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1.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; : 101161CIRCOUTCOMES120007709, 2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social vulnerability indicators are associated with health care inequities and may similarly impede ongoing participation in research studies. We evaluated the association of social vulnerability indicators and research participant attrition in a trial focused on reducing health disparities. METHODS: Self-identified White or Black adults enrolled in the HYVALUE trial (Hypertension and VALUEs), a randomized trial testing a values-affirmation intervention on medication adherence, from February 2017 to September 2019 were included. The self-reported measures of social vulnerability indicators included: (1) Black race; (2) female gender; (3) no health insurance; (4) unemployment; (5) a high school diploma or less; and (6) financial-resource strain. Full attrition was defined as not completing at least one 3- or 6-month follow-up study visit. Log-binomial regression models adjusted for age, gender, race, medical comorbidities, and the other social vulnerability indicators to estimate the relative risk of each social vulnerability indicator with study attrition. RESULTS: Among 825 participants, the mean age was 63.3 years (±11.7 years), 60% were women, 54% were Black, and 97% reported at least one social vulnerability. Overall, 21% participants had full attrition after study enrollment. After adjustment for all other social vulnerabilities, only financial-resource strain remained consistently associated with full attrition (relative risk, 1.71 [95% CI, 1.28-2.29]). In a secondary analysis of partial attrition (completed only one follow-up visit), financial-resource strain (relative risk, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.09-1.81]) and being uninsured (relative risk, 1.54 [95% CI, 1.01-2.34]) were associated with partial attrition. CONCLUSIONS: In a trial aimed at reducing disparities in medication adherence, participants who reported financial-resource strain had a higher risk of participant attrition independent of race or gender. Our findings suggest that efforts to retain diverse populations in clinical trials should extend beyond race and gender to consider other social vulnerability indicators. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov; Unique identifier: NCT03028597.

2.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; 26(2): 233-245, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400608

RESUMO

Background: Prehospital emergency care is a vital component of healthcare access, and emergency medical services (EMS) plays an essential role in healthcare delivery. Understanding the distribution of medical and trauma EMS calls at the neighborhood level would be beneficial to identify at-risk communities and facilitate targeted interventions. Objectives: The primary objective was to evaluate and characterize 9-1-1 ambulance contacts for medical and trauma-related events in Denver. The secondary objective was to evaluate the co-existence of medical and trauma-related EMS calls to determine if these emergencies occur in the same neighborhoods. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of prospectively collected EMS calls in Denver between January 1, 2011, through August 8, 2017. The primary outcome was the incidence of trauma and medical EMS calls in each census tract. EMS events were aggregated to tracts and incidence rates were calculated based on the adult daytime and nighttime population. Three different spatial analysis methods (SaTScan's spatial scan statistic, Gini coefficient, and Local Moran's I) were utilized to identify clusters of medical and trauma EMS events at the tract level. Results: A total of 425,527 EMS calls in 142 census tracts occurred during the study period. The median age of study participants was 48 (IQR 33, 62), 56% were male, and the majority (74%) of EMS calls were for medical events. An emergent EMS return to the hospital occurred in 5% of all calls. We identified several high-risk census tracts with a coexistence of medical and trauma EMS events. When compared to the Denver County population, the tracts with high EMS call rates were diverse, with many tracts exhibiting a higher proportion of black, unemployment, below poverty, and lower median income while other tracts demonstrated a smaller proportion of black, unemployment, below poverty, and a higher median income. Conclusions: Disparities exist in the distribution of medical and trauma EMS calls in varied census tracts in Denver. Identifying neighborhoods in which there is an incidence of higher medical and trauma emergencies is important to guide EMS care delivery and may help facilitate targeted public health interventions for at-risk populations to improve health outcomes.


