Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 159
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
JAMA Pediatr ; 2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511669

RESUMO

Importance: Trials of preventive interventions for children that were implemented in the 1980s have reported sustained positive outcomes on behavioral and health outcomes into adulthood, years after the end of the intervention. This present study examines whether intervention in childhood may show sustained benefits across generations. Objective: To examine possible intervention outcomes on the offspring of individuals (now parents) who participated in the Raising Healthy Children preventive intervention as children in the elementary grades. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nonrandomized controlled trial was conducted in public elementary schools serving high-crime areas in Seattle, Washington. The panel originated in Seattle but was followed up locally and in out-of-state locations over time. Data analyzed in this study were collected from September 1980 to June 2011, with follow-up of the firstborn offspring (aged 1 through 22 years) of 182 parents who had been in the full intervention vs control conditions in childhood. Their children were assessed across 7 waves in 2 blocks (2002-2006 and 2009-2011). Data were analyzed for this article from September 2018 through January 2019. Interventions: In grades 1 through 6, the Raising Healthy Children intervention provided elementary school teachers with methods of classroom management and instruction, first-generation (G1) parents with skills to promote opportunities for children's active involvement in the classroom and family, and second-generation (G2) child with social and emotional skills training. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes examined in the third-generation (G3) offspring were self-regulation (emotion, attention, and behavioral regulation), cognitive capabilities, and social capabilities. Risk behaviors, including substance use and delinquency, were examined from age 6 years to study completion. Early onset of sexual activity was examined from age 13 years to study completion. Intent-to-treat analyses controlled for potential confounding factors. Results: A total of 182 G3 children were included in this analysis (72 in the full intervention and 110 in the control condition; mean age at first wave of data collection, 7 [range, 1-13] years). Significant differences in the offspring of intervention parents were observed across 4 domains: improved early child developmental functioning (ages 1-5 years; significant standardized ß range, 0.45-0.56), lower teacher-rated behavioral problems (ages 6-18 years; significant standardized ß range, -0.39 to -0.46), higher teacher-rated academic skills and performance (ages 6-18 years; significant standardized ß range, 0.34-0.49), and lower child-reported risk behavior (ages 6-18 years; odds ratio for any drug use [alcohol, cigarettes, or marijuana], 0.27 [95% CI, 0.10-0.73]). Conclusions and Relevance: To our knowledge, this is the first study to report significant intervention differences in the offspring of participants in a universal childhood preventive intervention. Cost-benefit analyses have examined the benefits of childhood intervention in the target generation. The present study suggests that additional benefits can be realized in the next generation as well. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04075019.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488935

RESUMO

Few longitudinal studies are capable of identifying criminal career profiles using both self-report and official court data beyond the 30s. The current study aims to identify criminal career profiles across three developmental periods using self-report data, validate these profiles with official court records and determine early childhood predictors. Data came from the Seattle Social Development Project (n = 808). Latent Class Analysis was used to examine criminal careers from self-reported data during adolescence (aged 14-18), early adulthood (aged 21-27) and middle adulthood (aged 30-39). Official court records were used to validate the classes. Childhood risk and promotive factors measured at ages 11-12 were used to predict classes. Findings revealed four career classes: non-offending (35.6%), adolescence-limited (33.2%), adult desister (18.3%) and life-course/persistent (12.9%). Official court records are consistent with the description of the classes. Early life school and family environments as well as having antisocial beliefs and friends differentiate membership across the classes. The results of this study, with a gender-balanced and racially diverse sample, bolster the current criminal career knowledge by examining multiple developmental periods into the 30s using both self-report and official court data.

3.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391702

RESUMO

There are stable between-person differences in an internalizing "trait," or the propensity to experience symptoms of internalizing disorders, such as social anxiety, generalized anxiety disorder, and depression. Trait internalizing may serve as a marker of heightened risk for problem alcohol outcomes (such as heavier drinking, binge drinking, or alcohol dependence). However, prior research on the association between internalizing symptoms and alcohol outcomes has been largely mixed in adolescence, with more consistent support for an association during adulthood. It may be that trait internalizing is only associated with problem alcohol outcomes in adulthood, after individuals have gained experience with alcohol. Some evidence suggested that these effects may be stronger for women than men. We used data from a community sample (n = 790) interviewed during adolescence (ages 14-16) and again at ages 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, and 39. Using generalized estimating equations, we tested the association between trait internalizing and alcohol outcomes during both adolescence and adulthood, and tested whether adult trait internalizing mediated the association between adolescent trait internalizing and adult alcohol outcomes. Trait internalizing in adulthood (but not adolescence) was associated with more frequent alcohol use, binge drinking and symptoms of alcohol use disorders, and mediated the effects of adolescent trait internalizing on alcohol outcomes. We observed no moderation by gender or change in these associations over time. Understanding the developmental pathways of trait internalizing may provide further insights into preventing the emergence of problem alcohol use behavior during adulthood. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

4.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970409

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Reducing cigarette use is a major public health goal in the United States. Questions remain, however, about the potential for the social environment in the adult years-particularly in the 30s and beyond-to influence cigarette use. This study tested pathways hypothesized by the social development model (SDM) to understand the extent to which social environmental factors at age 33 (e.g., involvement with smokers or with physically active people) contribute to changes in cigarette use from age 30 to age 39. Both combustible and electronic cigarette use were investigated. METHODS: Data were from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal study of 808 diverse participants with high retention. Self-reports assessed social developmental constructs, combustible and electronic cigarette use, and demographic measures across survey waves. RESULTS: At age 30, 32% of the sample reported past-month cigarette use. Using structural equation modeling, results showed high stability in cigarette use from age 30 to 39. After accounting for this stability, cigarette-using social environments at age 33 predicted personal beliefs or norms about smoking (e.g., acceptability and social costs), which in turn predicted combustible cigarette use at age 39. Cigarette-using environments, however, directly predicted electronic cigarette use at age 39, with no significant role for beliefs about smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette use was highly stable across the 30s, but social environmental factors provided significant partial mediation of this stability. Pathways were different for combustible and electronic cigarette use, however, with personal smoking norms playing an important role for the former but not the latter.

5.
Prev Sci ; 21(4): 508-518, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853720

RESUMO

This study examined associations of neighborhood structural factors (census-based measures, socioeconomic disadvantage, and residential stability); self-reported measures of general and substance use-specific risk factors across neighborhood, school, peer, and family domains; and sociodemographic factors with substance use among 9th grade students. Data drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a theory-driven longitudinal study originating in Seattle, WA, were used to estimate associations between risk factors and past month cigarette smoking, binge drinking, marijuana use, and polysubstance use among students (N = 766). Results of logistic regression models adjusting for neighborhood clustering and including all domains of risk factors simultaneously indicated that neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with a significantly higher likelihood of cigarette smoking, binge drinking, and polysubstance use, but not marijuana use. In fully controlled models, substance use-specific risk factors across neighborhood, school, peer, and family domains were also associated with increased likelihood of substance use and results differed by the outcome considered. Results highlight substance-specific risk factors as an intervention target for reducing youth substance use and suggest that further research is needed examining mechanisms linking neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and youth substance use.

6.
Prev Sci ; 20(7): 986-995, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152329

RESUMO

Elementary schools can be effective sites for universal preventive interventions. Less is known about how long effects of intervention in elementary grades last. Can they improve outcomes in adulthood? To test effects of a social developmental intervention in the elementary grades on adult life through the 30s, the Seattle Social Development Project, a nonrandomized controlled trial, followed all consenting 5th-grade students (N = 808) from 18 Seattle public elementary schools from age 10 (in 1985) to age 39 (in 2014), with 88% retention. The sample was gender balanced and ethnically and economically diverse. The full intervention, called Raising Healthy Children, continued from Grades 1 through 6 and consisted of teacher in-service training in classroom management and instructional methods; cognitive, social, and refusal skills training for children; and parent workshops in child behavior monitoring and management, academic support, and anticipatory guidance. Using structural equation modeling, we examined intervention effects from age 30 to age 39 across 9 constructs indicating 3 domains of adult life: health behavior, positive functioning, and adult health and success. An omnibus test across all 9 constructs indicated a significant positive overall intervention-control difference. Examined individually, significant intervention effects included better health maintenance behavior, mental health, and overall adult health and success. Significant effects were not found on substance use disorder symptoms, sex-risk behaviors, or healthy close relationships in the 30s. Results indicate that sustained, theory-based, multicomponent intervention in the elementary grades can produce lasting changes in health maintenance, mental health, and adult functioning through the 30s.

8.
Ann Behav Med ; 53(9): 858-864, 2019 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with higher rates of smoking. Few longitudinal studies have examined indicators of SES at both the neighborhood- and individual-level over time in conjunction with proximal risk factors of cigarette smoking. PURPOSE: To examine associations of time-varying measures of SES, demographic factors, and proximal risk factors for smoking net of average trajectories of smoking behavior from ages 30 to 39 in a community sample. METHODS: Data from the Seattle Social Development Project (N = 752), a theory-driven longitudinal study originating in Seattle, WA, were used to estimate trajectories of smoking from age 30 to 39. Time-varying measures of neighborhood poverty, coworker smoking, partner smoking, depression, anxiety, education, income, marital status, and parenthood were associated with smoking over time using latent growth curve modeling. RESULTS: Results indicated that living in higher poverty neighborhoods was uniquely associated with a greater likelihood of smoking net of average trajectories of smoking from age 30 to 39, gender and race/ethnicity, time-varying measures of SES and demographics, and time-varying measures of proximal risk factors for smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Living in higher poverty neighborhoods presents a unique risk for smoking among adults aged 30 to 39 above and beyond multiple aspects of SES and other potential mechanisms relating SES to smoking.

9.
Prev Sci ; 20(2): 235-245, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29504048

RESUMO

Permissive attitudes and norms about marijuana use and perceptions of low harm from use are considered risk factors for adolescent marijuana use. However, the relationship between risk and use may be reciprocal and vary across development and socializing domains. We examined the bidirectional relationships between marijuana-specific risk factors in individual, parent, peer, and community domains and adolescent marijuana use. Longitudinal data came from a sample of 2002 adolescents in 12 communities. Controlling for sociodemographic covariates and communities in which the individuals resided, autoregressive cross-lagged models examined predictive associations between the risk factors and marijuana use. After accounting for concurrent relationships between risk and use and stability in behavior over time, early adolescence and the transition to high school were particularly salient developmental time points. Specifically, higher risk in all four domains in grades 7 and 9 predicted greater use 1 year later. Moreover, youth's perception of lax community enforcement of laws regarding adolescent use at all time points predicted increases in marijuana use at the subsequent assessment, and perceived low harm from use was a risk factor that prospectively predicted more marijuana use at most of the time points. Finally, greater frequency of marijuana use predicted higher levels of risk factors at the next time point in most socializing domains throughout adolescence. Prevention programs should take into account developmental transitions, especially in early adolescence and during the transition to high school. They also should focus on the reciprocal relationships between use and risk across multiple socializing domains.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Grupo Associado , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Social , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Prev Sci ; 20(5): 705-714, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535622

RESUMO

The current study examines the continuity in comorbidity between substance use and internalizing mental health problems from adolescence to adulthood and investigates the general and specific predictors of comorbidity across development. Participants were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project (N = 808), a gender-balanced, ethnically diverse longitudinal panel. Structural equation modeling was used to examine risk factors for comorbid substance use and internalizing problems in family and peer social environments; substance use- and mental health-specific social environments (family tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use; family history of depression); and individual risk factors (behavioral disinhibition). Latent factors were created for comorbid substance use and mental health problems at ages 13-14 and comorbidity of substance abuse and dependence symptoms and mental health disorder symptoms at ages 30-33 and included indicators of anxiety, depression, alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana problems. Comorbid problems in adolescence predicted later comorbidity of disorders in adulthood. In addition, family tobacco environment and behavioral disinhibition predicted adolescent comorbidity, while family history of depression was associated with adult comorbidity. Finally, family and peer substance use in adolescence predicted substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana) both in adolescence and adulthood. The pattern of results suggests that comorbidity in adolescence continues into adulthood and is predicted by both general and behavior-specific environmental experiences during adolescence. Findings clarify the etiology of comorbid internalizing and substance use problems and suggest potential preventive intervention targets in adolescence to curb the development of comorbidity in adulthood.

12.
J Adolesc Health ; 63(4): 474-481, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150168

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study examined whether risk factors during adolescence, including substance use, depression, overweight status, and young adult educational attainment, mediated the association between low childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and higher body mass index (BMI) in adulthood. We also evaluated whether the hypothesized pathways differed based on racial group status. METHODS: Participants from the Seattle Social Development Project were followed from ages 10 to 39years. Thepresent study included white (n = 381), African American (n = 207), and Asian American (n = 171) participants. Structural equation models tested pathways linking low childhood SES to BMI from ages 24 to 39 years. Multiple-group modeling was used to test potential racial differences. RESULTS: Analyses indicated racial differences in the pathways linking low childhood SES with adult BMI. For whites, overweight status and educational attainment were significant mediators. For Asian Americans, there was an unmediated and significant pathway between low childhood SES and low adult BMI. For African Americans, there were no significant mediated or unmediated pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Results stress that the pathways that link childhood SES with adult BMI may operate differently based on race. Research is particularly needed to identify mechanisms for African Americans in order to better inform obesity prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Washington , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am J Public Health ; 108(5): 659-665, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565666

