Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 24
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Matern Child Nutr ; : e13001, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297479

RESUMO

Most countries implement nutrition counselling interventions as part of programmes to support breastfeeding and complementary feeding. However, data to track coverage of counselling interventions are rarely available. As a result, little is known about the coverage of counselling on infant and young child feeding (IYCF). Survey-based data collection systems generally collect data on IYCF practices but do not collect data on coverage of interventions to support IYCF, and those surveys that do collect this information do not do so consistently. We present a framework to guide the design of survey questions to measure IYCF counselling coverage. We provide examples of how large-scale surveys for programme evaluation and national monitoring have included survey questions to address these data gaps. Our review suggests that elements relevant to designing survey questions to capture coverage of counselling interventions include timing of contact, target behaviour and message content, place of contact, type of service provider, frequency of contact and mode of intervention. Application of this framework may help strengthen harmonized measurement of IYCF counselling coverage to enable better tracking of programme investments, document progress in scaling up nutrition services and allow for cross-country comparisons. Thus, improving measurement of counselling coverage may lead to improved reach of programmes to support optimal IYCF practices.

3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(Suppl 4): e001290, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297250

RESUMO

The global community is committed to addressing malnutrition. And yet, coverage data for high-impact interventions along the continuum of care remain scarce due to several measurement and data collection challenges. In this analysis paper, we identify 24 nutrition interventions that should be tracked by all countries, and determine if their coverage is currently measured by major household nutrition and health surveys. We then present three case studies, using published literature and empirical data from large-scale initiatives, to illustrate the kind of data collection innovations that are feasible. We find that data are not routinely collected in a standardised way across countries for most of the core set of interventions. Case studies-of growth monitoring and screening for acute malnutrition, infant and young child feeding counselling, and nutrition monitoring in India-highlight both challenges and potential solutions. Advancing the nutrition intervention coverage measurement agenda is essential for sustained progress in driving down rates of malnutrition. It will require (1) global consensus on a core set of validated coverage indicators on proven, high-impact nutrition-specific interventions; (2) the inclusion of coverage measurement and indicator guidance in WHO intervention recommendations; (3) the incorporation of these indicators into data collection mechanisms and relevant intervention delivery platforms; and (4) an agenda for continuous measurement improvement.

4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(Suppl 4): e001297, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297252

RESUMO

Current methods for measuring intervention coverage for reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health and nutrition (RMNCH+N) do not adequately capture the quality of services delivered. Without information on the quality of care, it is difficult to assess whether services provided will result in expected health improvements. We propose a six-step coverage framework, starting from a target population to (1) service contact, (2) likelihood of services, (3) crude coverage, (4) quality-adjusted coverage, (5) user-adherence-adjusted coverage and (6) outcome-adjusted coverage. We support our framework with a comprehensive review of published literature on effective coverage for RMNCH+N interventions since 2000. We screened 8103 articles and selected 36 from which we summarised current methods for measuring effective coverage and computed the gaps between 'crude' coverage measures and quality-adjusted measures. Our review showed considerable variability in data sources, indicator definitions and analytical approaches for effective coverage measurement. Large gaps between crude coverage and quality-adjusted coverage levels were evident, ranging from an average of 10 to 38 percentage points across the RMNCH+N interventions assessed. We define effective coverage as the proportion of individuals experiencing health gains from a service among those who need the service, and distinguish this from other indicators along a coverage cascade that make quality adjustments. We propose a systematic approach for analysis along six steps in the cascade. Research to date shows substantial drops in effective delivery of care across these steps, but variation in methods limits comparability of the results. Advancement in coverage measurement will require standardisation of effective coverage terminology and improvements in data collection and methodological approaches.

