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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this quality improvement initiative was to identify general surgery residents proficient in a non-English language and have each attempt the Clinician Cultural and Linguistic Assessment (CCLA) to become qualified bilingual staff speakers. METHODS: General surgery house staff were asked to self-identify as proficient in a language other than English. Fees for the certification examination were waived, and each resident was excused from clinical duties to complete the exam. McNemar's test was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: All residents responded to the initial survey, with 18/65 reporting a non-English language proficiency. Of the 12 residents who sat for the CCLA exam, 9 (75.0%) passed, with 5 certifying in the most commonly spoken non-English languages at this institution. The number of certified residents increased from 1 to 10 (1.5 % to 15.4%, p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Language barriers result in health care disparities for patients with limited English proficiency. This reproducible quality improvement initiative significantly increased the number of qualified bilingual speakers, while 25.0% of self-described proficient speakers did not demonstrate adequate language proficiency. These newly certified providers allow for increased language concordant care, which may be associated with improved outcomes.

2.
J Surg Res ; 251: 94-99, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) affects an estimated 350,000 to 600,000 individuals and causes approximately 100,000 deaths annually in the United States. Postoperative VTE is a core measure reported by The American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP). The objective of this research was to assess the validity of VTE events reported by NSQIP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis using NSQIP data from January 2006 through December 2018 and the electronic health record system data from five adult hospitals in the Johns Hopkins Health System. We included patients aged 18 years and older with a VTE event identified in our NSQIP data set. The main outcome measure was the proportion of valid VTE events, defined as concordant between the NSQIP data set and medical chart review for clinical documentation. RESULTS: Of 474 patients identified in our NSQIP database with a VTE, 26 (5.5%) did not meet the strict NSQIP definition of VTE. Nine had a preoperative history of DVT and no new postoperative event, seven had a negative workup for VTE, six had a peripheral arterial thrombus, two did not receive or refused therapy, one had an aortic thrombus, and one had a venous thrombosis in a surgical flap. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a considerable number of surgical patients misclassified as having a VTE in NSQIP, when did not truly. This highlights the need to improve definition specificity and standardize processes involved in data extraction, validation, and reporting to provide unbiased data for use in quality improvement.

3.
JAMA Surg ; 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995157
4.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227339, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racial disparities are common in healthcare. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of preventable harm, and disparities observed in prevention practices. We examined the impact of a patient-centered VTE education bundle on the non-administration of preventive prophylaxis by race. METHODS: A post-hoc, subset analysis (stratified by race) of a larger nonrandomized trial. Pre-post comparisons analysis were conducted on 16 inpatient units; study periods were October 2014 through March 2015 (baseline) and April through December 2015 (post-intervention). Patients on 4 intervention units received the patient-centered, nurse educator-led intervention if the electronic health record alerted a non-administered dose of VTE prophylaxis. Patients on 12 control units received no intervention. We compared the conditional odds of non-administered doses of VTE prophylaxis when patient refusal was a reason for non-administration, stratified by race. RESULTS: Of 272 patient interventions, 123 (45.2%) were white, 126 (46.3%) were black, and 23 (8.5%) were other races. A significant reduction was observed in the odds of non-administration of prophylaxis on intervention units compared to control units among patients who were black (OR 0.61; 95% CI, 0.46-0.81, p<0.001), white (OR 0.57; 95% CI, 0.44-0.75, p<0.001), and other races (OR 0.50; 95% CI, 0.29-0.88, p = 0.015). CONCLUSION: Our finding suggests that the patient education materials, developed collaboratively with a diverse group of patients, improved patient's understanding and the importance of VTE prevention through prophylaxis. Quality improvement interventions should examine any differential effects by patient characteristics to ensure disparities are addressed and all patients experience the same benefits.

6.
World Neurosurg ; 134: e664-e671, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a cause of considerable morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. An evidence-based algorithm was developed and implemented at our institution to guide perioperative VTE prophylaxis management. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated compliance with prescription of risk-appropriate VTE prophylaxis and administration of prescribed VTE prophylaxis in neurosurgery patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of postoperative neurosurgery patients at a single institution with subsequent diagnosis of acute VTE during their inpatient stay. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis and prescribing patterns. RESULTS: The incidence of VTE in our neurosurgery population was 248/13,913 (1.8%). Of the 123 patients, the median time to VTE diagnosis was 96 hours after surgery (interquartile range [IQR], 58-188 hours). A total of 108 patients (87.8%) were prescribed risk-appropriate VTE prophylaxis, among whom 61 (56.5%) received all doses as prescribed. Fifty-three patients (43.1%) missed ≥1 dose of prescribed prophylaxis and the median missed doses was 3 (IQR, 0-3). The median time to first dose of pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis was 42 hours (IQR, 28-51). More than half (n = 63, 51.2%) of the VTE risk assessments contained ≥1 error, of which 15 (23.8%) would have resulted in a change in recommendation. CONCLUSIONS: Our evidence-based VTE prophylaxis algorithm was not accurately completed in more than half of patients. Many patients who developed VTE had a defect in their VTE prophylaxis management during their inpatient stay. Research to improve optimal VTE prevention practice in neurosurgery patients is needed.

7.
Ann Surg ; 271(1): 114-121, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29864092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of optimization of preoperative comorbidities by nonsurgical clinicians on short-term postoperative outcomes. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Preoperative comorbidities can have substantial effects on operative risk and outcomes. The modifiability of these comorbidity-associated surgical risks remains poorly understood. METHODS: We identified patients with a major comorbidity (eg, diabetes, heart failure) undergoing an elective colectomy in a multipayer national administrative database (2010-2014). Patients were included if they could be matched to a preoperative surgical clinic visit within 90 days of an operative intervention by the same surgeon. The explanatory variable of interest ("preoperative optimization") was defined by whether the patient was seen by an appropriate nonsurgical clinician between surgical consultation and subsequent surgery. We assessed the impact of an optimization visit on postoperative complications with use of propensity score matching and multilevel, multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: We identified 4531 colectomy patients with a major potentially modifiable comorbidity (propensity weighted and matched effective sample size: 6037). After matching, the group without an optimization visit had a higher rate of complications (34.6% versus 29.7%, P = 0.001). An optimization visit conferred a 31% reduction in the odds of a complication (P < 0.001) in an adjusted analysis. Median preoperative costs increased by $684 (P < 0.001) in the optimized group, and a complication increased total costs of care by $14,724 (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: We demonstrated an association between use of nonsurgical clinician visits by comorbid patients prior to surgery and a significantly lower rate of complications. These findings support the prospective study of preoperative optimization as a potential mechanism for improving postoperative outcomes.

8.
Urol Oncol ; 38(1): 6.e1-6.e7, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522864

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Conditional survival (CS) represents the probability that a cancer patient will survive some additional number of years, given that the patient has already survived for a certain period of time. CS estimates, therefore, serve as better measures of survival probability compared to standard estimates as they incorporate patient survivorship. Stage-specific CS has not been widely investigated in the context of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after nephrectomy. We aimed to examine this phenomenon. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed retrospective data on a population-based cohort of 87,225 surgically-treated RCC patients extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2004-2015) and on a similar validation cohort of 1,642 patients from our institution (1995-2015). 5-year cancer-specific CS estimates stratified by stage were obtained using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the possible variation in risk of cancer-specific mortality by stage at nephrectomy and with increasing postoperative survivorship. RESULTS: 5-year cancer-specific survival rates at time of nephrectomy for stage I, II, III, and IV patients in the population-based cohort were 97.4%, 89.9%, 77.9%, and 26.7%, respectively. Improvement in 5-year CS was mainly observed in surviving patients with advanced-stage disease; given 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years of survivorship after nephrectomy, the subsequent 5-year cancer-specific survival rates were, respectively, 79.3% (+1.8% increase over previous survival probability), 81.3% (+2.5%), 83.3% (+2.5%), 84.3% (+1.2%), and 85.1% (+1.0%) for stage III, and 34.6% (+29.6%), 42.5% (+22.8%), 49.0% (+15.3%), 55.7% (+13.7%), and 58.6% (+5.2%) for stage IV. A similar trend was established in the validation cohort. Findings were confirmed upon multivariable analyses. CONCLUSIONS: CS after nephrectomy for RCC varies dramatically by stage of disease. Gains in CS over time occur primarily among patients with advanced-stage disease. Stage-specific CS estimates can help urologists better plan postoperative surveillance for RCC patients.

