.22), but not squamous lung carcinoma (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.83-1.29) or head and neck cancers (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.70-1.05). Mediation analysis of the 5p15.33 instrument indicated an absence of direct effects on lung cancer risk (OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.95-1.04). Analysis of distinct 5p15.33 susceptibility variants estimated that TL mediates up to 40% of the observed associations with lung cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support a causal role for long telomeres in lung cancer aetiology, particularly for adenocarcinoma, and demonstrate that telomere maintenance partially mediates the lung cancer susceptibility conferred by 5p15.33 loci.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Homeostase do Telômero/genética , Telômero/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3221, 2018 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104567

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified the chromosome 15q25.1 locus as a leading susceptibility region for lung cancer. However, the pathogenic pathways, through which susceptibility SNPs within chromosome 15q25.1 affects lung cancer risk, have not been explored. We analyzed three cohorts with GWAS data consisting 42,901 individuals and lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data on 409 individuals to identify and validate the underlying pathways and to investigate the combined effect of genes from the identified susceptibility pathways. The KEGG neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway, two Reactome pathways, and 22 Gene Ontology terms were identified and replicated to be significantly associated with lung cancer risk, with P values less than 0.05 and FDR less than 0.1. Functional annotation of eQTL analysis results showed that the neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway and gated channel activity were involved in lung cancer risk. These pathways provide important insights for the etiology of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 91(8): 937-950, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971594

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radon is a risk factor for lung cancer and uranium miners are more exposed than the general population. A genome-wide interaction analysis was carried out to identify genomic loci, genes or gene sets that modify the susceptibility to lung cancer given occupational exposure to the radioactive gas radon. METHODS: Samples from 28 studies provided by the International Lung Cancer Consortium were pooled with samples of former uranium miners collected by the German Federal Office of Radiation Protection. In total, 15,077 cases and 13,522 controls, all of European ancestries, comprising 463 uranium miners were compared. The DNA of all participants was genotyped with the OncoArray. We fitted single-marker and in multi-marker models and performed an exploratory gene-set analysis to detect cumulative enrichment of significance in sets of genes. RESULTS: We discovered a genome-wide significant interaction of the marker rs12440014 within the gene CHRNB4 (OR = 0.26, 95% CI 0.11-0.60, p = 0.0386 corrected for multiple testing). At least suggestive significant interaction of linkage disequilibrium blocks was observed at the chromosomal regions 18q21.23 (p = 1.2 × 10-6), 5q23.2 (p = 2.5 × 10-6), 1q21.3 (p = 3.2 × 10-6), 10p13 (p = 1.3 × 10-5) and 12p12.1 (p = 7.1 × 10-5). Genes belonging to the Gene Ontology term "DNA dealkylation involved in DNA repair" (GO:0006307; p = 0.0139) or the gene family HGNC:476 "microRNAs" (p = 0.0159) were enriched with LD-blockwise significance. CONCLUSION: The well-established association of the genomic region 15q25 to lung cancer might be influenced by exposure to radon among uranium miners. Furthermore, lung cancer susceptibility is related to the functional capability of DNA damage signaling via ubiquitination processes and repair of radiation-induced double-strand breaks by the single-strand annealing mechanism.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos Ambientais/toxicidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Doenças Profissionais/genética , Radônio/toxicidade , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dano ao DNA/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos/efeitos da radiação , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineração , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Ubiquitinação/efeitos da radiação , Urânio
8.
Toxicol Sci ; 166(1): 51-64, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30010986