Assuntos
Ambulâncias , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Adulto , Emergências , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Características de Residência
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2139533, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913976

RESUMO

Importance: Stereotype threat, or the fear of confirming a negative stereotype about one's social group, may contribute to racial differences in adherence to medications by decreasing patient activation to manage chronic conditions. Objective: To examine whether a values affirmation writing exercise improves medication adherence and whether the effect differs by patient race. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Hypertension and Values trial, a patient-level, blinded randomized clinical trial, compared an intervention and a control writing exercise delivered immediately prior to a clinic appointment. Of 20 777 eligible, self-identified non-Hispanic Black and White patients with uncontrolled hypertension who were taking blood pressure (BP) medications, 3891 were approached and 960 enrolled. Block randomization by self-identified race ensured balanced randomization. Patients enrolled between February 1, 2017, and December 31, 2019, at 11 US safety-net and community primary care clinics, with outcomes assessed at 3 and 6 months. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Interventions: From a list of 11 values, intervention patients wrote about their most important values and control patients wrote about their least important values. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome of adherence to BP medications was measured using pharmacy fill data (proportion of days covered >90%) at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The secondary outcome was systolic and diastolic BP. Patient activation to manage their health was also measured. Results: Of 960 patients, 474 (286 women [60.3%]; 256 Black patients [54.0%]; mean [SD] age, 63.4 [11.9] years) were randomly assigned to the intervention group and 486 (288 women [59.3%]; 272 Black patients [56.0%]; mean [SD] age, 62.8 [12.0] years) to the control group. Baseline medication adherence was lower (318 of 482 [66.0%] vs 331 of 412 [80.3%]) and mean (SE) BP higher among Black patients compared with White patients (systolic BP, 140.6 [18.5] vs 137.3 [17.8] mm Hg; diastolic BP, 83.9 [12.6] vs 79.7 [11.3] mm Hg). Compared with baseline, pharmacy fill adherence did not differ between intervention and control groups at 3 months (odds ratio [OR], 0.91 [95% CI, 0.57-1.43]) or at 6 months (OR, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.53-1.38]). There were also no treatment effect differences in pharmacy fill adherence by patient race (Black patients at 3 months: OR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.61-1.92]; at 6 months: OR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.58-1.87]; White patients at 3 months: OR, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.33-1.44]; at 6 months: OR, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.24-1.27]). Immediately after the intervention, the median patient activation was higher in intervention patients than in control patients, but this difference was not statistically significant in an unadjusted comparison (75.0 [IQR, 65.5-84.8] vs 72.5 [IQR, 63.1-80.9]; P = .06). In adjusted models, the Patient Activation Measure score immediately after the intervention was significantly higher in the intervention patients than in control patients (mean difference, 2.3 [95% CI, 0.1-4.5]). Conclusions and Relevance: A values affirmation intervention was associated with higher patient activation overall but did not improve adherence or blood pressure among Black and White patients with hypertension. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03028597.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/etnologia , Racismo/psicologia , Valores Sociais/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colorado , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Método Simples-Cego , Redação , Adulto Jovem
4.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34441385

RESUMO

Despite the many advantages of lung ultrasound (LUS) in the diagnosis and management of patients with dyspnea, its adoption among hospitalists has been slow. We performed semi-structured interviews of hospitals from four diverse health systems in the United States to understand determinants of adoption within a range of clinical settings. We used the diffusion of innovation theory to guide a framework analysis of the data. Of the 27 hospitalists invited, we performed 22 interviews from four hospitals of diverse types. Median years post-residency of interviewees was 10.5 [IQR:5-15]. Four main themes emerged: (1) There are important clinical advantages to LUS despite operator dependence, (2) LUS enhances patient and clinician experience, (3) Investment of clinician time to learn and perform LUS is a barrier to adoption but yields improved efficiency for the health system and (4) Mandated training and use may be necessary to achieve broad adoption as monetary incentives are less effective. Despite the perceived benefits of LUS for patients, clinicians and health systems, a significant barrier to broad LUS adoption is the experience of time scarcity by hospitalists. Future implementation strategies should focus on changes to the clinical environment that address clinician barriers to learning and adoption of new skills.

5.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(8): 889-890, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009237
6.
Acad Emerg Med ; 28(9): 1051-1060, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based guidelines are often cited as a means of ensuring high-quality care for all patients. Our objective was to assess whether emergency department (ED) adherence to core evidence-based guidelines differed by patient sex and race/ethnicity and to assess the effect of ED guideline adherence on patient outcomes by sex and race/ethnicity. METHODS: We conducted a preplanned secondary analysis of data from a multicenter retrospective observational study evaluating variation in ED adherence to five core evidence-based treatment guidelines including aspirin for acute coronary syndrome, door-to-balloon time for acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction, systemic thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke, antibiotic selection for inpatient pneumonia, and early management of severe sepsis/septic shock. This study was performed at six hospitals in Colorado with heterogeneous and diverse practice environments. Hierarchical generalized linear modeling was used to estimate adjusted associations between ED adherence and patient sex and race/ethnicity while controlling for other patient, physician, and environmental factors that could confound this association. RESULTS: A total of 1,880 patients were included in the study with a median (IQR) age of 62 (51-74) years. Males and non-Hispanic whites comprised 59% and 71% of the cohort, respectively. While unadjusted differences were identified, our adjusted analyses found no significant association between ED guideline adherence and sex or race/ethnicity. Patients who did not receive guideline adherent care in the ED were significantly more likely to die while in the hospital (odds ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval = 1.3 to 3.2). CONCLUSIONS: Longstanding, nationally reported evidence-based guidelines can help eliminate sex and race/ethnicity disparities in quality of care. When providers know their care is being monitored and reported, their implicit biases may be less likely to impact care.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(4): e014200, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063126

RESUMO

Background Women have higher utilization of "do not attempt resuscitation" (DNAR) orders during treatment for critical illness. Occurrence of sex differences in the establishment of DNAR orders after resuscitation from in-hospital cardiac arrest is unknown. Whether differences in DNAR use by sex lead to disparities in survival remains unclear. Methods and Results We identified 71 820 patients with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after in-hospital cardiac arrest from the Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation registry. Multivariable models evaluated the association between de novo DNAR (anytime after ROSC, within 12 hours of ROSC, or within 72 hours of ROSC) by sex and the association between sex and survival to discharge accounting for DNAR. All models accounted for clustering of patients within hospital and adjusted for demographic and cardiac arrest characteristics. The cohort included 30 454 (42.4%) women, who were slightly more likely than male participants to establish DNAR orders anytime after ROSC (45.0% versus 43.5%; adjusted relative risk: 1.15 [95% CI, 1.10-1.20]; P<0.0001). Of those with DNAR orders, women were more likely to be DNAR status within the first 12 hours (51.8% versus 46.5%; adjusted relative risk: 1.40 [95% CI, 1.30-1.52]; P<0.0001) and within 72 hours after ROSC (75.9% versus 70.9%; adjusted relative risk: 1.35 [95% CI, 1.26-1.45]; P<0.0001). However, no difference in survival to hospital discharge between women and men (34.5% versus 36.7%; adjusted relative risk: 1.00 [95% CI, 0.99-1.02]; P=0.74) was appreciated. Conclusions In patients successfully resuscitated from in-hospital cardiac arrest, there was no survival difference between men and women while accounting for DNAR. However, women had a higher rate of DNAR status early after resuscitation (<12 and <72 hours) in comparison to men.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Ordens quanto à Conduta (Ética Médica) , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores Sexuais , Taxa de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 25, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992351

RESUMO

RATIONALE: There remains significant controversy regarding the optimal approach to fluid resuscitation for patients in shock. The magnitude of care variability in shock resuscitation, the confounding effects of disease severity and comorbidity, and the relative impact on sepsis survival are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate usual care variability and determine the differential effect of observed and predicted fluid resuscitation volumes on risk-adjusted hospital mortality for mechanically ventilated patients in shock. METHODS: We performed a retrospective outcome analysis of mechanically ventilated patients admitted to intensive care units using the 2013 Premier Hospital Database (Premier, Inc.). Observed and predicted hospital mortality were evaluated by observed and predicted day 1 fluid administration, using the difference in predicted and observed outcomes to adjust for disease severity between groups. Both predictive models were validated using a second large administrative database (Truven Health Analytics Inc.). Secondary outcomes included duration of mechanical ventilation, hospital and ICU length of stay, and cost. RESULTS: Among 33,831 patients, observed hospital mortality was incrementally higher than predicted for each additional liter of day 1 fluid beginning at 7 L (40.9% vs. 37.2%, p = 0.008). Compared to patients that received expected (± 1.5 L predicted) day 1 fluid volumes, greater-than-expected fluid resuscitation was associated with increased risk-adjusted hospital mortality (52.3% vs. 45.0%, p < 0.0001) among all patients with shock and among a subgroup of shock patients with comorbid conditions predictive of lower fluid volume administration (47.1% vs. 41.5%, p < 0.0001). However, in patients with shock but without such conditions, both greater-than-expected (57.5% vs. 49.2%, p < 0.0001) and less-than-expected (52.1% vs. 49.2%, p = 0.037) day 1 fluid resuscitation were associated with increased risk-adjusted hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Highly variable day 1 fluid resuscitation was associated with a non-uniform impact on risk-adjusted hospital mortality among distinct subgroups of mechanically ventilated patients with shock. These findings support closer evaluation of fluid resuscitation strategies that include broadly applied fluid volume targets in the early phase of shock resuscitation.


Assuntos
Hidratação/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Choque/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Área Sob a Curva , Feminino , Hidratação/instrumentação , Hidratação/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Ressuscitação/métodos , Ressuscitação/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Choque/fisiopatologia
9.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 31(3): 1379-1398, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416701

RESUMO

Our goal was to develop a patient-centered text-message intervention for adolescent females in an urban safety-net health system. We conducted interviews with adolescent females to explore sexual health knowledge and inform the development of a text-messaging intervention. Focused group discussions (FGDs) verified or challenged interview themes and elicited preferences for intervention design. Forty-two females participated, including 15 interviewees and 27 FGD participants. Over half (67%) were Hispanic/Latina, 19% Black, 10% White and 5% Asian. The average age was 16 (±1.5) and 55% reported ever having sex. Participants felt susceptible to and were more concerned with preventing unintended pregnancies than sexually transmitted infections, and described more barriers to condom use than other contraceptive methods. Their input informed the development of a text-messaging intervention, which is described. This study supports the acceptability of a patient-centered texting intervention for promoting and normalizing healthy sexual behaviors among adolescent females in an urban safety-net setting.


Assuntos
Saúde Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Motivação , Gravidez , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
10.
Acad Pediatr ; 20(4): 475-484, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of a pilot texting intervention ("t4she") in primary care designed to increase sexual health knowledge and promote dual protection strategies to reduce unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among adolescent females. METHODS: Participants were recruited from 2 federally qualified health centers. Eligibility included: being 13 to 18 years of age; assigned female at birth; English-speaking; not currently pregnant and/or intending to become pregnant; and having texting capabilities. A randomized controlled trial assessed between-group differences at 3 and 6 months on knowledge, Health Belief Model constructs, and sexual behaviors. Input on intervention acceptability was obtained at 3 months. RESULTS: Among 244 participants enrolled and randomized, the average age was 16 (±1.6), 80% were Hispanic/Latina, 53% had ever had vaginal sex, and 50% had used prescription birth control with 24% currently using a long-acting reversible method. Among those sexually active, 29% reported consistent condom use and 24% reported engaging in dual protection behaviors at last sex. Among participants with all follow-up data (N = 136), intervention participants had significant increases in sexual health knowledge and reported more prescription birth control use at follow-up than control participants. No significant outcome differences were found for condom use or dual protection behaviors. Intervention participants reported receiving messages, being introduced to new information, and reading and sharing the messages. CONCLUSIONS: The pilot t4she sexual health intervention significantly improved knowledge and use of short-acting prescription birth control among young females in primary care and was acceptable by youth and feasible to implement.


