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Adv Mater ; 31(11): e1804284, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680833


Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attracted great attention in the past few years due to their rapid increase in efficiency and low-cost fabrication. However, instability against thermal stress and humidity is a big issue hindering their commercialization and practical applications. Here, by combining thermally stable formamidinium-cesium-based perovskite and a moisture-resistant carbon electrode, successful fabrication of stable PSCs is reported, which maintain on average 77% of the initial value after being aged for 192 h under conditions of 85 °C and 85% relative humidity (the "double 85" aging condition) without encapsulation. However, the mismatch of energy levels at the interface between the perovskite and the carbon electrode limits charge collection and leads to poor device performance. To address this issue, a thin-layer of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) is introduced to achieve improved interfacial energy level alignment, which is verified by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy measurements. Indeed as a result, power conversion efficiency increases from 12.2% to 14.9% after suitable energy level modification by intentionally introducing a thin layer of PEO at the perovskite/carbon interface.

Nat Commun ; 10(1): 16, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604757


There has been an urgent need to eliminate toxic lead from the prevailing halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs), but the current lead-free PSCs are still plagued with the critical issues of low efficiency and poor stability. This is primarily due to their inadequate photovoltaic properties and chemical stability. Herein we demonstrate the use of the lead-free, all-inorganic cesium tin-germanium triiodide (CsSn0.5Ge0.5I3) solid-solution perovskite as the light absorber in PSCs, delivering promising efficiency of up to 7.11%. More importantly, these PSCs show very high stability, with less than 10% decay in efficiency after 500 h of continuous operation in N2 atmosphere under one-sun illumination. The key to this striking performance of these PSCs is the formation of a full-coverage, stable native-oxide layer, which fully encapsulates and passivates the perovskite surfaces. The native-oxide passivation approach reported here represents an alternate avenue for boosting the efficiency and stability of lead-free PSCs.

Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3880, 2018 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250031


Besides high efficiency, the stability and reproducibility of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are also key for their commercialization. Herein, we report a simple perovskite formation method to fabricate perovskite films with thickness over 1 µm in ambient condition on the basis of the fast gas-solid reaction of chlorine-incorporated hydrogen lead triiodide and methylamine gas. The resultant thick and smooth chlorine-incorporated perovskite films exhibit full coverage, improved crystallinity, low surface roughness and low thickness variation. The resultant PSCs achieve an average power conversion efficiency of 19.1 ± 0.4% with good reproducibility. Meanwhile, this method enables an active area efficiency of 15.3% for 5 cm × 5 cm solar modules. The un-encapsulated PSCs exhibit an excellent T80 lifetime exceeding 1600 h under continuous operation conditions in dry nitrogen environment.

J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(17): 3947-3953, 2017 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28767259


For the first time, we intentionally deposit an ultrathin layer of excess methylammonium iodide (MAI) on top of a methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) perovskite film. Using photoelectron spectroscopy, we investigate the role of excess MAI at the interface between perovskite and spiro-MeOTAD hole-transport layer in standard structure perovskite solar cells (PSCs). We found that interfacial, favorable, energy-level tuning of the MAPI film can be achieved by controlling the amount of excess MAI on top of the MAPI film. Our XPS results reveal that MAI dissociates at low thicknesses (<16 nm) when deposited on MAPbI3. It is not the MAI layer but the dissociated species that leads to the interfacial energy-level tuning. Optimized interface energetics were verified by solar cell device testing, leading to both an increase of 19% in average steady-state power conversion efficiency (PCE) and significantly improved reproducibility, which is represented by a much lower PCE standard deviation (from 15 ± 2% to 17.2 ± 0.4%).