RESUMO

Occupational exposure to diesel exhaust may cause lung cancer in humans. Mechanisms include DNA-damage and inflammatory responses. Here, the potential of NIST SRM2975 diesel exhaust particles (DEP) to transform human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC3) in vitro was investigated. Long-term exposure of HBEC3 to DEP led to increased colony growth in soft agar. Several DEP-transformed cell lines were established and based on the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) marker genes, one of them (T2-HBEC3) was further characterized. T2-HBEC3 showed a mesenchymal/fibroblast-like morphology, reduced expression of CDH1, and induction of CDH2 and VIM. T2-HBEC3 had reduced migration potential compared with HBEC3 and little invasion capacity. Gene expression profiling showed baseline differences between HBEC3 and T2-HBEC3 linked to lung carcinogenesis. Next, to assess differences in sensitivity to DEP between parental HBEC3 and T2-HBEC3, gene expression profiling was carried out after DEP short-term exposure. Results revealed changes in genes involved in metabolism of xenobiotics and lipids, as well as inflammation. HBEC3 displayed a higher steady state of IL1B gene expression and release of IL-1ß compared with T2-HBEC3. HBEC3 and T2-HBEC3 showed similar susceptibility towards DEP-induced genotoxic effects. Liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry was used to measure secretion of eicosanoids. Generally, major prostaglandin species were released in higher concentrations from T2-HBEC3 than from HBEC3 and several analytes were altered after DEP-exposure. In conclusion, long-term exposure to DEP-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. Differences between HBEC3 and T2-HBEC3 regarding baseline levels and DEP-induced changes of particularly CYP1A1, IL-1ß, PGE2, and PGF2α may have implications for acute inflammation and carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Brônquios/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Brônquios/metabolismo , Brônquios/ultraestrutura , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Dano ao DNA , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/ultraestrutura , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética
9.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0177875, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28594918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessing the relationship between lung cancer and metabolic conditions is challenging because of the confounding effect of tobacco. Mendelian randomization (MR), or the use of genetic instrumental variables to assess causality, may help to identify the metabolic drivers of lung cancer. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified genetic instruments for potential metabolic risk factors and evaluated these in relation to risk using 29,266 lung cancer cases (including 11,273 adenocarcinomas, 7,426 squamous cell and 2,664 small cell cases) and 56,450 controls. The MR risk analysis suggested a causal effect of body mass index (BMI) on lung cancer risk for two of the three major histological subtypes, with evidence of a risk increase for squamous cell carcinoma (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1.20 [1.01-1.43] and for small cell lung cancer (OR [95%CI] = 1.52 [1.15-2.00]) for each standard deviation (SD) increase in BMI [4.6 kg/m2]), but not for adenocarcinoma (OR [95%CI] = 0.93 [0.79-1.08]) (Pheterogeneity = 4.3x10-3). Additional analysis using a genetic instrument for BMI showed that each SD increase in BMI increased cigarette consumption by 1.27 cigarettes per day (P = 2.1x10-3), providing novel evidence that a genetic susceptibility to obesity influences smoking patterns. There was also evidence that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was inversely associated with lung cancer overall risk (OR [95%CI] = 0.90 [0.84-0.97] per SD of 38 mg/dl), while fasting insulin was positively associated (OR [95%CI] = 1.63 [1.25-2.13] per SD of 44.4 pmol/l). Sensitivity analyses including a weighted-median approach and MR-Egger test did not detect other pleiotropic effects biasing the main results. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with a causal role of fasting insulin and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in lung cancer etiology, as well as for BMI in squamous cell and small cell carcinoma. The latter relation may be mediated by a previously unrecognized effect of obesity on smoking behavior.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade/complicações , Índice de Massa Corporal , Jejum , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Funções Verossimilhança , Lipídeos/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Obesidade/sangue , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
10.
Nat Genet ; 49(7): 1126-1132, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604730

RESUMO

Although several lung cancer susceptibility loci have been identified, much of the heritability for lung cancer remains unexplained. Here 14,803 cases and 12,262 controls of European descent were genotyped on the OncoArray and combined with existing data for an aggregated genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis of lung cancer in 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls. We identified 18 susceptibility loci achieving genome-wide significance, including 10 new loci. The new loci highlight the striking heterogeneity in genetic susceptibility across the histological subtypes of lung cancer, with four loci associated with lung cancer overall and six loci associated with lung adenocarcinoma. Gene expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in 1,425 normal lung tissue samples highlights RNASET2, SECISBP2L and NRG1 as candidate genes. Other loci include genes such as a cholinergic nicotinic receptor, CHRNA2, and the telomere-related genes OFBC1 and RTEL1. Further exploration of the target genes will continue to provide new insights into the etiology of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Adulto , Idoso , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fumar/epidemiologia , Homeostase do Telômero/genética
11.
Mol Carcinog ; 56(9): 2076-2085, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28418179

