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1.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 8(1): 30, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164789

RESUMO

Low grade gliomas are the most frequent brain tumors in children and encompass a spectrum of histologic entities which are currently assigned World Health Organisation grades I and II. They differ substantially from their adult counterparts in both their underlying genetic alterations and in the infrequency with which they transform to higher grade tumors. Nonetheless, children with low grade glioma are a therapeutic challenge due to the heterogeneity in their clinical behavior - in particular, those with incomplete surgical resection often suffer repeat progressions with resultant morbidity and, in some cases, mortality. The identification of up-regulation of the RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase (RAS/MAPK) pathway as a near universal feature of these tumors has led to the development of targeted therapeutics aimed at improving responses while mitigating patient morbidity. Here, we review how molecular information can help to further define the entities which fall under the umbrella of pediatric-type low-grade glioma. In doing so we discuss the specific molecular drivers of pediatric low grade glioma and how to effectively test for them, review the newest therapeutic agents and their utility in treating this disease, and propose a risk-based stratification system that considers both clinical and molecular parameters to aid clinicians in making treatment decisions.

2.
Cancer Cell ; 37(3): 308-323.e12, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142668

RESUMO

Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are aggressive pediatric brain tumors for which there is currently no effective treatment. Some of these tumors combine gain-of-function mutations in ACVR1, PIK3CA, and histone H3-encoding genes. The oncogenic mechanisms of action of ACVR1 mutations are currently unknown. Using mouse models, we demonstrate that Acvr1G328V arrests the differentiation of oligodendroglial lineage cells, and cooperates with Hist1h3bK27M and Pik3caH1047R to generate high-grade diffuse gliomas. Mechanistically, Acvr1G328V upregulates transcription factors which control differentiation and DIPG cell fitness. Furthermore, we characterize E6201 as a dual inhibitor of ACVR1 and MEK1/2, and demonstrate its efficacy toward tumor cells in vivo. Collectively, our results describe an oncogenic mechanism of action for ACVR1 mutations, and suggest therapeutic strategies for DIPGs.

4.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 79(4): 437-447, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053195

RESUMO

The diagnosis of medulloblastoma incorporates the histologic and molecular subclassification of clinical medulloblastoma samples into wingless (WNT)-activated, sonic hedgehog (SHH)-activated, group 3 and group 4 subgroups. Accurate medulloblastoma subclassification has important prognostic and treatment implications. Immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based and nanoString-based subgrouping methodologies have been independently described as options for medulloblastoma subgrouping, however have not previously been directly compared. We describe our experience with nanoString-based subgrouping in a clinical setting and compare this with our IHC-based results. Study materials included FFPE tissue from 160 medulloblastomas. Clinical data and tumor histology were reviewed. Immunohistochemical-based subgrouping using ß-catenin, filamin A and p53 antibodies and nanoString-based gene expression profiling were performed. The sensitivity and specificity of IHC-based subgrouping of WNT and SHH-activated medulloblastomas was 91.5% and 99.54%, respectively. Filamin A immunopositivity highly correlated with SHH/WNT-activated subgroups (sensitivity 100%, specificity 92.7%, p < 0.001). Nuclear ß-catenin immunopositivity had a sensitivity of 76.2% and specificity of 99.23% for detection of WNT-activated tumors. Approximately 23.8% of WNT cases would have been missed using an IHC-based subgrouping method alone. nanoString could confidently predict medulloblastoma subgroup in 93% of cases and could distinguish group 3/4 subgroups in 96.3% of cases. nanoString-based subgrouping allows for a more prognostically useful classification of clinical medulloblastoma samples.

5.
Neuro Oncol ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32055852

RESUMO

Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system tumors occurring in children and adults with neurofibromatosis type I (NF1). Over the past decade, discoveries of the molecular basis of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) have led to new approaches for diagnosis and treatments. However, these new understandings have not been fully applied to the management of NF1-associated gliomas. A consensus panel consisting of experts in NF1 and gliomas was convened to review the current molecular knowledge of NF1-associated low grade "transformed" and high-grade gliomas; insights gained from mouse models of NF1-LGGs; challenges in diagnosing and treating older patients with NF1-associated gliomas; and advances in molecular targeted treatment and potential immunologic treatment of these tumors. Next steps are recommended to advance the management and outcomes for NF1-associated gliomas.