5.
Lancet Glob Health ; 7(7): e849-e860, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low birthweight (LBW) of less than 2500 g is an important marker of maternal and fetal health, predicting mortality, stunting, and adult-onset chronic conditions. Global nutrition targets set at the World Health Assembly in 2012 include an ambitious 30% reduction in LBW prevalence between 2012 and 2025. Estimates to track progress towards this target are lacking; with this analysis, we aim to assist in setting a baseline against which to assess progress towards the achievement of the World Health Assembly targets. METHODS: We sought to identify all available LBW input data for livebirths for the years 2000-16. We considered population-based national or nationally representative datasets for inclusion if they contained information on birthweight or LBW prevalence for livebirths. A new method for survey adjustment was developed and used. For 57 countries with higher quality time-series data, we smoothed country-reported trends in birthweight data by use of B-spline regression. For all other countries, we estimated LBW prevalence and trends by use of a restricted maximum likelihood approach with country-level random effects. Uncertainty ranges were obtained through bootstrapping. Results were summed at the regional and worldwide level. FINDINGS: We collated 1447 country-years of birthweight data (281 million births) for 148 countries of 195 UN member states (47 countries had no data meeting inclusion criteria). The estimated worldwide LBW prevalence in 2015 was 14·6% (uncertainty range [UR] 12·4-17·1) compared with 17·5% (14·1-21·3) in 2000 (average annual reduction rate [AARR] 1·23%). In 2015, an estimated 20·5 million (UR 17·4-24·0 million) livebirths were LBW, 91% from low-and-middle income countries, mainly southern Asia (48%) and sub-Saharan Africa (24%). INTERPRETATION: Although these estimates suggest some progress in reducing LBW between 2000 and 2015, achieving the 2·74% AARR required between 2012 and 2025 to meet the global nutrition target will require more than doubling progress, involving both improved measurement and programme investments to address the causes of LBW throughout the lifecycle. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, The Children's Investment Fund Foundation, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and WHO.

8.
Public Health Nutr ; 22(1): 175-179, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prevalence ranges to classify levels of wasting and stunting have been used since the 1990s for global monitoring of malnutrition. Recent developments prompted a re-examination of existing ranges and development of new ones for childhood overweight. The present paper reports from the WHO-UNICEF Technical Expert Advisory Group on Nutrition Monitoring. DESIGN: Thresholds were developed in relation to sd of the normative WHO Child Growth Standards. The international definition of 'normal' (2 sd below/above the WHO standards median) defines the first threshold, which includes 2·3 % of the area under the normalized distribution. Multipliers of this 'very low' level (rounded to 2·5 %) set the basis to establish subsequent thresholds. Country groupings using the thresholds were produced using the most recent set of national surveys. SETTING: One hundred and thirty-four countries. SUBJECTS: Children under 5 years. RESULTS: For wasting and overweight, thresholds are: 'very low' (≈6 times 2·5 %). For stunting, thresholds are: 'very low' (≈12 times 2·5 %). CONCLUSIONS: The proposed thresholds minimize changes and keep coherence across anthropometric indicators. They can be used for descriptive purposes to map countries according to severity levels; by donors and global actors to identify priority countries for action; and by governments to trigger action and target programmes aimed at achieving 'low' or 'very low' levels. Harmonized terminology will help avoid confusion and promote appropriate interventions.

9.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 3(4): e76, 2017 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV program was introduced in Vietnam in 2005. Despite the scaling up of PMTCT programs, the rate of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Vietnam was estimated as high as 20% in 2013. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the outcomes of PMTCT and identified factors associated with mother-to-child transmission and infant survival using survey and program data in a high HIV burden province in Vietnam. METHODS: This community-based retrospective cohort study observed pregnant women diagnosed with HIV infection in Thai Nguyen province from October 2008 to December 2012. Data were collected through interviews using a structured questionnaire and through reviews of log books and medical charts in antenatal care and HIV clinics. Logistic regression and survival analysis were used to analyze data using Stata (StataCorp). RESULTS: A total of 172 pregnant women living with HIV were identified between 2008 and 2012. Most of these women had acquired the HIV infection from their husband (77/119, 64.7%). Significant improvement in the PMTCT program was documented, including reduction in late diagnosis of HIV for pregnant women from 62.5% in 2008 to 30% in 2012. Access to antiretrovirals (ARVs) improved, increasing from a rate of 18.2% (2008) to 70.0% (2011) for mothers and from 36.4% (2008) to 93.3% (2012) for infants. For infants, early diagnosis within 2 months of birth reached 66.7% in 2012 compared with 16.7% in 2009. Transmission rate reduced from 27.3% in 2008 to 6.7% in 2012. Late diagnosis was associated with increased risk for HIV transmission (odds ratio [OR] 14.7, 95% CI 1.8-121.4, P=.01), whereas ARV therapy for mother and infant in combination with infant formula feeding were associated with reduced risk for HIV transmission (OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.001-0.1; P<.001). Overall survival rate for HIV-exposed infants at 12 months was 97.7%. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of program and survey data measured the impact of prevention of HIV transmission from mother-to-child interventions. Significant improvement in access to the interventions was documented in Thai Nguyen province. However, factors that increased the risk of HIV transmission, such as late diagnosis, remain to be addressed.