Assuntos
Saúde Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adolescente , Anticoncepção , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
11.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 5: 143, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844551

RESUMO

Background: Prehospital (ambulance) care can reduce morbidity and mortality from trauma. Yet, there is a dearth of effective evidence-based interventions and implementation strategies. Emergency Medical Services Traumatic Shock Care (EMS-TruShoC) is a novel bundle of five core evidence-based trauma care interventions. High-Efficiency EMS Training (HEET) is an innovative training and sensitization program conducted during clinical shifts in ambulances. We assess the feasibility of implementing EMS-TruShoC using the HEET strategy, and feasibility of assessing implementation and clinical outcomes. Findings will inform a main trial. Methods: We conducted a single-site, prospective cohort, multi-methods pilot implementation study in Western Cape EMS system of South Africa. Of the 120 providers at the study site, 12 were trainers and the remaining were eligible learners. Feasibility of implementation was guided by the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework. Feasibility of assessing clinical outcomes was assessed using shock indices and clinical quality of care scores, collected via abstraction of patients' prehospital trauma charts. Thresholds for progression to a main trial were developed a priori. Results: The average of all implementation indices was 83% (standard deviation = 10.3). Reach of the HEET program was high, with 84% learners completing at least 75% of training modules. Comparing the proportion of learners attaining perfect scores in post- versus pre-implementation assessments, there was an 8-fold (52% vs. 6%) improvement in knowledge, 3-fold (39% vs. 12%) improvement in skills, and 2-fold (42% vs. 21%) increase in self-efficacy. Clinical outcomes data were successfully calculated-there were clinically significant improvements in shock indices and quality of prehospital trauma care in the post- versus pre-implementation phases. Adoption of HEET was good, evidenced by 83% of facilitator participation in trainings, and 100% of surveyed stakeholders indicating good programmatic fit for their organization. Stakeholders responded that HEET was a sustainable educational solution that aligned well with their organization. Implementation fidelity was very high; 90% of the HEET intervention and 77% of the implementation strategy were delivered as originally planned. Participants provided very positive feedback, and explained that on-the-job timing enhanced their participation. Maintenance was not relevant to assess in this pilot study. Conclusions: We successfully implemented the EMS-TruShoC educational intervention using the HEET training strategy in a single-site pilot study conducted in a low-resource international setting. All clinical outcomes were successfully calculated. Overall, this pilot study suggests high feasibility of our future, planned experimental trial.

13.
J Gen Intern Med ; 34(11): 2610-2619, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To enhance the acute care delivery system, a comprehensive understanding of the patient's perspectives for seeking care in the emergency department (ED) versus primary care (PC) is necessary. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative metasynthesis on reasons patients seek care in the ED instead of PC. A comprehensive literature search in PubMed, CINAHL, Psych Info, and Web of Science was completed to identify qualitative studies relevant to the research question. Articles were critically appraised using the McMaster University Critical Review Form for Qualitative Studies. We excluded pediatric articles and nonqualitative and mixed-methods studies. The metasynthesis was completed with an interpretive approach using reciprocal translation analyses. RESULTS: Nine articles met criteria for inclusion. Eleven themes under four domains were identified. The first domain was acuity of condition that led to the ED visit. In this domain, themes included pain: "it's urgent because it hurts," and concern for severe illness. The second domain was barriers associated with PC, which included difficulty accessing PC when ill: "my doctor said he was booked up and he instructed me to go to the ED." The third domain was related to multiple advantages associated with ED care: "my doctor cannot do X-rays and laboratory tests, while the ED has all the technical support." In this domain, patients also identified 24/7 accessibility of the ED and no need for an immediate copay at the ED as advantageous. The fourth domain included fulfillment of medical needs. Themes in this domain included the alleviation of pain and the perceived expertise of the ED healthcare providers. CONCLUSIONS: In this qualitative metasynthesis, reasons patients visit the ED over primary care included (1) urgency of the medical condition, (2) barriers to accessing primary care, (3) advantages of the ED, and (4) fulfillment of medical needs and quality of care in the ED.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Tratamento de Emergência/psicologia , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
Clin Ther ; 41(6): 1029-1037, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047712

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women who experience out-of-hospital cardiac arrest have similar rates of survival to hospital admission as men; however, women are less likely to survive to hospital discharge. We hypothesized that women would have higher rates of "do not attempt resuscitation" (DNAR) orders and that this order would be associated with lower use of aggressive interventions. METHODS: We identified adult hospital admissions with a diagnosis of cardiac arrest (ICD-9 427.5) from the 2010 California State Inpatient Dataset. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test the association between patient sex and a DNAR order within the first 24 h of admission, adjusting for patient demographic characteristics and comorbid medical conditions. In secondary analysis, procedures performed after establishment of DNAR order and survival to hospital discharge were compared by sex. FINDINGS: We analyzed 6562 patients (44% women, 56% men) who experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and survived to hospital admission. In unadjusted analysis, more women than men had establishment of a DNAR order during the first 24 h of admission (23.4% versus 19.3%; P < 0.01). After adjusting for age, race, and comorbid conditions, women remained significantly more likely to have a DNAR order established during the first 24 h of their hospital admission after cardiac arrest compared with men (odds ratio = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.09-1.40). No sex difference was found in procedures used after DNAR order was established. IMPLICATIONS: Female survivors of cardiac arrest are significantly more likely than men to have a DNAR order established within the first 24 h of in-hospital treatment. The establishment of a DNAR order is associated with patients undergoing fewer procedures than individuals who do not have a DNAR order established. Given that patients who have a DNAR order receive less-aggressive intervention after arrest, it is possible that an early DNAR order may contribute to sex differences in survival to hospital discharge.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Ordens quanto à Conduta (Ética Médica) , California , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Fatores Sexuais
16.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 8(3): e12498, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30907744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medication nonadherence is a significant, modifiable contributor to uncontrolled hypertension. Stereotype threat may contribute to racial disparities in adherence by hindering a patient's ability to actively engage during a clinical encounter, resulting in reduced activation to adhere to prescribed therapies. OBJECTIVE: The Hypertension and Values (HYVALUE) trial aims to examine whether a values-affirmation intervention improves medication adherence (primary outcome) by targeting racial stereotype threat. METHODS: The HYVALUE trial is a patient-level, blinded randomized controlled trial comparing a brief values-affirmation writing exercise with a control writing exercise among black and white patients with uncontrolled hypertension. We are recruiting patients from 3 large health systems in the United States. The primary outcome is patients' adherence to antihypertensive medications, with secondary outcomes of systolic and diastolic blood pressure over time, time for which blood pressure is under control, and treatment intensification. We are comparing the effects of the intervention among blacks and whites, exploring possible moderators (ie, patients' prior experiences of discrimination and clinician racial bias) and mediators (ie, patient activation) of intervention effects on outcomes. RESULTS: This study was funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Enrollment and follow-up are ongoing and data analysis is expected to begin in late 2020. Planned enrollment is 1130 patients. On the basis of evidence supporting the effectiveness of values affirmation in educational settings and our pilot work demonstrating improved patient-clinician communication, we hypothesize that values affirmation disrupts the negative effects of stereotype threat on the clinical interaction and can reduce racial disparities in medication adherence and subsequent health outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The HYVALUE study moves beyond documentation of race-based health disparities toward testing an intervention. We focus on a medical condition-hypertension, which is arguably the greatest contributor to mortality disparities for black patients. If successful, this study will be the first to provide evidence for a low-resource intervention that has the potential to substantially reduce health care disparities across a wide range of health care conditions and populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03028597; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03028597 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/72vcZMzAB). INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/12498.

