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1.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(1): e24414, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1/2 mutation carriers are recommended to undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) at 35 to 45 years of age. RRSO substantially decreases ovarian cancer risk, but at the cost of immediate menopause. Knowledge about the potential adverse effects of premenopausal RRSO, such as increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cognitive dysfunction, and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL), is limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the long-term health effects of premenopausal RRSO on cardiovascular disease, bone health, cognitive functioning, urological complaints, sexual functioning, and HRQoL in women with high familial risk of breast or ovarian cancer. METHODS: We will conduct a multicenter cross-sectional study with prospective follow-up, nested in a nationwide cohort of women at high familial risk of breast or ovarian cancer. A total of 500 women who have undergone RRSO before 45 years of age, with a follow-up period of at least 10 years, will be compared with 250 women (frequency matched on current age) who have not undergone RRSO or who have undergone RRSO at over 55 years of age. Participants will complete an online questionnaire on lifestyle, medical history, cardiovascular risk factors, osteoporosis, cognitive function, urological complaints, and HRQoL. A full cardiovascular assessment and assessment of bone mineral density will be performed. Blood samples will be obtained for marker analysis. Cognitive functioning will be assessed objectively with an online neuropsychological test battery. RESULTS: This study was approved by the institutional review board in July 2018. In February 2019, we included our first participant. As of November 2020, we had enrolled 364 participants in our study. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge from this study will contribute to counseling women with a high familial risk of breast/ovarian cancer about the long-term health effects of premenopausal RRSO. The results can also be used to offer health recommendations after RRSO. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03835793; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03835793. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/24414.

2.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6(1): 60, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298933

RESUMO

We aimed to assess contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) compared with invasive breast cancer (BC). Women diagnosed with DCIS (N = 28,003) or stage I-III BC (N = 275,836) between 1989 and 2017 were identified from the nationwide Netherlands Cancer Registry. Cumulative incidences were estimated, accounting for competing risks, and hazard ratios (HRs) for metachronous invasive CBC. To evaluate effects of adjuvant systemic therapy and screening, separate analyses were performed for stage I BC without adjuvant systemic therapy and by mode of first BC detection. Multivariable models including clinico-pathological and treatment data were created to assess CBC risk prediction performance in DCIS patients. The 10-year cumulative incidence of invasive CBC was 4.8% for DCIS patients (CBC = 1334). Invasive CBC risk was higher in DCIS patients compared with invasive BC overall (HR = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.17), and lower compared with stage I BC without adjuvant systemic therapy (HR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.82-0.92). In patients diagnosed ≥2011, the HR for invasive CBC was 1.38 (95% CI = 1.35-1.68) after screen-detected DCIS compared with screen-detected invasive BC, and was 2.14 (95% CI = 1.46-3.13) when not screen-detected. The C-index was 0.52 (95% CI = 0.50-0.54) for invasive CBC prediction in DCIS patients. In conclusion, CBC risks are low overall. DCIS patients had a slightly higher risk of invasive CBC compared with invasive BC, likely explained by the risk-reducing effect of (neo)adjuvant systemic therapy among BC patients. For support of clinical decision making more information is needed to differentiate CBC risks among DCIS patients.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113088

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The addition of trastuzumab to adjuvant chemotherapy has improved the outcome of human epidermal growth-factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer. Uncertainty remains about the optimal timing of trastuzumab treatment. Therefore, we compared long-term outcome after concurrent versus sequential treatment, in a population-based setting, using data from the nationwide Netherlands Cancer Registry. METHODS: We identified 1843 women diagnosed in The Netherlands from January 1st 2005 until January 1st 2008 with primary, HER2-positive, T1-4NanyM0 breast cancer who received adjuvant chemotherapy and trastuzumab. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and Cox regression were used to compare recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) between women who received trastuzumab concurrently with versus sequentially after chemotherapy. Hazard ratios (HR) were adjusted for age, year of diagnosis, grade, pathological T-stage, number of positive lymph nodes, ER-status, PR-status, socio-economic status, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy, ovarian ablation, and type of chemotherapy. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 8.2 years, RFS events had occurred in 224 out of 1235 (18.1%) concurrently treated women and 129 out of 608 (21.2%) sequentially treated women (adjusted-HR 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-1.24; P = 0.580). Deaths occurred in 182/1235 (14.7%) concurrently treated women and 104/608 (17.1%) sequentially treated women (adjusted-HR 0.92; 95% CI 0.65-1.29; P = 0.635). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this population-based study are consistent with earlier randomized trials, demonstrating a non-significant difference in outcome for concurrently treated women compared to those who were treated sequentially, suggesting both options are justified.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(5): 837-848, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022221

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can be used to stratify women according to their risk of developing primary invasive breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the association between a recently validated PRS of 313 germline variants (PRS313) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. We included 56,068 women of European ancestry diagnosed with first invasive breast cancer from 1990 onward with follow-up from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Metachronous CBC risk (N = 1,027) according to the distribution of PRS313 was quantified using Cox regression analyses. We assessed PRS313 interaction with age at first diagnosis, family history, morphology, ER status, PR status, and HER2 status, and (neo)adjuvant therapy. In studies of Asian women, with limited follow-up, CBC risk associated with PRS313 was assessed using logistic regression for 340 women with CBC compared with 12,133 women with unilateral breast cancer. Higher PRS313 was associated with increased CBC risk: hazard ratio per standard deviation (SD) = 1.25 (95%CI = 1.18-1.33) for Europeans, and an OR per SD = 1.15 (95%CI = 1.02-1.29) for Asians. The absolute lifetime risks of CBC, accounting for death as competing risk, were 12.4% for European women at the 10th percentile and 20.5% at the 90th percentile of PRS313. We found no evidence of confounding by or interaction with individual characteristics, characteristics of the primary tumor, or treatment. The C-index for the PRS313 alone was 0.563 (95%CI = 0.547-0.586). In conclusion, PRS313 is an independent factor associated with CBC risk and can be incorporated into CBC risk prediction models to help improve stratification and optimize surveillance and treatment strategies.

5.
Gesundheitswesen ; 82(8-09): 716-722, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961567

RESUMO

" There are more and more good reasons for using existing care data, with the focus in particular on the use of register data. The associated, clearly structured methodological procedure has so far been insufficiently combined, prepared and presented transparently. The German Network for Health Services Research (DNVF) has therefore set up an ad hoc commission for the use of routine practice data (RWE/RWD). The rapid report prepared by IQWiG on the scientific development of concepts for "generation of care-related data and their evaluation for the purpose of benefit assessment of medicinal products according to § 35a SGB V" is an essential step for the use of register data for the generation of evidence. The "Memorandum Register - Update 2019" published by DNVF 2020 also describes the requirements and methodological foundations of registers. Best practice examples from oncology, which are based on the uniform oncological basic data set for clinical cancer registration (§ 65c SGB V), show, for example, that guidelines can be checked and recommendations for guidelines and necessary interventions can be derived in the sense of knowledge-generating health services research using register data. At the same time, however, there are no clear quality requirements and structured formal and content-related procedures in the areas of data consolidation, data verification and the use of specific methods depending on the question at hand. The previously inconsistent requirements are to be revised and a method guide for the use of suited data is to be developed and published. The first chapter of the manual on methods of care-related data explains the objective and structure of the manual. It explains why the use of the term "routine practice data" is more effective than the use of the terms Real Word Data (RWD) and Real World Evidence (RWE). By avoiding the term "real world" it should be emphasized in particular that high-quality research can also be based on routine practice data (e. g. register-based comparative studies).


Assuntos
Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa , Análise de Dados , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Alemanha
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964358

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Anthracyclines and trastuzumab can increase the risk of heart failure (HF), but long-term cardiotoxicity data in breast cancer (BC) patients treated at younger ages are limited. Furthermore, it is unknown whether aromatase inhibitors are associated with HF risk. METHODS: HF risk was studied in a multicenter cohort of BC survivors treated during 2000-2009, at age < 61 years. Information on treatment and cardiovascular disease incidence was collected through medical records, general practitioners and cardiologists. Analyses included multivariable Cox regression and cumulative incidence curves. RESULTS: In total, 10,209 women with a median age at BC diagnosis of 50.3 years and a median follow-up of 8.9 years were enrolled in the study. Anthracycline-based chemotherapy was associated with HF (hazard ratio [HR] 2.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-3.39) and risk increased with increasing cumulative anthracycline dose. For trastuzumab, HF risk was highest within the first 2 years after treatment (HR0-2 years: 13.06, 95% CI 5.70-29.92) and decreased thereafter (HR2-4 years: 4.84, 95% CI 1.99-11.75 and HR≥4 years: 0.64, 95% CI 0.23-1.81). The 10-year cumulative incidence of HF was 4.8% (95% CI 3.2-6.8) among patients treated with anthracyclines and trastuzumab. One-third of patients who developed HF after trastuzumab had long-term impaired cardiac function. Patients treated with aromatase inhibitors alone also had higher HF risk (HR 2.18, 95% CI 1.24-3.82) compared to patients not receiving endocrine therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results stress the importance of considering anthracycline-free regimens in BC patients who need trastuzumab-containing treatment. The association between aromatase inhibitors and HF needs confirmation.

7.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(12): 1663-1669, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In Germany the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic situation is unique among large European countries in that incidence and case fatality rate are distinctly lower. We describe the clinical course and examine factors associated with outcomes among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Germany. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study we included patients with COVID-19 admitted to a national network of German hospitals between February 12 and June 12, 2020. We examined demographic characteristics, comorbidities and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: We included 1904 patients with a median age of 73 years, 48.5% (924/1904) of whom were female. The mortality rate was 17% (317/1835; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 16-19), the rate of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) was 21% (399/1860; 95%CI 20-23), and the rate of invasive mechanical ventilation was 14% (250/1850: 95%CI 12-15). The most prominent risk factors for death were male sex (hazard ratio (HR) 1.45; 95%CI 1.15-1.83), pre-existing lung disease (HR 1.61; 95%CI 1.20-2.16), and increased patient age (HR 4.11 (95%CI 2.57-6.58) for age >79 years versus <60 years). Among patients admitted to the ICU, the mortality rate was 29% (109/374; 95%CI 25-34) and higher in ventilated (33% [77/235; 95%CI 27-39]) than in non-ventilated ICU patients (23%, 32/139; 95%CI 16-30; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide series of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Germany, in-hospital and ICU mortality rates were substantial. The most prominent risk factors for death were male sex, pre-existing lung disease, and greater patient age.

8.
Phys Med ; 76: 173-176, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693353

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate the number of patients in OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries who receive a cumulative effective dose (CED) ≥ 100 mSv from recurrent computed tomography (CT) exams. METHODS: Taking into account recently published data on the number of CTs per patient and the fraction of patients with CED ≥ 100 mSv as well as country-specific data for the number of CT exams/1,000 population from OECD publication, this paper makes estimations for 35 OECD countries. RESULTS: The estimated total number of patients with CED ≥ 100 mSv for all 35 OECD countries combined in a 5-year period is around 2.5 million (2,493,685) in a population of 1.2 billion (1,176,641,900), i.e., 0.21% of the population. Expressed per 1,000 population, the range is from 0.51 for Finland to 2.94 for the US, a nearly six-fold difference. Countries with more than 2 patients with CED ≥ 100 mSv in a 5-yr period per 1,000 population are: Belgium, France, Iceland, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Portugal, Turkey, and US. CONCLUSIONS: The first estimates of the number of patients likely receiving CED ≥ 100 mSv through recurrent CT exams in 35 OECD countries indicate that 2.5 million patients reach this level in a 5-year period. There is an urgent need for various stakeholders including medical physicists, referring physicians, health policy makers, manufacturers of CT equipment and epidemiologists to attend to the issue in the interest of patient radiation safety.

9.
J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr ; 2020(56): 188-200, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation is an established carcinogen, but risks from low-dose exposures are controversial. Since the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation VII review of the epidemiological data in 2006, many subsequent publications have reported excess cancer risks from low-dose exposures. Our aim was to systematically review these studies to assess the magnitude of the risk and whether the positive findings could be explained by biases. METHODS: Eligible studies had mean cumulative doses of less than 100 mGy, individualized dose estimates, risk estimates, and confidence intervals (CI) for the dose-response and were published in 2006-2017. We summarized the evidence for bias (dose error, confounding, outcome ascertainment) and its likely direction for each study. We tested whether the median excess relative risk (ERR) per unit dose equals zero and assessed the impact of excluding positive studies with potential bias away from the null. We performed a meta-analysis to quantify the ERR and assess consistency across studies for all solid cancers and leukemia. RESULTS: Of the 26 eligible studies, 8 concerned environmental, 4 medical, and 14 occupational exposure. For solid cancers, 16 of 22 studies reported positive ERRs per unit dose, and we rejected the hypothesis that the median ERR equals zero (P = .03). After exclusion of 4 positive studies with potential positive bias, 12 of 18 studies reported positive ERRs per unit dose (P = .12). For leukemia, 17 of 20 studies were positive, and we rejected the hypothesis that the median ERR per unit dose equals zero (P = .001), also after exclusion of 5 positive studies with potential positive bias (P = .02). For adulthood exposure, the meta-ERR at 100 mGy was 0.029 (95% CI = 0.011 to 0.047) for solid cancers and 0.16 (95% CI = 0.07 to 0.25) for leukemia. For childhood exposure, the meta-ERR at 100 mGy for leukemia was 2.84 (95% CI = 0.37 to 5.32); there were only two eligible studies of all solid cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic assessments in this monograph showed that these new epidemiological studies are characterized by several limitations, but only a few positive studies were potentially biased away from the null. After exclusion of these studies, the majority of studies still reported positive risk estimates. We therefore conclude that these new epidemiological studies directly support excess cancer risks from low-dose ionizing radiation. Furthermore, the magnitude of the cancer risks from these low-dose radiation exposures was statistically compatible with the radiation dose-related cancer risks of the atomic bomb survivors.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr ; 2020(56): 97-113, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657348

RESUMO

Whether low-dose ionizing radiation can cause cancer is a critical and long-debated question in radiation protection. Since the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation report by the National Academies in 2006, new publications from large, well-powered epidemiological studies of low doses have reported positive dose-response relationships. It has been suggested, however, that biases could explain these findings. We conducted a systematic review of epidemiological studies with mean doses less than 100 mGy published 2006-2017. We required individualized doses and dose-response estimates with confidence intervals. We identified 26 eligible studies (eight environmental, four medical, and 14 occupational), including 91 000 solid cancers and 13 000 leukemias. Mean doses ranged from 0.1 to 82 mGy. The excess relative risk at 100 mGy was positive for 16 of 22 solid cancer studies and 17 of 20 leukemia studies. The aim of this monograph was to systematically review the potential biases in these studies (including dose uncertainty, confounding, and outcome misclassification) and to assess whether the subset of minimally biased studies provides evidence for cancer risks from low-dose radiation. Here, we describe the framework for the systematic bias review and provide an overview of the eligible studies.

11.
J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr ; 2020(56): 133-153, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-dose, penetrating photon radiation exposure is ubiquitous, yet our understanding of cancer risk at low doses and dose rates derives mainly from high-dose studies. Although a large number of low-dose cancer studies have been recently published, concern exists about the potential for confounding to distort findings. The aim of this study was to describe and assess the likely impact of confounding and selection bias within the context of a systematic review. METHODS: We summarized confounding control methods for 26 studies published from 2006 to 2017 by exposure setting (environmental, medical, or occupational) and identified confounders of potential concern. We used information from these and related studies to assess evidence for confounding and selection bias. For factors in which direct or indirect evidence of confounding was lacking for certain studies, we used a theoretical adjustment to determine whether uncontrolled confounding was likely to have affected the results. RESULTS: For medical studies of childhood cancers, confounding by indication (CBI) was the main concern. Lifestyle-related factors were of primary concern for environmental and medical studies of adult cancers and for occupational studies. For occupational studies, other workplace exposures and healthy worker survivor bias were additionally of interest. For most of these factors, however, review of the direct and indirect evidence suggested that confounding was minimal. One study showed evidence of selection bias, and three occupational studies did not adjust for lifestyle or healthy worker survivor bias correlates. Theoretical adjustment for three factors (smoking and asbestos in occupational studies and CBI in childhood cancer studies) demonstrated that these were unlikely to explain positive study findings due to the rarity of exposure (eg, CBI) or the relatively weak association with the outcome (eg, smoking or asbestos and all cancers). CONCLUSION: Confounding and selection bias are unlikely to explain the findings from most low-dose radiation epidemiology studies.