RESUMO

Metastasis and cell adhesion are key aspects of cancer progression. Neurofascin (NFASC) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of adhesion molecules and, while studies on NFASC are inadequate, other members have been indicated pivotal roles in cancer progression and metastasis. This study aimed at increasing the knowledge on the involvement of adhesion molecules in lung cancer progression by studying the regulation and role of NFASC in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, copy number variations in the NFASC gene were analyzed in tumor and non-tumorous lung tissues of 204 NSCLC patients. Frequent gene amplifications (OR = 4.50, 95%CI: 2.27-8.92, P ≤ 0.001) and increased expression of NFASC (P = 0.034) were identified in tumors of NSCLC patients. Furthermore, molecular mechanisms of NFASC in lung cancer progression were evaluated by investigating the effects of NFASC silencing on cell proliferation, viability, migration, and invasion using siRNA technology in four NSCLC cell lines. Silencing of NFASC did not affect cell proliferation or viability but rather decreased NSCLC cell migration (P ≤ 0.001) and led to morphological changes, rearrangements in the actin cytoskeleton and changes in F-actin networks in migrating NSCLC cell lines. This study is the first to report frequent copy number gain and increased expression of NFASC in NSCLC. Moreover, these data suggest that NFASC is a novel regulator of NSCLC cell motility and support a role of NFASC in the regulation of NSCLC progression.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/genética , Actinas/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/fisiopatologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética
12.
J Thorac Oncol ; 12(1): 65-76, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27613525

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There are no validated molecular methods that prospectively identify patients with surgically resected lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at high risk for recurrence. By focusing on the expression of genes with known functions in development of lung SCC and prognosis, we sought to develop a robust prognostic classifier of early-stage lung SCC. METHODS: The expression of 253 genes selected by literature search was evaluated in microarrays from 107 stage I/II tumors. Associations with survival were evaluated by Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses in two independent cohorts of 121 and 91 patients with SCC, respectively. A classifier score based on multivariable Cox regression was derived and examined in six additional publicly available data sets of stage I/II lung SCC expression profiles (n = 358). The prognostic value of this classifier was evaluated in meta-analysis of patients with stage I/II (n = 479) and stage I (n = 326) lung SCC. RESULTS: Dual specificity phosphatase 6 gene (DUSP6) and actinin alpha 4 gene (ACTN4) were associated with prognostic outcome in two independent patient cohorts. Their expression values were utilized to develop a classifier that identified patients with stage I/II lung SCC at high risk for recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.7, p = 0.018) or cancer-specific mortality (HR = 3.5, p = 0.016). This classifier also identified patients at high risk for recurrence (HR = 2.7, p = 0.008) or death (HR = 2.2, p = 0.001) in publicly available data sets of stage I/II and in meta-analysis of stage I patients. CONCLUSIONS: We have established and validated a prognostic classifier to inform clinical management of patients with lung SCC after surgical resection.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Cell Oncol (Dordr) ; 39(6): 583-589, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27572263