9.
Surg Endosc ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients requiring emergent surgery for hernia vary widely in presentation and management. The purpose of this study was to determine if the variation in timing of urgent surgery impacts surgical outcomes. METHODS: The national NSQIP database for years 2011-2016 was queried for emergent surgeries for abdominal hernia resulting in obstruction or gangrene by primary post-op diagnosis. Diaphragmatic hernias were excluded. Patients were grouped by surgical timing from admission to day of surgery: same day, next day, and longer delay. Multinomial propensity score weighting was used to address potential differences in underlying covariates' clustering across the timing groups followed by multivariable logistic regression of morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Weighted analysis yielded an effective sample size of 76,364. Hernia types included inguinal (20.9%); femoral (6.7%); umbilical (20.2%); ventral (41.0%); and other (10.4%). Delayed surgery was associated with increased rates of major complications (26.4% vs. 20.9%, p < 0.001), longer operative times (+ 12.5 min, p < 0.001), longer postoperative lengths of stay (+ 1.6 days, p < 0.001), increased re-operations (5.9% vs. 4.7%, p = 0.019), increased readmissions (7.0% vs. 5.7%, p = 0.004), and increased 30-day mortality (2.4% vs. 1.7%, p = 0.002). When controlling for other factors, next-day surgery (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.05-1.45, p = 0.009) and surgery delayed more than one day (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.13-1.73, p < 0.002) were associated with an increased odds of a major complication. Mortality and readmission by timing of surgery were not independently significant. CONCLUSIONS: Delay in surgery for emergent hernias increased the odds of major morbidity but not mortality. Patients presenting with hernia and an indication for urgent surgical intervention may benefit from an operation as soon as feasible rather than warrant waiting for further physiologic optimization, medical clearance, or specialized surgical personnel.