10.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 3(4): e91, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29246882

RESUMO

Evidence documenting the global burden of disease from viral hepatitis was essential for the World Health Assembly to endorse the first Global Health Sector Strategy (GHSS) on viral hepatitis in May 2016. The GHSS on viral hepatitis proposes to eliminate viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030. The GHSS on viral hepatitis is in line with targets for HIV infection and tuberculosis as part of the Sustainable Development Goals. As coordination between hepatitis and HIV programs aims to optimize the use of resources, guidance is also needed to align the strategic information components of the 2 programs. The World Health Organization monitoring and evaluation framework for viral hepatitis B and C follows an approach similar to the one of HIV, including components on the following: (1) context (prevalence of infection), (2) input, (3) output and outcome, including the cascade of prevention and treatment, and (4) impact (incidence and mortality). Data systems that are needed to inform this framework include (1) surveillance for acute hepatitis, chronic infections, and sequelae and (2) program data documenting prevention and treatment, which for the latter includes a database of patients. Overall, the commonalities between HIV and hepatitis at the strategic, policy, technical, and implementation levels justify coordination, strategic linkage, or integration, depending on the type of HIV and viral hepatitis epidemics. Strategic information is a critical area of this alignment under the principle of what gets measured gets done. It is facilitated because the monitoring and evaluation frameworks for HIV and viral hepatitis were constructed using a similar approach. However, for areas where elimination of viral hepatitis requires data that cannot be collected through the HIV program, collaborations are needed with immunization, communicable disease control, tuberculosis, and hepatology centers to ensure collection of information for the remaining indicators.

12.
AIDS Behav ; 21(Suppl 1): 15-22, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28401415

RESUMO

Although not originally part of the MDGs, HIV treatment has been at the center of global HIV reporting since 2003, marked by achievement of the target of 15 million people receiving treatment before 2015 and 18.2 million (16.1-19.0 million) by mid 2016. Monitoring of treatment has been strengthened with harmonized partner reporting and accountability with regular, annual reports. Beyond treatment numbers, increasingly measures of treatment adherence, retention and outcomes have been reported though with varying quality and completeness. However, with the sustainable development goals (SDGs), monitoring treatment is changing in three important ways. First, treatment monitoring is shifting from numbers to coverage and gaps in a cascade of services to achieve universal access. Secondly, this requires greater emphasis on disaggregated, individual level patient and case monitoring systems, which can better support linkage, retention and chronic, long term care. Thirdly, the prevention, testing and treatment cascade with a clear results chain, links treatment numbers to impact, in terms of reduced viral load, mortality and incidence. This agenda will require a greater contribution of routine impact evaluation alongside monitoring, with treatment seen as part of a cascade of services to ensure impact on mortality and incidence. In conclusion, the shift from monitoring treatment numbers to treatment linked to universal access to prevention, testing and treatment and impact on mortality and incidence, will be critical to monitor, evaluate, and improve HIV programs as part of the SDGs.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Vigilância da População/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Programas Governamentais , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Saúde Pública , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
AIDS Behav ; 21(Suppl 1): 23-33, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28063074