12.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 635, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In its 2006 report, From cancer patient to cancer survivor: lost in transition, the U.S. Institute of Medicine raised the need for a more coordinated and comprehensive care model for cancer survivors. Given the ever increasing number of cancer survivors, in general, and prostate cancer survivors, in particular, there is a need for a more sustainable model of follow-up care. Currently, patients who have completed primary treatment for localized prostate cancer are often included in a specialist-based follow-up care program. General practitioners already play a key role in providing continuous and comprehensive health care. Studies in breast and colorectal cancer suggest that general practitioners could also consider to provide survivorship care in prostate cancer. However, empirical data are needed to determine whether follow-up care of localized prostate cancer survivors by the general practitioner is a feasible alternative. METHODS: This multicenter, randomized, non-inferiority study will compare specialist-based (usual care) versus general practitioner-based (intervention) follow-up care of prostate cancer survivors who have completed primary treatment (prostatectomy or radiotherapy) for localized prostate cancer. Patients are being recruited from hospitals in the Netherlands, and randomly (1:1) allocated to specialist-based (N = 195) or general practitioner-based (N = 195) follow-up care. This trial will evaluate the effectiveness of primary care-based follow-up, in comparison to usual care, in terms of adherence to the prostate cancer surveillance guideline for the timing and frequency of prostate-specific antigen assessments, the time from a biochemical recurrence to retreatment decision-making, the management of treatment-related side effects, health-related quality of life, prostate cancer-related anxiety, continuity of care, and cost-effectiveness. The outcome measures will be assessed at randomization (≤6 months after treatment), and 12, 18, and 24 months after treatment. DISCUSSION: This multicenter, prospective, randomized study will provide empirical evidence regarding the (cost-) effectiveness of specialist-based follow-up care compared to general practitioner-based follow-up care for localized prostate cancer survivors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Registry, Trial NL7068 (NTR7266). Prospectively registered on 11 June 2018.

13.
Radiother Oncol ; 151: 33-39, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679305

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between oesophagus dose-volume distribution and long-term risk of oesophageal cancer after radiation therapy for breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a case-control study nested within a cohort of 289,748 ≥5-year survivors of female breast cancer treated in 1943-2003 in five countries, doses to the second primary cancer (DSPC) and individual dose-volume histograms (DVH) to the entire oesophagus were reconstructed for 252 oesophageal cancer cases and 488 matched controls (median follow-up time: 13, range: 5-37 years). Using conditional logistic regression, we estimated excess odds ratios (EOR) of oesophageal cancer associated with DVH metrics. We also investigated whether DVH metrics confounded or modified DSPC-related -risk estimates. RESULTS: Among the DVH metrics evaluated, median dose (Dmedian) to the entire oesophagus had the best statistical performance for estimating risk of all histological types combined (EOR/Gy = 0.071, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.018 to 0.206). For squamous cell carcinoma, the most common subtype, the EOR/Gy for Dmedian increased by 31% (95% CI: 3% to 205%) for each increment of 10% of V30 (p = 0.02). Adjusting for DVH metrics did not materially change the EOR/Gy for DSPC, but there was a borderline significant positive interaction between DSPC and V30 (p = 0.07). CONCLUSION: This first study investigating the relationship between oesophagus dose-volume distribution and oesophageal cancer risk showed an increased risk per Gy for Dmedian with larger volumes irradiated at high doses. While current techniques allows better oesophagus sparing, constraints applied to Dmedian and V30 could potentially further reduce the risk of oesophageal cancer.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9143, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499558

RESUMO

We consider mice experiments where tumour cells are injected so that a tumour starts to grow. When the tumour reaches a certain volume, mice are randomized into treatment groups. Tumour volume is measured repeatedly until the mouse dies or is sacrificed. Tumour growth rates are compared between groups. We propose and evaluate linear regression for analysis accounting for the correlation among repeated measurements per mouse. More specifically, we examined five models with three different variance-covariance structures in order to recommend the least complex method for small to moderate sample sizes encountered in animal experiments. We performed a simulation study based on data from three previous experiments to investigate the properties of estimates of the difference between treatment groups. Models were estimated via marginal modelling using generalized least squares and restricted maximum likelihood estimation. A model with an autoregressive (AR-1) covariance structure was efficient and unbiased retaining nominal coverage and type I error when the AR-1 variance-covariance matrix correctly specified the association between repeated measurements. When the variance-covariance was misspecified, that model was still unbiased but the type I error and the coverage rates were affected depending on the degree of misspecification. A linear regression model with an autoregressive (AR-1) covariance structure is an adequate model to analyse experiments that compare tumour growth rates between treatment groups.