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In the past, anomalous estrogen receptor (ER) regulation has been associated with various lung pathologies, but so far its involvement in lung cancer initiation and/or progression has remained unclear. Here, we aimed at assessing in vivo and in vitro ER expression and its possible epigenetic regulation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples and their corresponding normal tissues and cells. METHODS: ERα and ERß gene expression levels were assessed using real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), whereas ERα and ERß gene promoter methylation levels were assessed using DNA bisulfite conversion followed by pyrosequencing. We included NSCLC (n = 87) and adjacent histologically normal lung tissue samples from lung cancer patients (n = 184), primary normal bronchial epithelial-derived cell cultures (n = 11), immortalized bronchial epithelial-derived cell lines (n = 3) and NSCLC derived cell lines (n = 9). RESULTS: Using RT-qPCR we found significantly lower ERα and ERß expression levels in the NSCLC tissue samples compared to their normal adjacent tissue samples. These lower ER expression levels were confirmed in vitro using primary normal bronchial epithelial-derived cell cultures, immortalized bronchial epithelial-derived cell lines and NSCLC-derived cell lines. By using this latter panel of cells, we found that ER gene promoter hypermethylation was associated with decreased ER expression. In addition we found that in tumor and normal lung tissues, smoking was associated with decreased ER expression and that normal lung tissues with a low ERß expression level exhibited increased smoking-related DNA adducts. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our results indicate that decreased ER expression mediated by DNA methylation may play a role in NSCLC development.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Receptores Estrogênicos/biossíntese , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética
14.
EBioMedicine ; 11: 219-226, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27543155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent meta-analyses show that individuals with high risk variants in CHRNA5 on chromosome 15q25 are likely to develop lung cancer earlier than those with low-risk genotypes. The same high-risk genetic variants also predict nicotine dependence and delayed smoking cessation. It is unclear whether smoking cessation confers the same benefits in terms of lung cancer risk reduction for those who possess CHRNA5 risk variants versus those who do not. METHODS: Meta-analyses examined the association between smoking cessation and lung cancer risk in 15 studies of individuals with European ancestry who possessed varying rs16969968 genotypes (N=12,690 ever smokers, including 6988 cases of lung cancer and 5702 controls) in the International Lung Cancer Consortium. RESULTS: Smoking cessation (former vs. current smokers) was associated with a lower likelihood of lung cancer (OR=0.48, 95%CI=0.30-0.75, p=0.0015). Among lung cancer patients, smoking cessation was associated with a 7-year delay in median age of lung cancer diagnosis (HR=0.68, 95%CI=0.61-0.77, p=4.9∗10-10). The CHRNA5 rs16969968 risk genotype (AA) was associated with increased risk and earlier diagnosis for lung cancer, but the beneficial effects of smoking cessation were very similar in those with and without the risk genotype. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that quitting smoking is highly beneficial in reducing lung cancer risks for smokers regardless of their CHRNA5 rs16969968 genetic risk status. Smokers with high-risk CHRNA5 genotypes, on average, can largely eliminate their elevated genetic risk for lung cancer by quitting smoking- cutting their risk of lung cancer in half and delaying its onset by 7years for those who develop it. These results: 1) underscore the potential value of smoking cessation for all smokers, 2) suggest that CHRNA5 rs16969968 genotype affects lung cancer diagnosis through its effects on smoking, and 3) have potential value for framing preventive interventions for those who smoke.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar , Idade de Início , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Risco
15.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 35: 55-65, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27221058

RESUMO

Lung cancer is largely an environmentally caused disease with poor prognosis. An in vitro transformation model of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) was used to study long-term effects of tobacco smoke carcinogens on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the forkhead box transcription factors FOXA1 and FOXA2. CDK4 and hTERT immortalized HBEC2 and HBEC12 cell lines were exposed weekly to either cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), benzo[a]pyrene, or methylnitrosourea. Transformed cell lines were established from soft-agar colonies after 12weeks of exposure. HBEC12 was transformed by all exposures while HBEC2 was only transformed by CSC. Untransformed HBEC2 showed little invasive capacity, whereas transformed cell lines completely closed the gap in a matrigel scratch wound assay. CDH1 was down-regulated in all of the transformed cell lines. In contrast, CDH2 was up-regulated in both HBEC2 and one of the HBEC12 transformed cell lines. Furthermore, transformed cells showed activation of EMT markers including SNAI1, ZEB1, VIM, and MMP2. All transformed cell lines had significant down-regulation of FOXA1 and FOXA2, indicating a possible role in cell transformation and EMT. ChIP analysis showed increased binding of Histone-H3 and macroH2A in FOXA1 and FOXA2 in the transformed HBEC2 cell lines, indicating a compact chromatin. In conclusion, long-term carcinogen exposure lead to down-regulation of FOXA1 and FOXA2 concomitantly with the occurrence of EMT and in vitro transformation in HBEC cells.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fator 3-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Tabaco , Brônquios/citologia , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
16.
J Cell Commun Signal ; 10(2): 153-62, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27101311