17.
West J Emerg Med ; 20(2): 237-243, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30881542

RESUMO

Introduction: Despite significant morbidity and mortality from stroke, patient delays to emergency department (ED) presentation following the onset of stroke symptoms are one of the main contraindications to treatment for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Our objective was to identify patient and environmental factors associated with delayed presentations to the ED after onset of stroke symptoms. Methods: This was a pre-planned secondary analysis of data from a multicenter, retrospective observational study at three hospitals in Colorado. We included consecutive adult patients if they were admitted to the hospital from the ED, and the ED diagnosed or initiated treatment for AIS. Patients were excluded if they were transferred from another hospital. Primary outcome was delayed presentation to the ED (> 3.5 hours) following onset stroke symptoms. Results: Among 351 patients, 63% presented to the ED more than 3.5 hours after onset of stroke symptoms. Adjusted results show that patients who presented in the evening hours (odds ratio [OR] [0.45], 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.3-0.8]), as compared to daytime, were significantly less likely to have a delayed presentation. Speaking a language other than English (Spanish [OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2-8.9] and "other" [OR 9.1, 95% CI 1.2-71.0]), having known cerebrovascular risk factors (>2 risk factors [OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.05-5.4] and 1-2 risk factors [OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.03-5.1], compared to zero risk factors), and presenting to a rural hospital (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.2), compared to urban, were significantly associated with delayed presentation. Conclusion: Important patient and environmental factors are significantly associated with delayed ED presentations following the onset of stroke symptoms. Identifying how best to educate patients on stroke risk and recognition remains critically important.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Colorado , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tempo para o Tratamento
18.
Circulation ; 139(8): 1060-1068, 2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women who suffer an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest receive bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) less often than men. Understanding public perceptions of why this occurs is a necessary first step toward equitable application of this potentially life-saving intervention. METHODS: We conducted a national survey of members of the public using Mechanical Turk, Amazon's crowdsourcing platform, to determine reasons why women might receive bystander CPR less often than men. Eligible participants were adults (≥18 years) located in the United States. Responses were excluded if the participant was not able to define CPR correctly. Participants were asked to answer the following free-text question: "Do you have any ideas on why women may be less likely to receive CPR than men when they collapse in public?" Descriptive statistics were used to define the cohort. The free-text response was coded using open coding, and major themes were identified via classical content analysis. RESULTS: In total, 548 subjects were surveyed. Mean age was 38.8 years, and 49.8% were female. Participants were geographically distributed as follows: 18.5% West, 9.2% Southwest, 22.0% Midwest, 27.5% Southeast, and 22.9% Northeast. After analysis, 3 major themes were detected for why the public perceives that women receive less bystander CPR. They include the following: (1) sexualization of women's bodies; (2) women are weak and frail and therefore prone to injury; and (3) misperceptions about women in acute medical distress. Overall, 41.9% (227) were trained in CPR while 4.4% reported having provided CPR in a medical emergency. CONCLUSIONS: Members of the general public perceive fears about inappropriate touching, accusations of sexual assault, and fear of causing injury as inhibiting bystander CPR for women. Educational and policy efforts to address these perceptions may reduce the sex differences in the application of bystander CPR.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Opinião Pública , Adulto , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Delitos Sexuais , Sexualidade
19.
Health Promot Pract ; 20(4): 585-592, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29732922

RESUMO

Introduction. This study investigated participants' acceptance of a short messaging service (SMS) intervention designed to support asthma management, including suggestions regarding program delivery and message content. Methods. Individual and group interviews were conducted with patients from a safety-net health care system in Denver, Colorado. Eligible participants were English or Spanish speakers between the ages of 13 and 40 years, with diagnosed persistent asthma. All individual and group interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, translated from Spanish to English (where applicable), and analyzed for thematic content by experienced analysts using established qualitative content techniques. The qualitative software package ATLAS.ti was used for data analysis and management. Results. This study included a total of 43 participants. In general, participants were receptive toward the SMS program and supported the use of tailored and interactive messages. Adolescents supported the idea of enhancing care by sending messages to a support person, such as a parent or guardian. However, adults were less receptive toward this idea. Participants also preferred directive educational messages and cues to action, while general messages reminding them of their asthma diagnosis were viewed less favorably. Implications. The results from this study will inform a randomized control trial evaluating the efficacy of the SMS intervention.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Autogestão/métodos , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Colorado , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Provedores de Redes de Segurança , Adulto Jovem
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