16.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 181(2): 423-434, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three tools are currently available to predict the risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). We aimed to compare the performance of the Manchester formula, CBCrisk, and PredictCBC in patients with invasive breast cancer (BC). METHODS: We analyzed data of 132,756 patients (4682 CBC) from 20 international studies with a median follow-up of 8.8 years. Prediction performance included discrimination, quantified as a time-dependent Area-Under-the-Curve (AUC) at 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of primary BC, and calibration, quantified as the expected-observed (E/O) ratio at 5 and 10 years and the calibration slope. RESULTS: The AUC at 10 years was: 0.58 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.57-0.59) for CBCrisk; 0.60 (95% CI 0.59-0.61) for the Manchester formula; 0.63 (95% CI 0.59-0.66) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.56-0.62) for PredictCBC-1A (for settings where BRCA1/2 mutation status is available) and PredictCBC-1B (for the general population), respectively. The E/O at 10 years: 0.82 (95% CI 0.51-1.32) for CBCrisk; 1.53 (95% CI 0.63-3.73) for the Manchester formula; 1.28 (95% CI 0.63-2.58) for PredictCBC-1A and 1.35 (95% CI 0.65-2.77) for PredictCBC-1B. The calibration slope was 1.26 (95% CI 1.01-1.50) for CBCrisk; 0.90 (95% CI 0.79-1.02) for PredictCBC-1A; 0.81 (95% CI 0.63-0.99) for PredictCBC-1B, and 0.39 (95% CI 0.34-0.43) for the Manchester formula. CONCLUSIONS: Current CBC risk prediction tools provide only moderate discrimination and the Manchester formula was poorly calibrated. Better predictors and re-calibration are needed to improve CBC prediction and to identify low- and high-CBC risk patients for clinical decision-making.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Mastectomia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/metabolismo , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
17.
Radiother Oncol ; 142: 175-179, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of target volume changes in brain metastases during fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (fSRS) and identify patients that benefit from MRI guidance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For 15 patients (18 lesions) receiving fSRS only (fSRSonly) and 19 patients (20 lesions) receiving fSRS postoperatively (fSRSpostop), a treatment planning MRI (MR0) and repeated MRI during treatment (MR1) were acquired. The impact of target volume changes on the target coverage was analyzed by evaluating the planned dose distribution (based on MR0) on the planning target volume (PTV) during treatment as defined on MR1. The predictive value of target volume changes before treatment (using the diagnostic MRI (MRD)) was studied to identify patients that experienced the largest changes during treatment. RESULTS: Target volume changes during fSRS did result in large declines of the PTV dose coverage up to -34.8% (median = 3.2%) for fSRSonly patients. For fSRSpostop the variation and declines were smaller (median PTV dose coverage change = -0.5% (-4.5% to 1.9%)). Target volumes changes did also impact the minimum dose in the PTV (fSRSonly; -2.7 Gy (-16.5 to 2.3 Gy), fSRSpostop; -0.4 Gy (-4.2 to 2.5 Gy)). Changes in target volume before treatment (i.e. seen between the MRD and MR0) predicted which patients experienced the largest dose coverage declines during treatment. CONCLUSION: Target volume changes in brain metastases during fSRS can result in worsening of the target dose coverage. Patients benefiting the most from a repeated MRI during treatment could be identified before treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Aesthet Surg J ; 40(2): 156-164, 2020 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast implant-related health problems are a subject of fierce debate. Reliable population-based estimates of implant prevalence rates are not available, however, due to a lack of historical registries and incomplete sales data, precluding absolute risk assessments. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the methodology of a novel procedure to determine Dutch breast implant prevalence based on the evaluation of routine chest radiographs. METHODS: The validity of the new method was first examined in a separate study. Eight reviewers examined a series of 180 chest radiographs with (n = 60) or without (n = 120) a breast implant confirmed by a computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scan. After a consensus meeting with best-performing expert reviewers, we reviewed 3000 chest radiographs of women aged 20 to 70 years in 2 large regional hospitals in the Netherlands in 2015. To calculate the national breast implant prevalence, regional prevalence variations were corrected utilizing the National Breast Cancer Screening Program. RESULTS: Eight reviewers scored with a median sensitivity of 71.7% (range, 41.7%-85.0%) and a median specificity of 94.6% (range, 73.4%-97.5%). After a consensus meeting and a reevaluation by best-performing expert reviewers, sensitivity was 79.9% and specificity was 99.2%. The estimated national prevalence of breast implants among women between 20 and 70 years was 3.0%, ranging from 1.7% at 21 to 30 years to 3.9% between 51 and 60 years. CONCLUSIONS: The novel method in this study was validated with a high sensitivity and specificity, resulting in accurate prevalence estimates and providing the opportunity to conduct absolute risk assessment studies on the health consequences of breast implants.