RESUMO

Progress towards achievement of global targets for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) and paediatric HIV care and treatment is an integral part of global and national HIV and AIDS responses. This paper documents the development of the global and national monitoring and reporting systems for PMTCT and paediatric HIV care and treatment programmes, achievements and remaining challenges. A review of the development of the monitoring and reporting process since 2002-2016 was conducted using existing published literature and taking into account changes in WHO HIV treatment guidelines, global HIV goals and targets, programmatic and methodological developments, and increased need for interagency partnerships, coordination and harmonization of global monitoring and reporting mechanisms. The number and type of indicators reported increased and evolved from monitoring of existence of national policies and guidelines, service delivery sites and trained health workers and coverage of PMTCT and paediatric HIV interventions to measuring outcomes and impact in reducing new HIV infections and AIDS related deaths, including efforts to validate elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. These changes were required to mirror changes in WHO and national PMTCT and HIV treatment guidelines. The number of countries reporting PMTCT coverage increased from 53 in 2003 to over 130 in 2015. National monitoring processes have also expanded in scope and the capacity to report on disaggregated data by type of ARV regimen and for paediatric HIV care and treatment has increased. Monitoring of PMTCT and paediatric HIV programmes has contributed a rich body of evidence that helped monitor how quickly countries were adopting and implementing the latest WHO HIV treatment guidelines for pregnant and breastfeeding women and children. The reported data and experiences were instrumental in shaping global policies, national programmes, and investment choices.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/normas , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/transmissão , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Mães , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
15.
Bull World Health Organ ; 93(7): 457-67, 2015 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26170503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare national human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) policies influencing access to HIV testing and treatment services in six sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: We reviewed HIV policies as part of a multi-country study on adult mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. A policy extraction tool was developed and used to review national HIV policy documents and guidelines published in Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe between 2003 and 2013. Key informant interviews helped to fill gaps in findings. National policies were categorized according to whether they explicitly or implicitly adhered to 54 policy indicators, identified through literature and expert reviews. We also compared the national policies with World Health Organization (WHO) guidance. FINDINGS: There was wide variation in policies between countries; each country was progressive in some areas and not in others. Malawi was particularly advanced in promoting rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy. However, no country had a consistently enabling policy context expected to increase access to care and prevent attrition. Countries went beyond WHO guidance in certain areas and key informants reported that practice often surpassed policy. CONCLUSION: Evaluating the impact of policy differences on access to care and health outcomes among people living with HIV is challenging. Certain policies will exert more influence than others and official policies are not always implemented. Future research should assess the extent of policy implementation and link these findings with HIV outcomes.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Políticas , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Epidemias , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
16.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 67 Suppl 2: S150-6, 2014 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25310122

RESUMO

The prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) "cascade" describes the programmatic steps for pregnant and breastfeeding women that influence HIV transmission rates. To this end, HIV-infected pregnant women and mothers need access to health services and adhere to antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis or lifetime treatment. Within the cascade, the concept of "retention-in-care" is commonly used as a proxy for adherence to ARV interventions and, even, viral suppression. Yet surprisingly, there is no standard definition of retention-in-care either for the purposes of HIV surveillance or implementation research. Implicit to the concept of retention-in-care is the sense of continuity and receipt of care at relevant time points. In the context of PMTCT, the main challenge for surveillance and implementation research is to estimate effective coverage of ARV interventions over a prolonged period of time. These data are used to inform program management and also to estimate postnatal MTCT rates. Attendance of HIV-infected mothers at clinic at 12-month postpartum is often equated with full retention in PMTCT programs over this period. Yet, measurement approaches that fail to register missed visits, or inconsistent attendance or other missing data in the interval period, fail to capture patterns of attendance and care received by mothers and children and risk introducing systematic errors and bias. More importantly, providing only an aggregated rate of attendance as a proxy for retention-in-care fails to identify specific gaps in health services where interventions to improve retention along the PMTCT cascade are most needed. In this article, we discuss how data on retention-in-care can be understood and analyzed, and what are the implications and opportunities for programs and implementation research.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Aleitamento Materno , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Cooperação do Paciente , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Gravidez
17.
BMC Public Health ; 12: 405, 2012 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22672627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent years have seen rapid and significant progress in science and implementation of programs to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Programs that support PMTCT routinely monitor service provision but very few have measured their effectiveness. The objective of the study was to use service data to inform HIV-free survival among HIV exposed children that received antiretroviral drugs to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. The study was conducted in two rural districts in Malawi with support from FHI 360. METHODS: A descriptive observational study of PMTCT outcomes was conducted between June 2005 and June 2009. The dataset included patient-level data of all pregnant women 1) that tested HIV-positive, 2) that were dispensed with antiretroviral prophylaxis, and 3) whose addresses were available for home visits. The data were matched to each woman's corresponding antenatal clinic data from home visit registers. RESULTS: Out of 438 children whose home addresses were available, 33 (8%) were lost to follow-up, 35 (8%) were alive but not tested for HIV by the time home visit was conducted, and 52 (12%) were confirmed deceased. A total of 318 children were alive at the time of the home visit and had an HIV antibody test done at median age 15 months. The resulting estimated 24-month probability of HIV-free survival over all children was 78%. Among children who did not receive nevirapine, the estimated 24-month probability of HIV-free survival was 61%, and among those who did receive NVP syrup the estimate was 82%. CONCLUSIONS: When mothers and newborns received nevirapine, the estimated 24-month probability of HIV-free survival among children was high at 82% (CI: 54% to 99%). However this conclusion should be interpreted cautiously 1) due to the wide confidence interval; and 2) because the confidence interval range includes 55%, which is the natural HIV-free survival rate in the absence of a PMTCT intervention. This analysis highlighted the need of quality data and well-structured home visits to assess PMTCT effectiveness.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Pediatria , Saúde da População Rural , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Malaui/epidemiologia , Centros de Saúde Materno-Infantil/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Paridade , Pediatria/normas , Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
18.
Sex Transm Infect ; 86 Suppl 2: ii48-55, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21106515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of HIV-positive pregnant women receiving antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV has increased rapidly. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the reduction in new child HIV infections resulting from prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) over the past decade. To project the potential impact of implementing the new WHO PMTCT guidelines between 2010 and 2015 and consider the efforts required to virtually eliminate MTCT, defined as <5% transmission of HIV from mother to child, or 90% reduction of infections among young children by 2015. METHODS: Data from 25 countries with the largest numbers of HIV-positive pregnant women were used to create five scenarios to evaluate different PMTCT interventions. A demographic model, Spectrum, was used to estimate new child HIV infections as a measure of the impact of interventions. RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2009 there was a 24% reduction in the estimated annual number of new child infections in the 25 countries, of which about one-third occurred in 2009 alone. If these countries implement the new WHO PMTCT recommendations between 2010 and 2015, and provide more effective ARV prophylaxis or treatment to 90% of HIV-positive pregnant women, 1 million new child infections could be averted by 2015. Reducing HIV incidence in reproductive age women, eliminating the current unmet need for family planning and limiting the duration of breastfeeding to 12 months (with ARV prophylaxis) could avert an additional 264 000 infections, resulting in a total reduction of 79% of annual new child infections between 2009 and 2015, approaching but still missing the goal of virtual elimination of MTCT. DISCUSSION: To achieve virtual elimination of new child infections PMTCT programmes must achieve high coverage of more effective ARV interventions and safer infant feeding practices. In addition, a comprehensive approach including meeting unmet family planning needs and reducing new HIV infections among reproductive age women will be required.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/provisão & distribução , Aleitamento Materno/epidemiologia , Criança , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/provisão & distribução , Feminino , Previsões , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
19.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 17(12): 1582-91, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19471309