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the effects of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system, implemented in early adolescence to promote positive youth development and reduce health-risking behavior, endured through age 21 years. METHODS: We analyzed 9 waves of prospective data collected between 2004 and 2014 from a panel of 4407 participants (grade 5 through age 21 years) in the community-randomized trial of the CTC system in Colorado, Illinois, Kansas, Maine, Oregon, Utah, and Washington State. We used multilevel models to evaluate intervention effects on sustained abstinence, lifetime incidence, and prevalence of past-year substance use, antisocial behavior, and violence. RESULTS: The CTC system increased the likelihood of sustained abstinence from gateway drug use by 49% and antisocial behavior by 18%, and reduced lifetime incidence of violence by 11% through age 21 years. In male participants, the CTC system also increased the likelihood of sustained abstinence from tobacco use by 30% and marijuana use by 24%, and reduced lifetime incidence of inhalant use by 18%. No intervention effects were found on past-year prevalence of these behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of the CTC prevention system in adolescence reduced lifetime incidence of health-risking behaviors into young adulthood. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01088542.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Transtornos do Comportamento Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Violência , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Transtornos do Comportamento Social/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Social/prevenção & controle , Transtornos do Comportamento Social/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Estados Unidos , Violência/prevenção & controle , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eval Health Prof ; 41(2): 270-289, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29463119

RESUMO

Earlier intention-to-treat (ITT) findings from a community-randomized trial demonstrated effects of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system on reducing problem behaviors among youth. In ITT analyses, youth were analyzed according to their original study community's randomized condition even if they moved away from the community over the course of follow-up and received little to no exposure to intervention activities. Using inverse probability weights (IPWs), this study estimated effects of CTC in the same randomized trial among youth who remained in their original study communities throughout follow-up. Data were from the Community Youth Development Study, a community-randomized trial of 24 small towns in the United States. A cohort of 4,407 youth was followed from fifth grade (prior to CTC implementation) to eighth grade. IPWs for one's own moving status were calculated using fifth- and sixth-grade covariates. Results from inverse probability weighted multilevel models indicated larger effects for youth who remained in their study community for the first 2 years of CTC intervention implementation compared to ITT estimates. These effects included reduced likelihood of alcohol use, binge drinking, smokeless tobacco use, and delinquent behavior. These findings strengthen support for CTC as an efficacious system for preventing youth problem behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Comportamento Problema , Adolescente , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Bebedeira/prevenção & controle , Criança , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
J Youth Adolesc ; 47(2): 369-382, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28819911

RESUMO

There is broad agreement that neighborhood contexts are important for adolescent development, but there is less consensus about their association with adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Few studies have examined associations between neighborhood socioeconomic contexts and smoking and alcohol use while also accounting for differences in family and peer risk factors for substance use. Data drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project (N = 808), a gender-balanced (female = 49%), multiethnic, theory-driven longitudinal study originating in Seattle, WA, were used to estimate trajectories of smoking and alcohol use from 5th to 9th grade. Time-varying measures of neighborhood socioeconomic, family, and peer factors were associated with smoking and alcohol use at each wave after accounting for average growth in smoking and alcohol use over time and demographic differences. Results indicated that living in more socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods, lower family income, lower family general functioning, more permissive family smoking environments, and affiliation with deviant peers were independently associated with increased smoking. Lower family functioning, more permissive family alcohol use environments, and deviant peers were independently associated with increased alcohol use. The effect of neighborhood disadvantage on smoking was mediated by family income and deviant peers while the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on alcohol use was mediated by deviant peers alone. Family functioning and family substance use did not mediate associations between neighborhood disadvantage and smoking or alcohol use. The results highlight the importance of neighborhood, family, and peer factors in early adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Future studies should examine the unique association of neighborhood disadvantage with adolescent smoking net of family socioeconomics, functioning, and substance use, as well as peer affiliations. Better understanding of the role of contextual factors in early adolescent smoking and alcohol use can help bolster efforts to prevent both short and long harms from substance use.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Família , Grupo Associado , Características de Residência , Fumar/psicologia , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
J Community Psychol ; 45(3): 346-362, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29225383

RESUMO

Background: This study constitutes a building block in the cultural adaptation of Communities That Care (CTC), a community-based prevention system that has been found to be effective in reducing youth problem behaviors. Methods: Using the data from the CTC normative survey dataset that consists of more than quarter million youth nationwide, this study examines the reliability and validity of scores derived from the Communities That Care Youth Survey (CTC-YS), one of the primary assessment tools for gathering community data on risk and protective factors related to problem behaviors including substance use. The reliability and criterion validity analyses are conducted overall for the nationwide sample of youth as well as for the student subsample of Native American youth. Results: The results of this study indicate that the existing CTC-YS assessments of risk and protective factors in the domains of community, family, school, and peer groups as well as within individuals yield scores that are reliable and valid within the Native American sample of youth. Conclusions: This study informs the third step in the CTC prevention planning process, which involves the assessment of risk and protective factors to be targeted in preventive interventions. The question of how the assessment of risk and protective factors among Native American youth might be further improved and a description of efforts related to the cultural adaptation of the CTC program currently underway are also addressed in the discussion.


Assuntos
Índios Norte-Americanos , Comportamento Problema , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criança , Cultura , Família/etnologia , Família/psicologia , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Fatores de Proteção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etnologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
17.
J Adolesc Health ; 61(6): 743-746, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28970063

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Concern that asking about a specific behavior could elicit that behavior is often cited as a reason that communities and schools should not administer surveys about youth drug use. In this study, we investigated if this question-behavior effect exists related to substance use. We examined if simply asking a student about their current drug use leads to an increase in drug use 1 year later. METHOD: This study tests the validity of the question-behavior effect on youth drug use in a longitudinal panel of 2,002 elementary school students. The sample of students was drawn from the Community Youth Development Study, a community-randomized test of the Communities That Care prevention system. If the prevalence of self-reported drug use in sixth grade in a sample surveyed in fifth and sixth grades was higher than in an accretion sample surveyed only in sixth grade, the difference could indicate a question-behavior effect. RESULTS: Results from logistic regression analyses did not provide any evidence of a question-behavior effect on 30-day or lifetime prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, inhalant, or marijuana use reported in sixth grade. CONCLUSIONS: Asking youth about drug use in a survey did not increase the rates of self-reported drug use measured 1 year later. The absence of evidence of a question-behavior effect should ease concerns of communities and schools when administering surveys asking youth about their drug use.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Autorrelato , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia
18.
Infant Child Dev ; 26(5)2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29062266

RESUMO

This study examined whether parental alcohol use in adolescence, adulthood, and, for mothers, during pregnancy was related to their young children's functioning in terms of their on-time development as indicated by the number of developmental areas in which children experienced delay. Observed parenting practices and family socioeconomic status were tested as potential explanatory mechanisms of these links. Data came from the surveys and videotaped observations of a community sample of 123 biological parents and their 1-5 year old children followed longitudinally. Results suggest that the negative association between parental alcohol use and children's development operates primarily through fathers' alcohol use. Additionally, father's adolescent regular alcohol use predicted the family's low SES, which in turn predicted less-skilled maternal parenting practices and children's developmental delay.

19.
Am J Community Psychol ; 60(1-2): 267-278, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28940467

RESUMO

Living in disorganized neighborhoods characterized by high levels of poverty, crime, violence, and deteriorating buildings has been associated with increased alcohol consumption and mental health problems. Data drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project (N = 790), a theory-driven longitudinal study originating in Seattle, WA, were used to estimate trajectories of Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) symptoms from age 21 to 39. Time-varying measures of neighborhood disorganization, psychological distress, and sociodemographic factors were associated with deviations from average AUD symptoms at each wave. Results indicated that, on average, AUD symptoms decreased as individuals got older. Living in more disorganized neighborhoods and experiencing psychological distress was associated with increased AUD symptoms after accounting for average reductions from AUD symptoms over time and time-varying measures of relevant sociodemographic factors. Results of mediation analysis suggested that psychological distress is a mechanism by which disorganized neighborhoods increased risk of AUD from age 21 to 39.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Anomia (Social) , Características de Residência , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Áreas de Pobreza , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Washington/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Acad Pediatr ; 17(7S): S150-S157, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28865649

RESUMO

This article presents a framework for evolving a society that nurtures the health and well-being of its population. We review evidence that adverse social conditions, including poverty, conflict, discrimination, and other forms of social rejection, contribute immensely to our most ubiquitous psychological, behavioral, and health problems. We then enumerate the ways that effective family and school prevention programs could ameliorate much of the social adversity leading to these problems. The widespread and effective implementation of these programs-in primary care, social services, and education-must be a high priority. Beyond the implementation of specific programs, however, we must also make a more concerted effort to promote prosocial values that support nurturing families and schools. Our society's priorities must be to generate specific policies that reduce poverty and discrimination and, in so doing, reduce the risk for negative health-related outcomes.


Assuntos
Educação , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Prevenção Primária , Serviço Social , Evolução Cultural , Humanos , Pobreza , Preconceito , Distância Social , Meio Social
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA