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1.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 55, 2019 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036035

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of the BARD1 gene in breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) predisposition remains elusive, as published case-control investigations have revealed controversial results. We aimed to assess the role of deleterious BARD1 germline variants in BC/OC predisposition in a sample of 4920 BRCA1/2-negative female BC/OC index patients of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (GC-HBOC). METHODS: A total of 4469 female index patients with BC, 451 index patients with OC, and 2767 geographically matched female control individuals were screened for loss-of-function (LoF) mutations and potentially damaging rare missense variants in BARD1. All patients met the inclusion criteria of the GC-HBOC for germline testing and reported at least one relative with BC or OC. Additional control datasets (Exome Aggregation Consortium, ExAC; Fabulous Ladies Over Seventy, FLOSSIES) were included for the calculation of odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: We identified LoF variants in 23 of 4469 BC index patients (0.51%) and in 36 of 37,265 control individuals (0.10%), resulting in an OR of 5.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.17-9.04; P < 0.00001). BARD1-mutated BC index patients showed a significantly younger mean age at first diagnosis (AAD; 42.3 years, range 24-60 years) compared with the overall study sample (48.6 years, range 17-92 years; P = 0.00347). In the subgroup of BC index patients with an AAD < 40 years, an OR of 12.04 (95% CI = 5.78-25.08; P < 0.00001) was observed. An OR of 7.43 (95% CI = 4.26-12.98; P < 0.00001) was observed when stratified for an AAD < 50 years. LoF variants in BARD1 were not significantly associated with BC in the subgroup of index patients with an AAD ≥ 50 years (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 0.82-6.45; P = 0.11217). Overall, rare and predicted damaging BARD1 missense variants were significantly more prevalent in BC index patients compared with control individuals (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.26-3.67; P = 0.00723). Neither LoF variants nor predicted damaging rare missense variants in BARD1 were identified in 451 familial index patients with OC. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the significant association of germline LoF variants in BARD1 with early-onset BC, we suggest that intensified BC surveillance programs should be offered to women carrying pathogenic BARD1 gene variants.

2.
J Med Genet ; 56(9): 574-580, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For individuals with ovarian cancer (OC), therapy options mainly depend on BRCA1/2 germline status. What is the prevalence of deleterious somatic variants, that is, does genetic tumour testing identify subgroups of individuals who also might benefit from targeted therapy? METHODS: Paired analysis of tumour-derived versus blood-derived DNA to determine the prevalence of deleterious somatic variants in OC predisposition genes (ATM, BRCA1/2, BRIP1, MSH2/6, PALB2, RAD51C/D and TP53) and the PIK3CA and PTEN genes in individuals with OC (AGO-TR1 study, NCT02222883). Results were complemented by BRCA1, PALB2 and RAD51C promoter methylation analyses and stratified by histological subtype; 473 individuals were included. RESULTS: The combined analyses revealed that deleterious germline variants in established OC predisposition genes (all: 125/473, 26.4%; BRCA1/2: 97/473, 20.5%), deleterious somatic variants in established OC predisposition genes excluding TP53 (all: 39/473, 8.2%; BRCA1/2: 30/473, 6.3%) and promoter methylation (all: 67/473, 14.2%; BRCA1: 57/473, 12.1%; RAD51C: 10/473, 2.1%; PALB2: 0/473) were mutually exclusive, with a few exceptions. The same holds true for deleterious somatic PIK3CA and/or PTEN variants (33/473, 7.0%) found to be enriched in endometrioid and clear cell OC (16/35, 45.7%); 84.3 % of the deleterious single-nucleotide/indel germline variants in established OC predisposition genes showed significantly higher variant fractions (VFs) in the tumour-derived versus blood-derived DNA, indicating a loss of the wild-type alleles. CONCLUSION: Tumour sequencing of the BRCA1, BRCA2, PIK3CA and PTEN genes along with BRCA1 and RAD51C promoter methylation analyses identified large subgroups of germline mutation-negative individuals who may be addressed in interventional studies using PARP or PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02222883.

4.
Hum Mutat ; 39(12): 2040-2046, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216591

RESUMO

The Li-Fraumeni cancer predisposition syndrome (LFS1) presents with a variety of tumor types and the TP53 gene is covered by most diagnostic cancer gene panels. We demonstrate that deleterious TP53 variants identified in blood-derived DNA of 523 patients with ovarian cancer (AGO-TR1 trial) were not causal for the patients' ovarian cancer in three out of six TP53-positive cases. In three out of six patients, deleterious TP53 mutations were identified with low variant fractions in blood-derived DNA but not in the tumor of the patient seeking advice. The analysis of the TP53 and PPM1D genes, both intimately involved in chemotherapy-induced and/or age-related clonal hematopoiesis (CH), in 523 patients and 1,053 age-matched female control individuals revealed that CH represents a frequent event following chemotherapy, affecting 26 of the 523 patients enrolled (5.0%). Considering that TP53 mutations may arise from chemotherapy-induced CH, our findings help to avoid false-positive genetic diagnoses of LFS1.

5.
Cancer Med ; 7(4): 1349-1358, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522266

RESUMO

The prevalence of germ line mutations in non-BRCA1/2 genes associated with hereditary breast cancer (BC) is low, and the role of some of these genes in BC predisposition and pathogenesis is conflicting. In this study, 5589 consecutive BC index patients negative for pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutations and 2189 female controls were screened for germ line mutations in eight cancer predisposition genes (ATM, CDH1, CHEK2, NBN, PALB2, RAD51C, RAD51D, and TP53). All patients met the inclusion criteria of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer for germ line testing. The highest mutation prevalence was observed in the CHEK2 gene (2.5%), followed by ATM (1.5%) and PALB2 (1.2%). The mutation prevalence in each of the remaining genes was 0.3% or lower. Using Exome Aggregation Consortium control data, we confirm significant associations of heterozygous germ line mutations with BC for ATM (OR: 3.63, 95%CI: 2.67-4.94), CDH1 (OR: 17.04, 95%CI: 3.54-82), CHEK2 (OR: 2.93, 95%CI: 2.29-3.75), PALB2 (OR: 9.53, 95%CI: 6.25-14.51), and TP53 (OR: 7.30, 95%CI: 1.22-43.68). NBN germ line mutations were not significantly associated with BC risk (OR:1.39, 95%CI: 0.73-2.64). Due to their low mutation prevalence, the RAD51C and RAD51D genes require further investigation. Compared with control datasets, predicted damaging rare missense variants were significantly more prevalent in CHEK2 and TP53 in BC index patients. Compared with the overall sample, only TP53 mutation carriers show a significantly younger age at first BC diagnosis. We demonstrate a significant association of deleterious variants in the CHEK2, PALB2, and TP53 genes with bilateral BC. Both, ATM and CHEK2, were negatively associated with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumor phenotypes. A particularly high CHEK2 mutation prevalence (5.2%) was observed in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive tumors.

6.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 265, 2018 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29514593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no international consensus up to which age women with a diagnosis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and no family history of breast or ovarian cancer should be offered genetic testing for germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 (gBRCA) mutations. Here, we explored the association of age at TNBC diagnosis with the prevalence of pathogenic gBRCA mutations in this patient group. METHODS: The study comprised 802 women (median age 40 years, range 19-76) with oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 negative breast cancers, who had no relatives with breast or ovarian cancer. All women were tested for pathogenic gBRCA mutations. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between age at TNBC diagnosis and the presence of a pathogenic gBRCA mutation. RESULTS: A total of 127 women with TNBC (15.8%) were gBRCA mutation carriers (BRCA1: n = 118, 14.7%; BRCA2: n = 9, 1.1%). The mutation prevalence was 32.9% in the age group 20-29 years compared to 6.9% in the age group 60-69 years. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant increase of mutation frequency with decreasing age at diagnosis (odds ratio 1.87 per 10 year decrease, 95%CI 1.50-2.32, p < 0.001). gBRCA mutation risk was predicted to be > 10% for women diagnosed below approximately 50 years. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the general understanding that a heterozygous mutation probability of 10% or greater justifies gBRCA mutation screening, women with TNBC diagnosed before the age of 50 years and no familial history of breast and ovarian cancer should be tested for gBRCA mutations. In Germany, this would concern approximately 880 women with newly diagnosed TNBC per year, of whom approximately 150 are expected to be identified as carriers of a pathogenic gBRCA mutation.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Unilaterais da Mama/patologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Med Genomics ; 11(1): 35, 2018 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of next-generation sequencing approaches in clinical diagnostics has led to a tremendous increase in data and a vast number of variants of uncertain significance that require interpretation. Therefore, prediction of the effects of missense mutations using in silico tools has become a frequently used approach. Aim of this study was to assess the reliability of in silico prediction as a basis for clinical decision making in the context of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer. METHODS: We tested the performance of four prediction tools (Align-GVGD, SIFT, PolyPhen-2, MutationTaster2) using a set of 236 BRCA1/2 missense variants that had previously been classified by expert committees. However, a major pitfall in the creation of a reliable evaluation set for our purpose is the generally accepted classification of BRCA1/2 missense variants using the multifactorial likelihood model, which is partially based on Align-GVGD results. To overcome this drawback we identified 161 variants whose classification is independent of any previous in silico prediction. In addition to the performance as stand-alone tools we examined the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of combined approaches. RESULTS: PolyPhen-2 achieved the lowest sensitivity (0.67), specificity (0.67), accuracy (0.67) and MCC (0.39). Align-GVGD achieved the highest values of specificity (0.92), accuracy (0.92) and MCC (0.73), but was outperformed regarding its sensitivity (0.90) by SIFT (1.00) and MutationTaster2 (1.00). All tools suffered from poor specificities, resulting in an unacceptable proportion of false positive results in a clinical setting. This shortcoming could not be bypassed by combination of these tools. In the best case scenario, 138 families would be affected by the misclassification of neutral variants within the cohort of patients of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer. CONCLUSION: We show that due to low specificities state-of-the-art in silico prediction tools are not suitable to predict pathogenicity of variants of uncertain significance in BRCA1/2. Thus, clinical consequences should never be based solely on in silico forecasts. However, our data suggests that SIFT and MutationTaster2 could be suitable to predict benignity, as both tools did not result in false negative predictions in our analysis.

8.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 7, 2018 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29368626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in the BRIP1 gene have been described as conferring a moderate risk for ovarian cancer (OC), while the role of BRIP1 in breast cancer (BC) pathogenesis remains controversial. METHODS: To assess the role of deleterious BRIP1 germline mutations in BC/OC predisposition, 6341 well-characterized index patients with BC, 706 index patients with OC, and 2189 geographically matched female controls were screened for loss-of-function (LoF) mutations and potentially damaging missense variants. All index patients met the inclusion criteria of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer for germline testing and tested negative for pathogenic BRCA1/2 variants. RESULTS: BRIP1 LoF mutations confer a high OC risk in familial index patients (odds ratio (OR) = 20.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 12.02-36.57, P < 0.0001) and in the subgroup of index patients with late-onset OC (OR = 29.91, 95% CI = 14.99-59.66, P < 0.0001). No significant association of BRIP1 LoF mutations with familial BC was observed (OR = 1.81 95% CI = 1.00-3.30, P = 0.0623). In the subgroup of familial BC index patients without a family history of OC there was also no apparent association (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.70-2.90, P = 0.3030). In 1027 familial BC index patients with a family history of OC, the BRIP1 mutation prevalence was significantly higher than that observed in controls (OR = 3.59, 95% CI = 1.43-9.01; P = 0.0168). Based on the negative association between BRIP1 LoF mutations and familial BC in the absence of an OC family history, we conclude that the elevated mutation prevalence in the latter cohort was driven by the occurrence of OC in these families. Compared with controls, predicted damaging rare missense variants were significantly more prevalent in OC (P = 0.0014) but not in BC (P = 0.0693) patients. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid ambiguous results, studies aimed at assessing the impact of candidate predisposition gene mutations on BC risk might differentiate between BC index patients with an OC family history and those without. In familial cases, we suggest that BRIP1 is a high-risk gene for late-onset OC but not a BC predisposition gene, though minor effects cannot be excluded.

9.
Hum Mutat ; 39(3): 394-405, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29215764

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer patients with germline or somatic pathogenic variants benefit from treatment with poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Tumor BRCA1/2 testing is more challenging than germline testing as the majority of samples are formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE), the tumor genome is complex, and the allelic fraction of somatic variants can be low. We collaborated with 10 laboratories testing BRCA1/2 in tumors to compare different approaches to identify clinically important variants within FFPE tumor DNA samples. This was not a proficiency study but an inter-laboratory comparison to identify common issues. Each laboratory received the same tumor DNA samples ranging in genotype, quantity, quality, and variant allele frequency (VAF). Each laboratory performed their preferred next-generation sequencing method to report on the variants. No false positive results were reported in this small study and the majority of methods detected the low VAF variants. A number of variants were not detected due to the bioinformatics analysis, variant classification, or insufficient DNA. The use of hybridization capture or short amplicon methods are recommended based on a bioinformatic assessment of the data. The study highlights the importance of establishing standards and standardization for tBRCA testing particularly when the test results dictate clinical decisions regarding life extending therapies.

10.
Genet Med ; 20(4): 452-457, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28837162

RESUMO

PurposeMonoallelic germ-line mutations in the BRCA1/FANCS, BRCA2/FANCD1 and PALB2/FANCN genes confer high risk of breast cancer. Biallelic mutations in these genes cause Fanconi anemia (FA), characterized by malformations, bone marrow failure, chromosome fragility, and cancer predisposition (BRCA2/FANCD1 and PALB2/FANCN), or an FA-like disease presenting a phenotype similar to FA but without bone marrow failure (BRCA1/FANCS). FANCM monoallelic mutations have been reported as moderate risk factors for breast cancer, but there are no reports of any clinical phenotype observed in carriers of biallelic mutations.MethodsBreast cancer probands were subjected to mutation analysis by sequencing gene panels or testing DNA damage response genes.ResultsFive cases homozygous for FANCM loss-of-function mutations were identified. They show a heterogeneous phenotype including cancer predisposition, toxicity to chemotherapy, early menopause, and possibly chromosome fragility. Phenotype severity might correlate with mutation position in the gene.ConclusionOur data indicate that biallelic FANCM mutations do not cause classical FA, providing proof that FANCM is not a canonical FA gene. Moreover, our observations support previous findings suggesting that FANCM is a breast cancer-predisposing gene. Mutation testing of FANCM might be considered for individuals with the above-described clinical features.


Assuntos
Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Fragilidade Cromossômica , DNA Helicases/genética , Anemia de Fanconi/diagnóstico , Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Consanguinidade , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
11.
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0186043, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29053726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of families at risk for ovarian cancer offers the opportunity to consider prophylactic surgery thus reducing ovarian cancer mortality. So far, identification of potentially affected families in Germany was solely performed via family history and numbers of affected family members with breast or ovarian cancer. However, neither the prevalence of deleterious variants in BRCA1/2 in ovarian cancer in Germany nor the reliability of family history as trigger for genetic counselling has ever been evaluated. METHODS: Prospective counseling and germline testing of consecutive patients with primary diagnosis or with platinum-sensitive relapse of an invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. Testing included 25 candidate and established risk genes. Among these 25 genes, 16 genes (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CDH1, CHEK2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, NBN, PMS2, PTEN, PALB2, RAD51C, RAD51D, STK11, TP53) were defined as established cancer risk genes. A positive family history was defined as at least one relative with breast cancer or ovarian cancer or breast cancer in personal history. RESULTS: In total, we analyzed 523 patients: 281 patients with primary diagnosis of ovarian cancer and 242 patients with relapsed disease. Median age at primary diagnosis was 58 years (range 16-93) and 406 patients (77.6%) had a high-grade serous ovarian cancer. In total, 27.9% of the patients showed at least one deleterious variant in all 25 investigated genes and 26.4% in the defined 16 risk genes. Deleterious variants were most prevalent in the BRCA1 (15.5%), BRCA2 (5.5%), RAD51C (2.5%) and PALB2 (1.1%) genes. The prevalence of deleterious variants did not differ significantly between patients at primary diagnosis and relapse. The prevalence of deleterious variants in BRCA1/2 (and in all 16 risk genes) in patients <60 years was 30.2% (33.2%) versus 10.6% (18.9%) in patients ≥60 years. Family history was positive in 43% of all patients. Patients with a positive family history had a prevalence of deleterious variants of 31.6% (36.0%) versus 11.4% (17.6%) and histologic subtype of high grade serous ovarian cancer versus other showed a prevalence of deleterious variants of 23.2% (29.1%) and 10.2% (14.8%), respectively. Testing only for BRCA1/2 would miss in our series more than 5% of the patients with a deleterious variant in established risk genes. CONCLUSIONS: 26.4% of all patients harbor at least one deleterious variant in established risk genes. The threshold of 10% mutation rate which is accepted for reimbursement by health care providers in Germany was observed in all subgroups analyzed and neither age at primary diagnosis nor histo-type or family history sufficiently enough could identify a subgroup not eligible for genetic counselling and testing. Genetic testing should therefore be offered to every patient with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer and limiting testing to BRCA1/2 seems to be not sufficient.


Assuntos
Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Feminino , Humanos
12.
JAMA Oncol ; 3(10): 1378-1385, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28715532

RESUMO

Importance: The GeparSixto trial provided evidence that the addition of neoadjuvant carboplatin to a regimen consisting of anthracycline, taxane, and bevacizumab increases pathological complete response (pCR) rates in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Whether BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation status affects treatment outcome remains elusive. Objective: To determine whether BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation status affects therapy response in patients with TNBC. Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial used archived DNA samples and cancer family history of 315 patients with TNBC enrolled between August 1, 2011, and December 31, 2012, in the GeparSixto trial. In all, 291 participants (92.4%) were included in this multicenter prospective investigation. DNA samples were analyzed for germline mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and 16 other cancer predisposition genes. The pCR rates between the carboplatin and noncarboplatin arms were compared. Genetic analyses were performed at the Center for Familial Breast and Ovarian Cancer in Cologne, Germany; data analysis, November 1 through December 31, 2015. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of patients who achieved pCR and disease-free survival after neoadjuvant treatment according to BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation status. For pCR rates, the ypT0/is ypN0 definition was used as a primary end point. Results: Of the 291 patients with TNBC, all were women; the mean (SD) age was 48 (11) years. The pCR rate in the carboplatin group was 56.8% (83 of 146) and 41.4% (60 of 145) in the noncarboplatin group (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95% CI, 1.17-2.97; P = .009). Pathogenic BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations were present in 50 of the 291 patients (17.2%). In the noncarboplatin arm, the pCR rate was 66.7% (16 of 24) for patients with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and 36.4% (44 of 121) for patients without (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.39-8.84; P = .008). The high pCR rate observed in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (16 of 24 [66.7%]) was not increased further by adding carboplatin (17 of 26 [65.4%]). In contrast, carboplatin increased response rates in patients without BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations: 66 of the 120 patients (55%) without BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations achieved pCR in the carboplatin arm vs 44 of the 121 patients (36.4%) in the noncarboplatin arm (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.28-3.58; P = .004). Patients without pathogenic BRCA1 and BRCA2 alterations showed elevated disease-free survival rates when carboplatin was added (without carboplatin, 73.5%; 95% CI, 64.1%-80.8% vs with carboplatin, 85.3%; 95% CI, 77.0%-90.8%; hazard ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.29-0.96; P = .04). Conclusions and Relevance: Under the nonstandard GeparSixto polychemotherapy regimen, patients without BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations benefited from the addition of carboplatin and those with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations showed superior response rates without additive effects observed for carboplatin. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01426880.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética
13.
Breast Care (Basel) ; 12(1): 15-19, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28611536

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with a poor prognosis and defines a subgroup of patients who do not benefit from endocrine or anti-HER2 therapy. Rather than being a biological entity, TNBC represents a heterogeneous disease, and further subtyping is necessary to establish targeted therapies. Germline mutational status may serve as a robust biomarker predicting therapy response, especially with respect to compounds challenging the DNA repair machinery. Patients with TNBC usually show an early onset of the disease, as well as a positive family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer in more than one third of all cases, which suggests that TNBC is closely associated with a hereditary disease cause. In unselected TNBC cases, the prevalence of pathogenic germline BRCA1/2 mutations is approximately twice as high as in breast cancer overall. Early age at diagnosis and positive family history are strong predictors for an increased BRCA1/2 mutation probability, which is up to 40% when both risk factors are considered. Apart from BRCA1/2, the rarely mutated breast cancer predisposition genes PALB2 and FANCM have been associated with TNBC. This review summarizes the role of germline mutational status in TNBC pathogenesis. Clinical trials addressing BRCA1/2 mutation carriers are discussed.

14.
Ginekol Pol ; 88(2): 56-60, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28326513

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to check the quality of computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system in comparison to the reference manual method as well as standardization of the computer-assisted semen assessment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted between January and June 2015 at the Andrology Laboratory of the Division of Infertility and Reproductive Endocrinology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland. The study group consisted of 230 men who gave sperm samples for the first time in our center as part of an infertility investigation. The samples underwent manual and computer-assisted assessment of concentration, motility and morphology. A total of 184 samples were examined twice: manually, according to the 2010 WHO recommendations, and with CASA, using the program set-tings provided by the manufacturer. Additionally, 46 samples underwent two manual analyses and two computer-assisted analyses. The p-value of p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found between all of the investigated sperm parameters, except for non-progressive motility, measured with CASA and manually. In the group of patients where all analyses with each method were performed twice on the same sample we found no significant differences between both assessments of the same probe, neither in the samples analyzed manually nor with CASA, although standard deviation was higher in the CASA group. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that computer-assisted sperm analysis requires further improvement for a wider application in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Computador/métodos , Infertilidade Masculina/diagnóstico , Análise do Sêmen/métodos , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides/patologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Referência , Espermatozoides/citologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 32(5): 791-800, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28083701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differential diagnosis of prenatally detected hyperechogenic and enlarged kidneys can be challenging as there is a broad phenotypic overlap between several rare genetic and non-genetic disorders. Metabolic diseases are among the rarest underlying disorders, but they demand particular attention as their prognosis and postnatal management differ from those of other diseases. METHODS: We report two cases of cystic, hyperechogenic and enlarged kidneys detected on prenatal ultrasound images, resulting in the suspected diagnosis of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). Postnatal clinical course and work-up, however, revealed early, neonatal forms of disorders of fatty acid oxidation (DFAO) in both cases, namely, glutaric acidemia type II, based on identification of the novel, homozygous splice-site mutation c.1117-2A > G in the ETFDH gene, in one case and carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency in the other case. RESULTS: Review of pre- and postnatal sonographic findings resulted in the identification of some important differences that might help to differentiate DFAO from ARPKD. In DFAO, kidneys are enlarged to a milder degree than in ARPKD, and the cysts are located ubiquitously, including also in the cortex and the subcapsular area. Interestingly, recent studies have pointed to a switch in metabolic homeostasis, referred to as the Warburg effect (aerobic glycolysis), as one of the underlying mechanisms of cell proliferation and cyst formation in cystic kidney disease. DFAO are characterized by the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in aerobic glycolysis, and thus they do resemble the Warburg effect. We therefore speculate that this inhibition might be one of the pathomechanisms of renal hyperproliferation and cyst formation in DFAO analogous to the reported findings in ARPKD. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal forms of DFAO can be differentially diagnosed in neonates with cystic or hyperechogenic kidneys and necessitate immediate biochemical work-up to provide early metabolic management.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo Lipídico/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim Policístico Autossômico Recessivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Flavoproteínas Transferidoras de Elétrons/genética , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Glutaratos/sangue , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Proteínas com Ferro-Enxofre/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo Lipídico/metabolismo , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo Lipídico/terapia , Mutação , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/genética , Rim Policístico Autossômico Recessivo/metabolismo , Rim Policístico Autossômico Recessivo/terapia , Gravidez , Ultrassonografia , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Adulto Jovem
16.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 26(2): 165-169, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27622768

RESUMO

Whereas RAD51C mutations increase the relative risk for ovarian cancer (OC) to 5.88 (95% confidence interval=2.91-11.88, P=7.65×10), the associated risks for breast cancer (BC) remain largely unknown, as deleterious RAD51C alterations are extremely rare in BC-only families. Here, we report the results of a RAD51C mutational screening in a large series of German familial index patients negative for pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutations and the in-vitro characterization of two novel exonic RAD51C splice-site mutations. A total of 610 index cases derived from BC/OC (n=587) or OC-only families (n=23) were screened for potentially deleterious germline mutations in RAD51C. The frequencies of two splice-site mutations were assessed by single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping in 1410 additional cases not enriched for OC family history. In three independent families, we identified novel splice-site mutations affecting the last nucleotide of exon 2 (c.404G>C, c.404G>T). Both mutations disrupt proper RAD51C pre-mRNA processing and cause a missense substitution immediately followed by a stop codon (p.Cys135Serfs*2; p.Cys135Leufs*2). Even though both mutations have similar effects on the protein level, they are associated with either BC/OC, OC-only, or BC-only family histories. The rare finding of a clearly truncating RAD51C mutation in an early-onset BC patient with a BC-only family history supports the notion that compromised RAD51C function may result in both BC and OC. Large international collaborative studies are needed to quantify the relative risk of RAD51C alterations for BC and to unravel the genetic modifying factors that determine phenotypic variability with respect to cancer site.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Éxons , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Linhagem
17.
JAMA Oncol ; 3(9): 1245-1248, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28033443

RESUMO

Importance: Germline mutations in established moderately or highly penetrant risk genes for breast cancer (BC) and/or ovarian cancer (OC), including BRCA1 and BRCA2, explain fewer than half of all familial BC and/or OC cases. Based on the genotyping of 2 loss-of-function (LoF) variants c.5101C>T (p.GIn1701Ter [rs147021911]) and c.5791C>T (p.Arg1931Ter [rs144567652]), the FANCM gene has been suggested as a novel BC predisposition gene, while the analysis of the entire coding region of the FANCM gene in familial index cases and geographically matched controls is pending. Objectives: To assess the mutational spectrum within the FANCM gene, and to determine a potential association of LoF germline mutations within the FANCM gene with BC and/or OC risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: For the purpose of identification and characterization of novel BC and/or OC predisposition genes, a total of 2047 well-characterized familial BC index cases, 628 OC cases, and 2187 geographically matched controls were screened for LoF mutations within the FANCM gene by next-generation sequencing. All patients previously tested negative for pathogenic BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. All data collection occurred between June 1, 2013, and April 30, 2016. Data analysis was performed from May 1, 2016, to July 1, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: FANCM LoF mutation frequencies in patients with BC and/or OC were compared with the FANCM LoF mutation frequencies in geographically matched controls by univariate logistic regression. Positive associations were stratified by age at onset and cancer family history. Results: In this case-control study, 2047 well-characterized familial female BC index cases, 628 OC cases, and 2187 geographically matched controls were screened for truncating FANCM alterations. Heterozygous LoF mutations within the FANCM gene were significantly associated with familial BC risk, with an overall odds ratio (OR) of 2.05 (95% CI, 0.94-4.54; P = .049) and a mutation frequency of 1.03% in index cases. In familial patients whose BC onset was before age 51 years, an elevated OR of 2.44 (95% CI, 1.08-5.59; P = .02) was observed. A more pronounced association was identified for patients with a triple-negative BC tumor phenotype (OR, 3.75; 95% CI, 1.00-12.85; P = .02). No significant association was detected for unselected OC cases (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 0.57-5.08; P = .27). Conclusions and Relevance: Based on the significant associations of heterozygous LoF mutations with early-onset or triple-negative BC, FANCM should be included in diagnostic gene panel testing for individual risk assessment. Larger studies are required to determine age-dependent disease risks for BC and to assess a potential role of FANCM mutations in OC pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Mutação , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética
18.
J Med Genet ; 53(7): 465-71, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26928436

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterise the prevalence of pathogenic germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in families with breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) history. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from 21 401 families were gathered between 1996 and 2014 in a clinical setting in the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer, comprising full pedigrees with cancer status of all individual members at the time of first counselling, and BRCA1/2 mutation status of the index patient. RESULTS: The overall BRCA1/2 mutation prevalence was 24.0% (95% CI 23.4% to 24.6%). Highest mutation frequencies were observed in families with at least two OCs (41.9%, 95% CI 36.1% to 48.0%) and families with at least one breast and one OC (41.6%, 95% CI 40.3% to 43.0%), followed by male BC with at least one female BC or OC (35.8%; 95% CI 32.2% to 39.6%). In families with a single case of early BC (<36 years), mutations were found in 13.7% (95% CI 11.9% to 15.7%). Postmenopausal unilateral or bilateral BC did not increase the probability of mutation detection. Occurrence of premenopausal BC and OC in the same woman led to higher mutation frequencies compared with the occurrence of these two cancers in different individuals (49.0%; 95% CI 41.0% to 57.0% vs 31.5%; 95% CI 28.0% to 35.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide guidance for healthcare professionals and decision-makers to identify individuals who should undergo genetic testing for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. Moreover, it supports informed decision-making of counselees on the uptake of genetic testing.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 25(11): 2256-2268, 2016 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27008870

RESUMO

A recent analysis using family history weighting and co-observation classification modeling indicated that BRCA1 c.594-2A > C (IVS9-2A > C), previously described to cause exon 10 skipping (a truncating alteration), displays characteristics inconsistent with those of a high risk pathogenic BRCA1 variant. We used large-scale genetic and clinical resources from the ENIGMA, CIMBA and BCAC consortia to assess pathogenicity of c.594-2A > C. The combined odds for causality considering case-control, segregation and breast tumor pathology information was 3.23 × 10-8 Our data indicate that c.594-2A > C is always in cis with c.641A > G. The spliceogenic effect of c.[594-2A > C;641A > G] was characterized using RNA analysis of human samples and splicing minigenes. As expected, c.[594-2A > C; 641A > G] caused exon 10 skipping, albeit not due to c.594-2A > C impairing the acceptor site but rather by c.641A > G modifying exon 10 splicing regulatory element(s). Multiple blood-based RNA assays indicated that the variant allele did not produce detectable levels of full-length transcripts, with a per allele BRCA1 expression profile composed of ≈70-80% truncating transcripts, and ≈20-30% of in-frame Δ9,10 transcripts predicted to encode a BRCA1 protein with tumor suppression function.We confirm that BRCA1c.[594-2A > C;641A > G] should not be considered a high-risk pathogenic variant. Importantly, results from our detailed mRNA analysis suggest that BRCA-associated cancer risk is likely not markedly increased for individuals who carry a truncating variant in BRCA1 exons 9 or 10, or any other BRCA1 allele that permits 20-30% of tumor suppressor function. More generally, our findings highlight the importance of assessing naturally occurring alternative splicing for clinical evaluation of variants in disease-causing genes.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética
20.
Breast Cancer Res ; 15(6): R120, 2013 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24359560

RESUMO

RAD51C is an integral part of the DNA double-strand repair through homologous recombination, and monoallelic mutations were found in ~1.3% of BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer (BC) and/or ovarian cancer (OC) families. Several studies confirmed the occurrence of RAD51C mutations predominantly in BC and/or OC families, although with varying frequencies, clearly establishing RAD51C as a cancer-predisposing gene. There is ongoing debate whether pathogenic RAD51C alterations increase the relative risk for BC in addition to that for OC, which was estimated to be 5.88 (95% confidence interval = 2.91 to 11.88; P = 7.65 × 10(-7)).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Rad51 Recombinase/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Humanos , Linhagem
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