Assuntos
Implantes de Mama/estatística & dados numéricos , Mamografia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
19.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(2): 366-374, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to develop dose-response relationships for heart failure (HF) following radiation and anthracyclines in breast cancer treatment, and to assess HF associations with trastuzumab and endocrine therapies. METHODS AND RESULTS: A case-control study was performed within a cohort of breast cancer survivors treated during 1980-2009. Cases (n = 102) had HF as first cardiovascular diagnosis and were matched 1:3 on age and date of diagnosis. Individual cardiac radiation doses were estimated, and anthracycline doses and use of trastuzumab and endocrine therapy were abstracted from oncology notes. For HF cases who received radiotherapy, the estimated median mean heart dose (MHD) was 6.8 Gy [interquartile range (IQR) 0.9-13.7]. MHD was not associated with HF risk overall [excess rate ratio (ERR) = 1%/Gy, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2 to 10]. In patients treated with anthracyclines, exposure of ≥20% of the heart to ≥20 Gy was associated with a rate ratio of 5.7 (95% CI 1.7-21.7) compared to <10% exposed to ≥20 Gy. For cases who received radiotherapy, median cumulative anthracycline dose was 247 mg/m2 (IQR 240-319). A dose-dependent increase was observed after anthracycline without trastuzumab (ERR = 1.5% per mg/m2 , 95% CI 0.5-4.1). After anthracycline and trastuzumab, the rate ratio was 34.9 (95% CI 11.1-110.1) compared to no chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: In absence of anthracyclines, breast cancer radiotherapy was not associated with increased HF risk. Strongly elevated HF risks were observed after treatment with anthracyclines and also after treatment with trastuzumab. The benefits of these systemic treatments usually exceed the risks of HF, but our results emphasize the need to support ongoing efforts to evaluate preventative strategies.

20.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(5): 480-488, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An emerging body of research suggests that noncentral nervous system cancer may negatively impact the brain apart from effects of cancer treatment. However, studies assessing cognitive function in newly diagnosed cancer patients cannot exclude selection bias and psychological effects of cancer diagnosis. To overcome these limitations, we investigated trajectories of cognitive function of patients before cancer diagnosis. METHODS: Between 1989 and 2013, a total of 2059 participants from the population-based Rotterdam Study were diagnosed with noncentral nervous system cancer. Cognitive assessments were performed every 3 to 5 years using a neuropsychological battery. The general cognitive factor was composed of individual cognitive tests to assess global cognition. Using linear mixed models, we compared change in cognitive function of cancer case patients before diagnosis with cognitive change of age-matched cancer-free control subjects (1:2). In addition, we performed sensitivity analyses by discarding assessments of control subjects 5 years before the end of follow-up to exclude effects from potential undiagnosed cancer. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The Word Learning Test immediate recall declined faster among case patients than among control subjects (-0.05, 95% confidence interval = -0.09 to -0.01 vs 0.01, 95% confidence interval = -0.01 to 0.03; P for difference = .003). However, this difference was not statistically significant in sensitivity analyses. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences were observed in change of other individual cognitive tests and of the general cognitive factor. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we evaluated cognitive function in a large group of cancer patients prior to diagnosis, thereby excluding the psychological impact of cancer diagnosis and biased patient selection. In contrast to previous studies shortly after cancer diagnosis, we found no difference in change of cognitive function between cancer patients and control subjects.

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