12.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 62(11): 1371-1380, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with Crohn's disease are at increased risk of postoperative venous thromboembolism. Historically, extended outpatient prophylaxis has not met conventional measures of societal cost-benefit advantage. However, extended prophylaxis for patients with Crohn's disease may be more cost-effective because of the patients' high thrombotic risk and long life expectancy. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of extended prophylaxis in patients with Crohn's disease after abdominal surgery. DESIGN: A decision tree model was used to assess the incremental cost-effectiveness and cost per case averted with extended-duration venous thromboembolism prophylaxis following abdominal surgery. SETTING: The risk of a postdischarge thrombotic event, age at surgery, type of thrombotic event, prophylaxis risk reduction, bleeding complications, and mortality were estimated by using existing published sources. PATIENTS: Studied were patients with Crohn's disease versus routine care. INTERVENTION: We constructed a decision analysis to compare costs and outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease postoperatively with and without extended prophylaxis over a lifetime horizon. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Productivity costs ($) and benefits (quality-adjusted life-year) were used to reflect a societal perspective and were time discounted at 3%. Multivariable probabilistic sensitivity analysis accounted for uncertainty in probabilities, costs, and utility weights. RESULTS: With the use of reference parameters, the individual expected societal total cost of care was $399.83 without and $1387.95 with prophylaxis. Preventing a single mortality with prophylaxis would cost $43.00 million (number needed to treat: 39,839 individuals). The incremental cost was $1.90 million per quality-adjusted life-year. Adjusting across a range of scenarios upheld these conclusions 88% of the time. With further sensitivity testing, subpopulations with postdischarge thrombosis rates greater than 4.9% favors postoperative extended-duration venous thromboembolism prophylaxis. LIMITATIONS: Further investigation is needed to determine if specific high-risk individuals can be preemptively identified in the Crohn's surgical population for targeted prophylaxis. CONCLUSION: Extended prophylaxis in patients with Crohn's disease postoperatively is not cost-effective when the cumulative incidence of posthospital thrombosis remains less than 4.9%. These findings are driven by the low absolute risk of thrombosis in this population and the considerable cost of universal treatment. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A998. LIMITACIONES DE COSTO-BENEFICIO DE LA PROFILAXIS AMBULATORIA PROLONGADA DEL TROMBOEMBOLISMO VENOSO DESPUÉS DE CIRUGÍA EN CASOS DE ENFERMEDAD DE CROHN:: Los pacientes con enfermedad de Crohn tienen un mayor riesgo de tromboembolismo venoso postoperatorio. Históricamente, la profilaxis ambulatoria prolongada no ha cumplido con las medidas convencionales de ventajas en costo-beneficio para la sociedad. Sin embargo, la profilaxis prolongada en los pacientes con Crohn puede ser más rentable debido al alto riesgo trombótico y a una larga esperanza de vida en estos pacientes.Evaluar la rentabilidad de la profilaxis prolongada en pacientes postoperados de un Crohn.Se utilizó un modelo de árbol de decisión para evaluar el incremento de rentabilidad y el costo por cada caso evitado con la profilaxis prolongada de tromboembolismo venoso después de cirugía abdominal.Se calcularon utilizando fuentes publicadas el riesgo de evento trombótico posterior al alta, la edad del paciente al momento de la cirugía, el tipo de evento trombótico, la reducción del riesgo de profilaxis, las complicaciones hemorrágicas y la mortalidad.Se estudiaron los pacientes de atención rutinaria versus aquellos portadores de Crohn.Construimos un arbol de análisis decisional para comparar costos y resultados de pacientes portadores de Crohn, con y sin profilaxis prolongada en el postoperatorio en un horizonte de por vida.Los costos de productividad ($) y los beneficios (año de vida ajustado por calidad) se utilizaron para reflejar la perspectiva social y se descontaron en el tiempo de un 3%. El análisis de sensibilidad probabilística multivariable dió cuenta de la incertidumbre en las probabilidades, costos y peso de utilidades.Usando parámetros de referencia, el costo total social esperado de la atención individual fue de $ 399.83 sin y $ 1,387.95 con profilaxis. La prevención del deceso de un paciente con profilaxis costaría $ 43.00 millones (valor requerido para tratar: 39,839 individuos). El costo incrementado fue de $ 1.90 millones por año de vida ajustado por la calidad. El ajuste a través de una gama de escenarios confirmó estas conclusiones el 88% del tiempo. Con pruebas de sensibilidad adicionales, las subpoblaciones con tasas de trombosis posteriores al alta fueron superiores al 4,9% y favorecían la profilaxis prolongada del tromboembolismo venoso en el postoperatorio.Se necesita más investigación para determinar si se puede identificar de manera preventiva los individuos específicos de alto riesgo en la población quirúrgica de Crohn en casos de profilaxis dirigida.La profilaxis prolongada en pacientes postoperados de un Crohn no es rentable cuando la incidencia acumulada de trombosis posthospitalaria sigue siendo inferior al 4,9%. Estos hallazgos son impulsados por el bajo riesgo absoluto de trombosis en esta población y el costo considerable del tratamiento universal. Vea el resumen del video en http://links.lww.com/DCR/A998.


Assuntos
Quimioprevenção , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Doença de Crohn/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Tromboembolia Venosa , Quimioprevenção/economia , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Colectomia/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Risco Ajustado , Prevenção Secundária/economia , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Estados Unidos , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle
13.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 4(1): e000336, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392284

RESUMO

Background: For years, controversy has existed about the ideal approach for cervical spine clearance in obtunded, blunt trauma patients. However, recent national guidelines suggest that MRI is not necessary for collar clearance in these patients. The purpose of this study was to identify the extent of national variation in the use of MRI and assess patient-specific and hospital-specific factors associated with the practice. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of the National Trauma Data Bank from 2007 to 2012. We included blunt trauma patients aged ≥18 years, admitted to level 1 or 2 trauma centers (TCs), with a Glasgow Coma Scale <8, Abbreviated Injury Scale >3 for the head and mechanically ventilated for more than 72 hours. Multilevel modeling was used to identify patient-level and hospital-level factors associated with spine MRI use. Results: 32 125 obtunded, blunt trauma patients treated at 395 unique TCs met our inclusion criteria. The mean proportion of patients who received MRI over the entire sample was 9.9%. The proportions of patients at each hospital who received a spine MRI ranged from 0.5% to 68.7%. Younger patients, with injuries from motor vehicle collisions and pedestrian injuries, were more likely to receive MRI. When controlling for other variables, Injury Severity Score (ISS) was not associated with MRI use. Hospitals in the Northeast, level 1 TCs and non-teaching hospitals were more likely to obtain MRIs in this patient population. Conclusion: After controlling for patient-level characteristics, variation remained in MRI use based on geography, trauma center level and teaching status. This evidence suggests that current national guidelines limiting the use of MRI for cervical spine evaluation following blunt trauma are not being followed consistently. This may be due to physicians not being up to date with best practice care, unavailability of locally adopted protocols in institutions or lack of consensus among clinical providers. Level of evidence: Prognostic and epidemiological, level III.