6.
Neuro Oncol ; 22(3): 307-308, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907541
7.
Acta Neuropathol ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970492

RESUMO

Cancer predisposition syndromes are associated with an increased risk of developing primary malignancies. Here we discuss those which are associated with an increased risk of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. These can be grouped into those in which the CNS tumors predominate versus those in which the GI cancers predominate. The former include constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), and Cowden syndrome (CS) while the latter include familial adenomatosis polyposis 1 (FAP1), Lynch syndrome and polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis syndrome (PPAP). Tumor specificity does exist as medulloblastoma occur in FAP, LFS and CMMRD while glioma are most commonly seen in all replication repair-deficient genes and LFS. Choroid plexus carcinoma is strictly observed in LFS while Cowden syndrome patients develop Lhermitte Duclos disease or meningioma. In each syndrome, specific types of low-grade and high-grade gastrointestinal cancers can occur, but these will be discussed elsewhere. Underlying cancer predisposition syndromes are important to consider when faced with brain tumors, particularly in the pediatric and young adult age groups, as identification of an underlying germ line mutation may change the upfront management of the patient and has implications for future cancer surveillance for both the patient and potentially affected family members. Considerations of family history, presence of skin lesions and consanguinity provide valuable information in identifying patients at potential increased risk.

8.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(3): e28102, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793190

RESUMO

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is characterized by a short history of brainstem symptoms and well-known magnetic resonance imaging features with a fatal outcome. However, we report three unusual cases of brainstem tumors with an initial indolent and protracted course, which subsequently developed the classical imaging and clinical features of DIPG. Our findings support this notion that K27M is an early event in development and suggest that the emergence of additional events resulted in rapid progression after a long period of latency. Identification of such markers of aggressive behavior in the context of an indolent course is needed for better characterization and treatment management.

9.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 144(2): 196-206, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219344

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: Standards for pathology reporting of cancer are foundational to national and international benchmarking, epidemiology, and clinical trials, with international standards for pathology reporting of cancer being undertaken through the International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR). OBJECTIVE.­: To develop standardized templates for brain tumor diagnostic pathology reporting. DESIGN.­: As a response to the 2016 updated 4th edition of the WHO (World Health Organization) Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System (2016 CNS WHO), an expert ICCR committee developed data sets to facilitate reporting of brain tumors that are classified histologically and molecularly by the 2016 CNS WHO; as such, this represents the first combined histologic and molecular ICCR data set, and required a novel approach with 3 highly related data sets that should be used in an integrated manner. RESULTS.­: The current article and accompanying ICCR Web site describe reporting data sets for central nervous system tumors in the hope that they provide easy-to-use and highly reproducible means to issue diagnostic reports in consort with the 2016 CNS WHO. CONCLUSIONS.­: The consistent use of these templates will undoubtedly prove useful for patient care, clinical trials, epidemiologic studies, and monitoring of neuro-oncologic care around the world.

10.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(3): 223-231, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774708

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nodular desmoplastic medulloblastoma (ND) and medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity (MBEN) have been associated with a more favorable outcome in younger children. However, treatment-related neurotoxicity remains a significant concern in this vulnerable group of patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ACNS1221 was a prospective single-arm trial of conventional chemotherapy for nonmetastatic ND and MBEN based on a modified HIT SKK 2000 regimen excluding intraventricular methotrexate, aiming to achieve similar outcome (2-year progression-free survival [PFS] ≥ 90%) with reduced treatment-related neurotoxicity. Secondary objectives included feasibility of timely central pathology review and evaluation of tumor molecular profile. RESULTS: Twenty-five eligible patients (15 males and 10 females; median age, 18.7 months) were enrolled. Eighteen patients had ND and 7 had MBEN histology. Three patients had residual disease at baseline. The study closed early because of a higher than expected relapse rate. Twelve patients experienced relapse-local (n= 6), distant (n = 3), and combined (n = 3)-at a median of 9.8 months from diagnosis (range, 8.9-13.7 months), and 2 patients died of disease. Two-year PFS and overall survival rates were 52% (95% CI, 32.4% to 71.6%) and 92% (95% CI, 80.8% to 100.0%) respectively. Patients older than 12 months of age (P = .036) and ND histology (P = .005) were associated with worse PFS. No patients with MBEN histology experienced relapse. All tumor samples clustered within the sonic hedgehog (SHH) group. Methylation analysis delineated 2 subgroups, SHH-I and SHH-II, which were associated with 2-year PFS rates of 30.0% (95% CI, 1.6% to 58.4%) and 66.7% (95% CI, 44.0% to 89.4%), respectively (P = .099). CONCLUSION: The proposed modified regimen of conventional systemic chemotherapy without serial intraventricular methotrexate injection failed to achieve the targeted 2-year PFS of 90%. With this cohort, we prospectively confirmed the existence of two SHH subgroups and observed a trend toward worse outcome for SHH-I patients.

11.
Neuro Oncol ; 22(1): 139-151, 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite increased understanding of the genetic events underlying pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGGs), therapeutic progress is static, with poor understanding of nongenomic drivers. We therefore investigated the role of alterations in mitochondrial function and developed an effective combination therapy against pHGGs. METHODS: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number was measured in a cohort of 60 pHGGs. The implication of mtDNA alteration in pHGG tumorigenesis was studied and followed by an efficacy investigation using patient-derived cultures and orthotopic xenografts. RESULTS: Average mtDNA content was significantly lower in tumors versus normal brains. Decreasing mtDNA copy number in normal human astrocytes led to a markedly increased tumorigenicity in vivo. Depletion of mtDNA in pHGG cells promoted cell migration and invasion and therapeutic resistance. Shifting glucose metabolism from glycolysis to mitochondrial oxidation with the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activator AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide) or the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitor dichloroacetate (DCA) significantly inhibited pHGG viability. Using DCA to shift glucose metabolism to mitochondrial oxidation and then metformin to simultaneously target mitochondrial function disrupted energy homeostasis of tumor cells, increasing DNA damage and apoptosis. The triple combination with radiation therapy, DCA and metformin led to a more potent therapeutic effect in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest metabolic alterations as an onco-requisite factor of pHGG tumorigenesis. Targeting reduced mtDNA quantity represents a promising therapeutic strategy for pHGG.

12.
J Mol Diagn ; 22(1): 72-80, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733350

RESUMO

Chromosomal rearrangements resulting in fusion transcripts have been reported in precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). The identification of fusion events is crucial in the diagnosis of B-ALL. In this study, we used NanoString nCounter technology to design, validate, and evaluate a multiplex panel for the detection of B-ALL fusion transcripts. Fifty-one B-ALL fusion transcripts reported in children in the literature were included in the design of the NanoString panel. Twenty-six fusion transcripts were validated using 64 positive-control samples and 74 negative-control samples with 100% sensitivity and 99% specificity in comparison to RT-PCR. Our results support a potential role of NanoString's technology as a robust and cost-effective technique that could be used in the detection of fusion transcripts and implemented into the diagnostic algorithm of B-ALL.

13.
Acta Neuropathol ; 139(2): 223-241, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820118

RESUMO

Pineoblastomas (PBs) are rare, aggressive pediatric brain tumors of the pineal gland with modest overall survival despite intensive therapy. We sought to define the clinical and molecular spectra of PB to inform new treatment approaches for this orphan cancer. Tumor, blood, and clinical data from 91 patients with PB or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (sPNETs/CNS-PNETs), and 2 pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation (PPTIDs) were collected from 29 centres in the Rare Brain Tumor Consortium. We used global DNA methylation profiling to define a core group of PB from 72/93 cases, which were delineated into five molecular sub-groups. Copy number, whole exome and targeted sequencing, and miRNA expression analyses were used to evaluate the clinico-pathologic significance of each sub-group. Tumors designated as group 1 and 2 almost exclusively exhibited deleterious homozygous loss-of-function alterations in miRNA biogenesis genes (DICER1, DROSHA, and DGCR8) in 62 and 100% of group 1 and 2 tumors, respectively. Recurrent alterations of the oncogenic MYC-miR-17/92-RB1 pathway were observed in the RB and MYC sub-group, respectively, characterized by RB1 loss with gain of miR-17/92, and recurrent gain or amplification of MYC. PB sub-groups exhibited distinct clinical features: group 1-3 arose in older children (median ages 5.2-14.0 years) and had intermediate to excellent survival (5-year OS of 68.0-100%), while Group RB and MYC PB patients were much younger (median age 1.3-1.4 years) with dismal survival (5-year OS 37.5% and 28.6%, respectively). We identified age < 3 years at diagnosis, metastatic disease, omission of upfront radiation, and chr 16q loss as significant negative prognostic factors across all PBs. Our findings demonstrate that PB exhibits substantial molecular heterogeneity with sub-group-associated clinical phenotypes and survival. In addition to revealing novel biology and therapeutics, molecular sub-grouping of PB can be exploited to reduce treatment intensity for patients with favorable biology tumors.

14.
Transl Oncol ; 13(2): 365-371, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887631

RESUMO

B7-H3 (CD276), a member of the B7 superfamily, is an important factor in downregulating immune responses against tumors. It is also aberrantly expressed in many human malignancies. Beyond immune regulatory roles, its overexpression has been linked to invasive metastatic potential and poor prognosis in patients with cancer. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity strategies targeting B7-H3 are currently in development, and early-phase clinical trials have shown encouraging preliminary results. To understand the role of B7-H3 in pediatric central nervous system (CNS) malignancies, a comprehensive panel of primary CNS tumors of childhood was examined by immunohistochemistry for levels and extent of B7-H3 expression. In addition, B7-H3 m-RNA expression status and association with overall survival in various pediatric CNS tumor types was accessed by curating publicly available patient gene expression data sets derived from bioinformatics analysis and visualization platforms (GlioVis). We demonstrate that B7-H3 is broadly expressed in pediatric glial and nonglial CNS tumors, and its aberrant expression, as determined by immunohistochemical staining intensity, correlates with tumor grade. Moreover, high B7-H3 m-RNA expression is significantly associated with worse survival and could potentially improve prognostication in various brain tumor types of childhood. B7-H3 can be used as a therapeutic target, given its tumor selectivity and the availability of targeted therapeutic agents to this antigen.

15.
Front Neurol ; 10: 1069, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681145

RESUMO

Objectives: The application of magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) for the treatment of neurological conditions has been of increasing interest. Conventional MR imaging can provide structural information about the effect of MRgFUS, where differences in ablated tissue can be seen, but it lacks information about the status of the cellular environment or neural microstructure. We investigate in vivo acute changes in water diffusion and white matter tracts in the brain of a piglet model after MRgFUS treatment using diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with histological verification of treatment-related changes. Methods: MRgFUS was used to treat the anterior body of the fornix in four piglets. T1 and diffusion-weighted images were collected before and after treatment. Mean diffusion-weighted imaging (MDWI) images were generated to measure lesion volumes via signal intensity thresholds. Histological data were collected for volume comparison and assessment of treatment effect. DWI metric maps of fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), and mean diffusivity (MD) were generated for quantitative assessment. Fornix-related fiber tracts were generated before and after treatment for qualitative assessment. Results: The volume of treated tissue measured via MDWI did not differ significantly from histological measurements, and both were significantly larger than the treatment cell volume. Diffusion metrics in the treatment region were significantly decreased following MRgFUS treatment, with the peak change seen at the lesion core and decreasing radially. Histological analysis confirmed an area of coagulative necrosis in the targeted region with sharp demarcation zone with surrounding brain. Tractography from the lesion core and the fornix revealed fiber disruptions following treatment. Conclusions: Diffusion maps and fiber tractography are an effective method for assessing lesion volumes and microstructural changes in vivo following MRgFUS treatment. This study demonstrates that DWI has the potential to advance MRgFUS by providing convenient in vivo microstructural lesion and fiber tractography assessment after treatment.

16.
Brain Pathol ; 2019 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630459

RESUMO

We performed genome-wide methylation analysis on 136 pediatric low-grade gliomas, identifying a unique cluster consisting of three tumors with oligodendroglioma-like histology, BRAF p.V600E mutations and recurrent whole chromosome gains of 7 and loss of 10. Morphologically, all showed similar features, including a diffusely infiltrative glioma composed of round nuclei with perinuclear halos, a chicken-wire pattern of branching capillaries and microcalcification. None showed astrocytic features or characteristics suggestive of high-grade tumors including necrosis or mitotic figures. All tumors harbored multiple chromosomal copy number abnormalities (>10 chromosomes altered), but none showed 1p/19q co-deletion or IDH1 p.R132H mutation. Hierarchical clustering and t-stochastic neighbor embedding analyses from DNA methylation data cluster them more closely to previously described pediatric-type low-grade gliomas and separate from adult gliomas. These tumors exhibit distinct clinical features; they are temporal lobe lesions occurring in adolescents and young adults with a prolonged history of seizures and all are alive with no recurrence (follow-up 3.2 to 13.2 years). We encountered another young adult case with quite similar pathological appearance and molecular status except for TERT promoter mutation. Although the series is small, these may represent a new category of IDH wild-type low-grade gliomas which may be confused with "molecular GBM." Further, they highlight the heterogeneity of IDH wild-type gliomas and the relatively indolent behavior of "pediatric-type" gliomas.