RESUMO

An increasing amount of products containing engineered nanoparticles is emerging. Among these particles are carbon nanotubes (CNTs) which are of interest for a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. There have been raised concerns over the effects of CNTs on human health. Some types of CNTs are classified as group 2B carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. CNTs may also induce pulmonary inflammatory and fibrotic effects. By utilizing CNTs of different lengths, we investigated the role of the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1) on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) by using IL-1 wild-type (IL1-WT) and IL-1 knock-out (IL1-KO) cells. GJIC decreased equally in both cell types after CNT exposure. Immunofluorescence staining showed Gja1 and Gjb2 in gap junctions and hemichannels for both cell types. Gjb1 and Gjb2 expression was low in IL1-KO cells, which was confirmed by protein analysis. Gja1 was upregulated with both CNTs, whereas Gjb1 was down-regulated by CNT-2 in IL1-WT cells. Connexin mRNA expression was regulated differently by the CNTs. CNT-1 affected Gja1 and Gjb2, whereas CNT-2 had an effect on Gjb1. CNTs negatively affect GJIC through gap junctions independently of the length of CNT and IL-1 status. Furthermore, connexin gene expression was affected by IL-1 at transcriptional and translational levels. As both CNTs used in this study are cytotoxic to the cells and reduce cell survival, we suggest that CNT-induced reduction in GJIC may be important for inhibiting transfer of cell survival signals between cells.

17.
J Cancer ; 7(5): 512-5, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26958086

RESUMO

Identification of genetic alterations in members of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is important as these proteins have dynamic roles in tumor progression and may serve as potential therapeutic targets in cancer. We analyzed tumor and non-tumorous lung tissue of 233 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients for the presence of copy number alterations (CNAs) in the MAPK kinase 3 (MKK3) and MAPK-activated kinase 2 (MK2) genes. We report frequent CNAs in MKK3 and MK2 genes in NSCLC. Copy number losses were detected in 31% of NSCLC tumors (odds ratio: 7.08, 95% confidence interval: 3.2-15.6, P<0.001) for the MKK3 gene and in 28% of tumors for the MK2 gene (odds ratio: 3.68, 95% confidence interval: 1.9-7.2, P<0.001). Several of the non-tumorous tissues showed an elevated MKK3 copy number, with a concurrent loss of this in 89% of the paired tumors. MKK3 gene deletions were significantly more frequent in squamous and large cell carcinoma than in adenocarcinoma. These data demonstrate a novel loss of MKK3 and MK2 genomic copy numbers in NSCLC tumors, and suggest these genes as interesting therapeutic candidates in NSCLC.

18.
BMC Cancer ; 16: 28, 2016 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26780934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amplifications of the transcription factor, SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2), are common in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). SOX2 signaling is important in maintaining the stem cell-like phenotype of cancer cells and contributes to the pathogenesis of lung cancer. TP53 is known to inhibit gene amplifications and to repress many stem cell-associated genes following DNA damage. The aim of this study was to investigate if TP53 mutational status affected SOX2 copy number variation and gene expression in early-stage NSCLC patients; moreover, to assess if TP53 regulates SOX2 expression in human lung cancer cells. METHODS: 258 early-stage lung cancer patients were included in the study. Exons 4-9 in the TP53 gene were sequenced for mutations in tumor tissues. SOX2 copy number as well as TP53 and SOX2 gene expression were analyzed in tumor and in adjacent non-tumorous tissues by qPCR. TP53 and SOX2 were silenced using gene-specific siRNAs in human lung adenocarcinoma A427 cells, and the expression of TP53, SOX2 and subset of selected miRNAs was analyzed by qPCR. The odds ratios (ORs) for associations between copy number variation and lung cancer were estimated by conditional logistic regression, and the correlation between gene status and clinicopathological characteristics was assessed by Chi-square or Fisher's exact test. Gene expression data was analyzed using nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: TP53 mutations were associated with an increased risk of acquiring a SOX2 copy number alteration (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.14-3.79, p = 0.017), which was more frequently occurring in tumor tissues (34%) than in adjacent non-tumorous tissues (3%). Moreover, SOX2 and TP53 expression levels were strongly correlated in tumor tissues. In vitro studies showed that a reduction in TP53 was associated with decreased SOX2 expression in A427 cells. Furthermore, TP53 knockdown reduced the miRNA hsa-miR-145, which has previously been shown to regulate SOX2 expression. CONCLUSIONS: TP53 signaling may be important in the regulation of SOX2 copy number and expression in NSCLC tumors, and the miRNA hsa-miR-145-5p may be one potential driver. This prompts for further studies on the mechanisms behind the TP53-induced regulation of SOX2 expression and the possible importance of hsa-miR-145 in lung cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/biossíntese , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico , Risco , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/antagonistas & inibidores
19.
J Thorac Oncol ; 10(7): 1037-48, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26134223

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Up to 30% stage I lung cancer patients suffer recurrence within 5 years of curative surgery. We sought to improve existing protein-coding gene and microRNA expression prognostic classifiers by incorporating epigenetic biomarkers. METHODS: Genome-wide screening of DNA methylation and pyrosequencing analysis of HOXA9 promoter methylation were performed in two independently collected cohorts of stage I lung adenocarcinoma. The prognostic value of HOXA9 promoter methylation alone and in combination with mRNA and miRNA biomarkers was assessed by Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis in both cohorts. RESULTS: Promoters of genes marked by polycomb in embryonic stem cells were methylated de novo in tumors and identified patients with poor prognosis. The HOXA9 locus was methylated de novo in stage I tumors (p < 0.0005). High HOXA9 promoter methylation was associated with worse cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio [HR], 2.6; p = 0.02) and recurrence-free survival (HR, 3.0; p = 0.01), and identified high-risk patients in stratified analysis of stages IA and IB. Four protein-coding gene (XPO1, BRCA1, HIF1α, and DLC1), miR-21 expression, and HOXA9 promoter methylation were each independently associated with outcome (HR, 2.8; p = 0.002; HR, 2.3; p = 0.01; and HR, 2.4; p = 0.005, respectively), and when combined, identified high-risk, therapy naive, stage I patients (HR, 10.2; p = 3 × 10). All associations were confirmed in two independently collected cohorts. CONCLUSION: A prognostic classifier comprising three types of genomic and epigenomic data may help guide the postoperative management of stage I lung cancer patients at high risk of recurrence.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Medicina de Precisão , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 107(5)2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25873736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent meta-analyses show strong evidence of associations among genetic variants in CHRNA5 on chromosome 15q25, smoking quantity, and lung cancer. This meta-analysis tests whether the CHRNA5 variant rs16969968 predicts age of smoking cessation and age of lung cancer diagnosis. METHODS: Meta-analyses examined associations between rs16969968, age of quitting smoking, and age of lung cancer diagnosis in 24 studies of European ancestry (n = 29 072). In each dataset, we used Cox regression models to evaluate the association between rs16969968 and the two primary phenotypes (age of smoking cessation among ever smokers and age of lung cancer diagnosis among lung cancer case patients) and the secondary phenotype of smoking duration. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed with the Cochran Q test. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The rs16969968 allele (A) was associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.91 to 0.98, P = .0042), and the AA genotype was associated with a four-year delay in median age of quitting compared with the GG genotype. Among smokers with lung cancer diagnoses, the rs16969968 genotype (AA) was associated with a four-year earlier median age of diagnosis compared with the low-risk genotype (GG) (HR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.12, P = 1.1*10(-5)). CONCLUSION: These data support the clinical significance of the CHRNA5 variant rs16969968. It predicts delayed smoking cessation and an earlier age of lung cancer diagnosis in this meta-analysis. Given the existing evidence that this CHRNA5 variant predicts favorable response to cessation pharmacotherapy, these findings underscore the potential clinical and public health importance of rs16969968 in CHRNA5 in relation to smoking cessation success and lung cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
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