16.
J Surg Res ; 243: 332-339, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255933

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Falls are the most common cause of injury in the elderly, resulting in $50 billion of annual spending. Social and demographic factors associated with falling are not well understood. We hypothesized minority groups (minority race, lower income, and lower education levels) would experience similar rates of falling to majority groups after adjustment for medical factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used the 2013 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey Public Use File, a representatively sampled cross-sectional survey of Medicare outpatients. Fall was defined as at least one self-reported fall in the previous year. Logistic regression was performed to determine sociodemographic factors (age, sex, race, ethnicity, income, education level, and marital status) associated with fall. Health factors, physical limitations, and cognitive limitations were included as possible confounders. Data are presented as extrapolated weighted population proportions (±SE). RESULTS: 13,924 Medicare beneficiaries, representing 47 million people, were included. 26.6% (±0.4) reported falling. In adjusted logistic regression, black and Hispanic patients had significantly fewer self-reported falls than white patients, after adjustment for medical conditions, physical limitations, and cognitive limitations. DISCUSSION: Black and Hispanic Medicare patients are significantly less likely to have reported a fall than non-Hispanic whites. This finding differs from other health-related disparities in which minorities most commonly experience higher risk or more severe diseases. These data may also represent differences in self-reporting, indicating disparities in self-reported data in these cohorts. Further studies on social factors related to falling are needed in this population.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Surgery ; 166(2): 177-183, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Certain behavioral traits and inadequate social support are known risk factors for complications after cancer surgery. Despite their importance, it is unclear whether conventional patient preoperative evaluation captures them. This study was conducted to assess concordance between documentation and patient survey of selected risk factors and to determine whether failure to document affected postoperative outcomes. METHODS: Adult patients at a tertiary academic medical center were surveyed before abdominal cancer surgery to assess 6 psychosocial risk factors. Risk factors were also assessed by retrospective chart review and compared with survey results through concordance measures. Thirty-day postoperative complications were abstracted by chart review. Rates of major complications for those with and without clinically missed risk factors were compared. RESULTS: Comparisons between chart review and screening survey revealed poor-to-moderate positive agreement (0%-47%) for 5 risk factors and strong negative agreement (82%-99%) among all risk factors. Kappa analysis demonstrated poor-to-fair agreement among 5 risk factors (κ = 0.112-0.423). The overall complication rate was 36%. The complication rate for patients with at least 1 clinically missed risk factor was 49% vs 24% in those without (P = .021), with a similar effect replicated for each individual risk factor. CONCLUSION: This study shows a high level of discordance between formal screening and routine clinician documentation in a preoperative setting for psychosocial risk factors. There is a significant association between missing these risk factors and worse postoperative outcomes. Future work should examine whether structured screening of psychosocial risk factors may improve preoperative risk stratification through proactive interventions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Psicologia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/psicologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/psicologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
J Surg Res ; 243: 114-122, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transplant recipients are living longer than ever before, and occasionally require acute care surgery for nontransplant-related issues. We hypothesized that while both acute care surgeons (ACS) and transplant surgeons would feel comfortable operating on this unique patient population, both would believe transplant centers provide superior care. METHODS: To characterize surgeon perspectives, we conducted a national survey of ACS and transplant surgeons. Surgeon- and center-specific demographics were collected; surgeon preferences were compared using χ2, Fisher's exact, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS: We obtained 230 responses from ACS and 204 from transplant surgeons. ACS and transplant surgeons believed care is better at transplant centers (78% and 100%), and transplant recipients requiring acute care surgery should be transferred to a transplant center (80.2% and 87.2%). ACS felt comfortable operating (97.5%) and performing laparoscopy (94.0%) on transplant recipients. ACS cited transplant medication use as the most important underlying cause of increased surgical complications for transplant recipients. Transplant surgeons felt it was their responsibility to perform acute care surgery on transplant recipients (67.3%), but less so if patient underwent transplant at a different institution (26.5%). Transplant surgeons cited poor transplanted organ resiliency as the most important underlying cause of increased surgical complications for transplant recipients. CONCLUSIONS: ACS and transplant surgeons feel comfortable performing laparoscopic and open acute care surgery on transplant recipients, and recommend treating transplant recipients at transplant centers, despite the lack of supportive evidence. Elucidating common goals allows surgeons to provide optimal care for this unique patient population.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Transplante de Órgãos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Padrões de Prática Médica , Cirurgiões , Doença Aguda , Estudos Transversais , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Estados Unidos
19.
J Crit Care ; 52: 180-185, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078999

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study compared anti-Xa activity in critically ill patients receiving UFH for VTE prophylaxis between two weight groups (<100 kg vs ≥100 kg). METHODS: This prospective, observational study included critically ill patients on UFH 5000 or 7500 units every 8 h. A peak and trough anti-Xa activity assay was ordered for each patient at steady state. Goal peak anti-Xa activity was 0.1-0.3 units/mL. RESULTS: From March 2017 to June 2018, 75 patients were enrolled with 44 in the <100 kg group and 31 in the ≥100 kg group. There was no significant difference in the percentage of patients with peak anti-Xa activity within goal range between patients <100 kg and ≥ 100 kg (55.3% vs 35.7%, p = 0.12). The odds ratio for achieving peak anti-Xa activity within goal range as weight-based dose increased was 1.03 (95% CI 0.99-1.07). No differences were found in trough anti-Xa activity, VTE, bleeding, length of stay, or death. CONCLUSIONS: Though only one-third of patients ≥100 kg had peak anti-Xa activity within goal range, no significant difference was found between the weight groups. Additional prospective studies with adequate sample sizes are warranted to further investigate appropriate weight-based dosing of UFH in critically ill patients.

20.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 87(2): 491-501, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma and emergency general surgery (EGS) patients who are uninsured have worse outcomes as compared with insured patients. Partially modeled after the 2006 Massachusetts Healthcare Reform (MHR), the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was passed in 2010 with the goal of expanding health insurance coverage, primarily through state-based Medicaid expansion (ME). We evaluated the impact of ME and MHR on outcomes for trauma patients, EGS patients, and trauma systems. METHODS: This study was approved by the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Guidelines Committee. Using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology, we defined three populations of interest (trauma patients, EGS patients, and trauma systems) and identified the critical outcomes (mortality, access to care, change in insurance status, reimbursement, funding). We performed a systematic review of the literature. Random effect meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses were calculated for outcomes with sufficient data. RESULTS: From 4,593 citations, we found 18 studies addressing all seven predefined outcomes of interest for trauma patients, three studies addressing six of seven outcomes for EGS patients, and three studies addressing three of eight outcomes for trauma systems. On meta-analysis, trauma patients were less likely to be uninsured after ME or MHR (odds ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.66). These coverage expansion policies were not associated with a change in the odds of inpatient mortality for trauma (odds ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.88-1.05). Emergency general surgery patients also experienced a significant insurance coverage gains and no change in inpatient mortality. Insurance expansion was often associated with increased access to postacute care at discharge. The evidence for trauma systems was heterogeneous. CONCLUSION: Given the evidence quality, we conditionally recommend ME/MHR to improve insurance coverage and access to postacute care for trauma and EGS patients. We have no specific recommendation with respect to the impact of ME/MHR on trauma systems. Additional research into these questions is needed. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Review, Economic/Decision, level III.


Assuntos
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/legislação & jurisprudência , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Emergências , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/legislação & jurisprudência , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Traumatologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
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