17.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 144, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639040

RESUMO

After publication of the original article [1], authors have requested to add a 'J' as middle name for Richard Gilbertson. Hence, full name should be Richard J Gilbertson.

18.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 117, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histological grading of choroid plexus tumors (CPTs) remains the best prognostic tool to distinguish between aggressive choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) and the more benign choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) or atypical choroid plexus papilloma (aCPP); however, these distinctions can be challenging. Standard treatment of CPC is very aggressive and often leads to severe damage to the young child's brain. Therefore, it is crucial to distinguish between CPC and less aggressive entities (CPP or aCPP) to avoid unnecessary exposure of the young patient to neurotoxic therapy. To better stratify CPTs, we utilized DNA methylation (DNAm) to identify prognostic epigenetic biomarkers for CPCs. METHODS: We obtained DNA methylation profiles of 34 CPTs using the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip from Illumina, and the data was analyzed using the Illumina Genome Studio analysis software. Validation of differentially methylated CpG sites chosen as biomarkers was performed using pyrosequencing analysis on additional 22 CPTs. Sensitivity testing of the CPC DNAm signature was performed on a replication cohort of 61 CPT tumors obtained from Neuropathology, University Hospital Münster, Germany. RESULTS: Generated genome-wide DNAm profiles of CPTs showed significant differences in DNAm between CPCs and the CPPs or aCPPs. The prediction of clinical outcome could be improved by combining the DNAm profile with the mutational status of TP53. CPCs with homozygous TP53 mutations clustered as a group separate from those carrying a heterozygous TP53 mutation or CPCs with wild type TP53 (TP53-wt) and showed the worst survival outcome. Specific DNAm signatures for CPCs revealed AK1, PER2, and PLSCR4 as potential biomarkers for CPC that can be used to improve molecular stratification for diagnosis and treatment. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that combining specific DNAm signature for CPCs with histological approaches better differentiate aggressive tumors from those that are not life threatening. These findings have important implications for future prognostic risk prediction in clinical disease management.

19.
J Neurooncol ; 145(1): 107-114, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468270

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Children with recurrent medulloblastoma have a poor prognosis. Re-irradiation is an option for some patients, but has not been well-studied in the era of molecular characterization for pediatric medulloblastoma. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 14 children age 18 years and younger at initial diagnosis with recurrent medulloblastoma, who received two or more courses of radiation therapy (RT). Molecular subgrouping was performed using nanoString and was available for nine patients. The primary study endpoint was overall survival. RESULTS: Re-irradiation (RT2) was directed at the supratentorial brain in six patients, infratentorial brain in one patient, and spine in seven patients. In addition, six patients received stem cell transplant as part of salvage therapy. Median OS for all patients was 12.4 months. One patient with recurrent Wnt-activated medulloblastoma remains alive with 154 months' survival; median survival was not reached for four patients with Group 4 disease, while three with Shh-activated disease had median survival of 2.2 months. A single patient with Group 3 disease died 4.3 months after RT2. Patients treated with RT2 to the spine for diffuse disease had poorer OS (p = 0.02), as compared to focal RT2 for intracranial recurrence. Distant failure, outside RT2 volumes, was the predominant pattern of recurrence after RT2. CONCLUSIONS: Re-irradiation for recurrent pediatric medulloblastoma can offer some patients disease control, particularly those with focally recurrent disease in the brain. Prospective studies are needed to confirm subgroups of patients who may benefit most from RT2.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cerebelares/radioterapia , Meduloblastoma/radioterapia , Reirradiação/métodos , Terapia de Salvação , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias Cerebelares/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Meduloblastoma/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cancer Cell ; 36(1): 51-67.e7, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287992

RESUMO

Embryonal tumors with multilayered rosettes (ETMRs) are highly lethal infant brain cancers with characteristic amplification of Chr19q13.41 miRNA cluster (C19MC) and enrichment of pluripotency factor LIN28A. Here we investigated C19MC oncogenic mechanisms and discovered a C19MC-LIN28A-MYCN circuit fueled by multiple complex regulatory loops including an MYCN core transcriptional network and super-enhancers resulting from long-range MYCN DNA interactions and C19MC gene fusions. Our data show that this powerful oncogenic circuit, which entraps an early neural lineage network, is potently abrogated by bromodomain inhibitor JQ1, leading to ETMR cell death.

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