RESUMO

There is an increased prevalence of imprinting disorders, such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, associated with human assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Work on animal models suggests that in vitro culture may be the source of these imprinting errors. However, in this study we report that, in some cases, the errors are inherited from the father. We analyzed DNA methylation at seven autosomal imprinted loci and the XIST locus in 78 paired DNA samples. In seven out of seventeen cases where there was abnormal DNA methylation in the ART sample (41%), the identical alterations were present in the parental sperm. Furthermore, we also identified DNA sequence variations in the gene encoding DNMT3L, which were associated with the abnormal paternal DNA methylation. Both the imprinting errors and the DNA sequence variants were more prevalent in patients with oligospermia. Our data suggest that the increase in the incidence of imprinting disorders in individuals born by ART may be due, in some cases, to the use of sperm with intrinsic imprinting mutations.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Impressão Genômica/genética , Pais , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/enzimologia , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Espermatozoides/enzimologia
20.
Reprod Health Matters ; 15(30): 179-89, 2007 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17938083

RESUMO

A growing number of countries are moving to scale up interventions for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in maternal and child health services. Similarly, many are working to improve access to paediatric HIV treatment. This paper reviews national programme data for 2004-2005 from low- and middle-income countries to track progress in these programmes. The attainment of the UNGASS target of reducing HIV infections by 50% by 2010 necessitates that 80% of all pregnant women accessing antenatal care receive PMTCT services. In 2005, only seven of the 71 countries were on track to meet this target. However PMTCT coverage increased from 7% in 2004 (58 countries) to 11% in 2005 (71 countries). In 2005, 8% of all infants born to HIV positive mothers received antiretroviral prophylaxis for PMTCT, up from 5% in 2004, though only 4% received cotrimoxazole. 11% of HIV positive children in need received antiretroviral treatment in 2005. In 31 countries that had data, 28% of women who received an antiretroviral for PMTCT also reported receiving antiretroviral treatment for their own health. Achieving the UNGASS target is possible but will require substantial investments and commitment to strengthen maternal and child health services, the health workforce and health systems to move from pilot projects to a decentralised, integrated approach.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Pediatria , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Saúde Global , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA