Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 94
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 155(2): 62-68, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115479

RESUMO

The EDRF discovered in 1986 by Furchgott was later identified as NO by Ignarro. NO was a widely noted gas with diverse functions, having arginine (L-Arg) as a substrate for the NO synthase (NOS). L-Arg and L-citrulline (L-Cit) have long been associated with the urea cycle. L-Cit was produced with NO by the reaction of L-Arg and oxygen. It was shown that administration of L-Arg in animals and humans caused vasodilation and anti-arteriosclerosis effects. Despite the arginine paradox ratio of intracellular arginine concentration to the Km value of NOS gaining widespread attention, advanced arteriosclerosis is known to reduce vascular reactivity towards L-Arg. In recent years, the anti-arteriosclerosis and anti-cell aging effects of the reactive substance citrulline (L-Cit) have been studied. L-Cit and L-Arg combination therapy are starting to be considered in various clinical applications as well.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Óxido Nítrico/fisiologia , Animais , Arginina/farmacologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Citrulina/farmacologia , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase , Vasodilatação
2.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474688

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We developed the Work-related Physical Activity Questionnaire (WPAQ) to measure occupational physical activity, including sedentary behavior and sedentary breaks (interruptions of prolonged sedentary behavior), during work. This study aimed to examine the WPAQ's reliability and criterion validity using an accelerometer. METHODS: To examine criterion validity, 97 full-time factory workers (male: 89.7%) wore a triaxial accelerometer while working and completed the WPAQ. The questionnaire inquired about participants' normal work activities and the proportion of sitting, standing, walking, and heavy labor engaged in during work. In calculating time spent in each behavior, the proportion of each occupational activity was multiplied by the total minutes of work. Duration of uninterrupted sitting time was also measured. For reliability, the same questionnaire was administered twice (median test-retest interval: 9 days) to another convenient sample of 54 participants. Spearman's ρ was used to assess validity and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Cohen's kappa with quadratic weighing were used to assess reliability. RESULTS: The criterion validity of occupational sitting time measured by the WPAQ was moderate (Spearman's ρ for sedentary behavior: 0.69) based on comparison with accelerometer data. Significant positive correlations were found for standing (ρ = 0.66) and walking (ρ = 0.39) between the WPAQ and accelerometer data, though not for heavy labor. A moderate but significant correlation (ρ = 0.27) was found for sedentary breaks. Test-retest reliability for all items was adequate (ICC = 0.59-0.79 for occupational sedentary behavior and physical activities, and Cohen's kappa with quadratic weighting = 0.84 for sedentary breaks). CONCLUSIONS: The WPAQ has acceptable properties for measuring workers' activities, including sedentary breaks. Reduced physical activity, increased time spent in sedentary behaviors, and fewer sedentary breaks during working time are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Though some occupational exposure to these activities might be unavoidable, the WPAQ may be a practical tool for assessing them.

3.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e029556, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Studies have shown that organisational injustice (OIJ) is associated with mental disorders. However, there is little research regarding details on OIJ exposure. We examined the effect of OIJ on serious psychological distress (SPD) by considering the exposure frequency, the exposure duration and the OIJ-free period after the disappearance of exposure. METHODS: We used a prospective cohort design. OIJ exposure was assessed three times with 1-year intervals between assessments, and the subjects were grouped according to the exposure histories. The outcome assessment for SPD by scores of 13 or higher on the K6 questionnaire was carried out 3 years after the baseline scores were obtained. Participants were all full-time regular employees of one office of a manufacturing company in Japan. Participants who were being treated for mental disorders, those with SPD and those with missing data on the K6 questionnaire in the baseline survey were excluded from the prospective cohort. Self-reported questionnaire data from 1087 employees who participated in all surveys and answered all questions were analysed. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the effect of OIJ on SPD. RESULTS: SPD developed in 35 participants. Frequent OIJ exposure was associated with a higher risk for SPD (p for trend=0.002). Of the 1087 participants, 319 (29.3%) experienced a change in OIJ exposure at least once, and 8.6% of subjects experienced such a change twice. These changes in OIJ exposure were more strongly related to SPD than was the frequency of OIJ exposure. CONCLUSIONS: OIJ was associated with SPD onset particularly when the workers were more frequently exposed to it. Moreover, frequent changes in the OIJ exposure were associated with a higher risk for SPD. Because OIJ exposure can change in a relatively short time, considering exposure histories may provide useful information for preventing mental disorders.

4.
Circ J ; 83(10): 1973-1979, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391351

RESUMO

At present, atherosclerosis is one of the most important field in clinical and research medicine. Because it is closely related to cardiovascular (CV) and endocrine disorders such as coronary artery disease, cardiometabolic disorders, much research on how to manage atherosclerosis has been performed. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration has been established as an independent risk factor for developing atherosclerosis, and considerable effort has been committed to educating both physicians and the general public on the importance of lowering LDL-C with statins. Although statins have already significantly improved CV outcomes, patients with LDL-C target levels achieved by intense statin therapy still have significant remaining CV risk. Statins already play a central role in managing hyperlipidemia; however, residual risk with statins is an important field of managing remaining CV risk. Recent studies have suggested residual cholesterol and inflammation risks in causing CV events. In the current review, we will discuss residual risk and suggest strategies to overcome it in the statins era.

5.
J Vasc Res ; 56(4): 181-190, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coagulant factor Xa inhibitors (XaIs) are prescribed for patients with atrial fibrillation for years. METHODS: Human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured with or without (w/wo) a XaI (rivaroxaban) under high glucose (HG: 22 mM). Endothelial senescence was investigated by assessing senescence-associated-ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-gal), p53, and telomere length. Endothelial function and atherosclerosis were examined by nitric oxide-related-products (NOx: NO2- and NO3-), O2-, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), NADPH oxidase (p22phox), and ICAM1. PAR1 (protease-activated receptor 1) and PAR2, which were reported to regulate eNOS phosphorylation, were inhibited by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Thirty-two male dyslipidemic type 2 diabetic rats (ZFDM LepRfa/fa) were fed a high-cholesterol diet w/wo XaI (50 µg/day/kg) for 1-4 weeks. RESULTS: SA-ß-gal, p53, p21, and p16INK4a were increased by HG and restored by XaI (50 nM) in HUVECs. XaI restored telomerase activity and preserved telomere length. XaI suppressed O2-, p22phox, and ICAM1 and restored NOx and eNOS. XaI decreased PAR1 following elevation by HG, which was confirmed by PAR1 siRNA and PAR2 siRNA. In in vivo experiments, plasma glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were increased for 4 weeks but were not changed by XaI. XaI decreased SA-ß-gal and telomerase and preserved telomere length in the aortic endothelium. XaI activated eNOS, inhibited p22phox, increased plasma NOx, and decreased O2-. CONCLUSION: Rivaroxaban prevents replicative senescence in HUVECs and aortic endothelial cells in dyslipidemic diabetic mice. It restores endothelial function and prevents the progression of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Rivaroxabana/farmacologia , Animais , Doenças da Aorta/sangue , Doenças da Aorta/etiologia , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/complicações , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/patologia , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Ratos Zucker , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores Ativados por Proteinase/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Telomerase/metabolismo
6.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 19(8): 804-808, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264332

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to examine the relationship between blood coagulability and sense of burden among caregivers of patients with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out involving healthy older caregivers who lived with their patients with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. We evaluated the Zarit Burden Interview score, levels of von Willebrand factor antigen, D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin III complex, tissue plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 complex, number of chronic diseases, body mass index and number of medications. A linear regression model was used to estimate adjusted associations. RESULTS: Thrombin-antithrombin III complex levels were higher in female caregivers than in male caregivers (P = 0.07). Headaches were significantly more frequent in female caregivers than in male caregivers, as assessed by a visual analog scale (P < 0.01). The number of chronic diseases and body mass index were positively associated with levels of tissue plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 complex (P < 0.05). Similarly, the number of medications was positively associated with levels of D-dimer (P < 0.05). However, the Zarit Burden Interview score was not associated with blood coagulability (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The present study found that the number of chronic diseases and body mass index were associated with blood coagulability, and that female caregivers were more prone to headaches and higher blood coagulability than male caregivers. These findings highlight the essential nature of health management during caregiving. The impact of caregiver burden on blood coagulability is likely to differ depending on the long-term or short-term psychological stress associated with caregiving conditions. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2019; 19: 804-808.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Cuidadores , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Fadiga por Compaixão , Transtornos da Cefaleia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/sangue , Estresse Psicológico , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Antitrombina III , Coagulação Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cuidadores/psicologia , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Fadiga por Compaixão/sangue , Fadiga por Compaixão/diagnóstico , Fadiga por Compaixão/etiologia , Fadiga por Compaixão/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Transtornos da Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Escala Visual Analógica
7.
Circ J ; 83(7): 1439-1440, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178470
8.
West J Nurs Res ; 41(9): 1241-1253, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632455

RESUMO

Heart rate variability (HRV), especially increased high frequency (HF), has been reported to provide clinically useful prognostic information regarding cardiovascular disease. Napping is an excellent sleep management strategy in older adults. This study was conducted to clarify the effect of napping on HRV in older adult patients with cardiovascular risk factors. The patients were divided into two groups: one group of 32 patients who reported napping (nap group) and another group of 45 patients who did not report napping (nonnap group). The HRV was calculated in terms of the HF component over 24 hr during wakefulness, sleep, and 1 hr after sleep onset. The HF in the nap group was significantly higher than that in the nonnap group during all times measured. In addition, napping was a significant predictor of increased HF. This study shows the effectiveness of napping in the daily lives of patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

9.
Circ J ; 82(4): 937-943, 2018 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29503409

RESUMO

Statins are important for preventing adverse cardiovascular events in patients with both high and low risk of vascular disease, by reducing the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, statins dose-dependently increase adverse effects and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. Previously, it was hypothesized this was caused by to off-target effects, but recent studies demonstrate it is caused by on-target effects. Nonetheless, the American guidelines recommend the use of high-intensity statin therapy, and extend its use to most people at risk of vascular diseases, particularly older people. In contrast, European, Korean, and Japanese committees have expressed concerns about the potential adverse effects of using high-intensity statins for lifelong periods in a large fraction of the population. Patients who have achieved LDL-C levels below currently recommended targets may still experience cardiovascular events, resulting from residual risk. Ezetimibe, PCSK9 inhibitors, inclisiran, and ANGPTL3 antisense oligonucleotides are promising alternative non-statin drugs. Of interest, cross-talk between hypercholesterolemia and the renin-angiotensin-system exists at multiple levels of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. There are still unanswered questions on how to maximize the cardiometabolic benefits of statins in patients. We will discuss the results of randomized clinical trials, meta-analysis, and recent clinicopharmacogenetic studies, and propose practical guidelines to maximize the cardiometabolic benefits while reducing adverse effects and overcoming residual risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Hipercolesterolemia/fisiopatologia , Doenças Metabólicas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
10.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0192252, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29415069

RESUMO

L-citrulline and L-arginine supplementation has been shown to have several beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Nitric oxide (NO) protects against the progression of atherosclerosis and is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which converts L-arginine (L-Arg) into L-citrulline (L-Cit). Our previous study revealed that chronic administration of a combination of L-Cit and L- Arg has a better therapeutic effect on high cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. We investigated how L-Arg and L-Cit affect endothelial function, aging and atherosclerosis. Following a 3-day stimulation of human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) with high glucose (HG: 22 mM) and L-Arg (300 µM), L-Cit (300 µM) or L-Arg plus L-Cit (LALC: each 150 µM) supplementation, endothelial senescence and function were evaluated. These amino acids were also administered to dyslipidemic type 2 diabetic (ZDFM) rats fed a high cholesterol diet. They were fed L-Arg or L-Cit or LALC for four weeks. Aortic senescence was investigated by measuring senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-gal), telomerase activity, DNA damage and p16INK4a protein expression. Only L-Cit and LALC supplementation retarded the HG-induced endothelial senescence, as evaluated by SA-ß-gal activity, a widely used marker of cellular senescence, p16INK4a expression, a senescence-related protein, and DNA damage. Under HG conditions, L-Cit and LCLA restored telomerase activity to levels observed under normal glucose (NG) conditions. Under HG conditions, L-Cit decreased ROS production, as measured by CM-H2DCFDA and the expression of p67phox, a major component of NADPH oxidase. Under HG conditions, L-Cit and LALC increased NO production, as measured by DAF-2AM. Endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and phosphorylated eNOS were decreased under HG conditions and L-Cit and LALC significantly increased these levels. Arginase 2 protein expression increased under the HG conditions, and L-Cit and LALC significantly attenuated this effect. In ZDFM rats, SA-ß-gal activity was detected on the aortic endothelial surface; however, L-Cit and LALC reduced these levels. L-Cit and LALC both decreased the proportion of senescent cells. Furthermore, treatment with LALC for 4 weeks increased plasma NO production. Therefore conclusively, L-citrulline supplementation rescued NO levels better than L-arginine supplementation by inhibiting ROS production and arginase 2 protein expression. Consequently, L-Cit and LCLA supplementation retaeded HG-induced endothelial senescence.


Assuntos
Arginina/administração & dosagem , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citrulina/administração & dosagem , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Arginina/farmacologia , Citrulina/farmacologia , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Ratos , Ratos Zucker
11.
Korean Circ J ; 47(4): 432-439, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28765731

RESUMO

Hypercholesterolemia and hypertension are among the most important risk factors for cardiovascular (CV) disease. They are also important contributors to metabolic diseases including diabetes that further increase CV risk. Updated guidelines emphasize targeted reduction of overall CV risks but do not explicitly incorporate potential adverse metabolic outcomes that also influence CV health. Hypercholesterolemia and hypertension have synergistic deleterious effects on interrelated insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. Dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin system is an important pathophysiological mechanism linking insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction to atherogenesis. Statins are the reference standard treatment to prevent CV disease in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Statins work best for secondary CV prevention. Unfortunately, most statin therapies dose-dependently cause insulin resistance, increase new onset diabetes risk and exacerbate existing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pravastatin is often too weak to achieve target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels despite having beneficial metabolic actions. Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors improve both endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance in addition to controlling blood pressure. In this regard, combined statin-based and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitor therapies demonstrate additive/synergistic beneficial effects on endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and other metabolic parameters in addition to lowering both cholesterol levels and blood pressure. This combined therapy simultaneously reduces CV events when compared to either drug type used as monotherapy. This is mediated by both separate and interrelated mechanisms. Therefore, statin-based therapy combined with RAS inhibitors is important for developing optimal management strategies in patients with hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, or obesity. This combined therapy can help prevent or treat CV disease while minimizing adverse metabolic consequences.

12.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 81(2): 372-375, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27667025

RESUMO

We investigated the effects of combining 1 g of l-citrulline and 1 g of l-arginine as oral supplementation on plasma l-arginine levels in healthy males. Oral l-citrulline plus l-arginine supplementation more efficiently increased plasma l-arginine levels than 2 g of l-citrulline or l-arginine, suggesting that oral l-citrulline and l-arginine increase plasma l-arginine levels more effectively in humans when combined.


Assuntos
Arginina/sangue , Arginina/farmacologia , Citrulina/administração & dosagem , Citrulina/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Administração Oral , Adulto , Arginina/administração & dosagem , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 90(1): 133-140, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27812753

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Insomnia is one of the most common health problems and causes a large social burden. Psychosocial work-related factors are reported to be associated with both insomnia onset and insomnia persistence. However, the association between organizational justice (OJ) and insomnia remains unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of OJ on insomnia persistence, as well as insomnia onset. METHODS: A prospective cohort study with a 1-year observational period was conducted. Self-reported questionnaire data from 1588 employees were analyzed. OJ was measured using the Japanese version of the OJ questionnaire, which has four components (distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational). Insomnia was assessed with the Athens Insomnia Scale. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the effects of OJ on insomnia. RESULTS: Among non-insomniac subjects at the baseline (n = 1236), low overall OJ was a risk of insomnia onset even after adjustment for lifestyle and work-related variables (adjusted odds ratio 0.66; 95% confidence interval 0.51-0.85). The procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice components were also associated with insomnia onset. Among insomniac subjects at the baseline (n = 352), low overall OJ, as well as the procedural and interpersonal justice components, was associated with insomnia persistence. Although these associations became insignificant after adjustment, the interpersonal justice component showed a marginally significant association with insomnia persistence (p = 0.058). CONCLUSIONS: OJ, especially interpersonal justice, was revealed as an associated factor for both insomnia onset and persistence. These findings may provide useful information for prevention of insomnia among working population.


Assuntos
Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Cultura Organizacional , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Justiça Social/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 63(9): 549-559, 2016.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27818468

RESUMO

Objective There is little evidence showing that inhabitants of urban areas engage in more physical activity than do rural ones, although accumulating evidence concerning the best neighborhood environments conducive to physical activity supports the idea. This study sought to fill the research gap by examining the association between city scale and daily steps using data from Japan's National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS).Methods We analyzed data from 15,763 men and 18,479 women aged 20 years and older who participated in a one-day pedometer measurement during any part of the NHNS between 2006 and 2010. The data obtained for these years were combined into a single data set. City scale was categorized into 5 groups based on population: 1) 12 large cities and 23 wards, 2) population greater than 150,000, 3) population 50,000-150,000, 4) population less than 50,000, and 5) towns and villages. Differences in daily steps among city scale groups were analyzed using an ANCOVA, adjusting for age by gender. The Bonferroni method was employed for multiple comparisons, and linear regression was used to test for linear trends. Subgroup analyses were performed by age (20-39, 40-64, older than 64), and job status. The study was approved by the Tokyo Medical University ethics committee, and use of these data complied with the Statistics Act of Japan.Results The steps per day for men after adjusting for age were Group 1 : 7,494±4,429 (mean±SD), Group 2 : 7,407±4,428, Group 3 : 7,206±4,428, Group 4 : 6,911±4,428, and Group 5 : 6,715±4,429. Women's daily steps according to city scale group were 6,767±3,648, 6,386±3,647, 6,062±3,646, 6,069±3,649, and 6,070±3,649 for Groups 1 through 5, respectively. There were overall statistically significant differences (ANCOVA, P<0.001) between both genders. The larger the city scale, the more mean daily steps that were taken by both men and women (P values for both trends <0.001). Subgroup analyses revealed significant differences in the mean daily steps by city scale, regardless of age or job status for both genders. There were no significant differences among Groups 3, 4, or 5 among unemployed men, men older than 64, or overall women, which differed from the results for men with jobs, who took fewer steps in smaller cities.Conclusions Our study showed that men and women living in larger cities took more steps compared to those living in smaller cities. Subgroup analyses further revealed that the associations between city scale and physical activity differed according to gender, age, and job status.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Saúde da População Urbana , Adulto , Idoso , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 28(2): 261-8, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26289496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychological stress associated with caregiving is thought to underlie the high incidence of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and mortality, as well as reduced immune function, among caregivers of dementia patients. Here, we examined the effects of periodic leisure activities performed by caregivers of dementia patients with care recipients at home on perceived care burden and levels of stress hormones. METHODS: Participants were 42 caregivers aged ≥ 65 years of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's dementia. They were randomly assigned to intervention and non-intervention groups. The intervention group underwent a leisure activity program (30 min/3 times/week for 24 weeks) with the care recipient, and the control group underwent normal care activities. RESULTS: The Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) score, a subjective indicator of care burden, significantly decreased after intervention in the intervention group (p < 0.05), whereas no difference was observed in the control group. No significant changes were observed in adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine, and cortisol levels in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of changes in stress hormone levels despite a decrease in subjective care burden in the intervention group might be explained by the effects of the chosen leisure activity on the neuroendocrine system. Our findings suggest that periodic leisure activities can reduce perceived care burden among caregivers of dementia patients. However, in order to evaluate accurately the effects of leisure activities of the present study, long-term follow-up of both caregivers and care recipients is necessary. The Nagoya University Department of Medicine Ethics Committee Clinical Trials Registry Number is 1290.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Demência/enfermagem , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia , Sistemas Neurossecretores/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aldosterona/sangue , Catecolaminas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Renina/sangue , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Int J Cardiol ; 199: 126-31, 2015 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26188833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ezetimibe demonstrates decreasing visceral fat and improving insulin sensitivity (IS) in animals and humans. We first reported that simvastatin dose-dependently worsens insulin sensitivity. Whether ezetimibe may compensate untoward effects of simvastatin, depending on dosages of simvastatin has not been investigated in patients with hypercholesterolemia, compared with simvastatin alone. METHODS: This was a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study. Fifty-one in each group were given placebo, ezetimibe 10mg combined with simvastatin 10mg (Vyto10), ezetimibe 10mg combined with simvastatin 20mg (Vyto20), or simvastatin 20mg alone (Simva20) daily for 2months. RESULTS: Placebo, Vyto10, Vyto20, and Simva20 improved flow-mediated dilation relative to baseline measurements. Placebo therapy did not significantly change insulin and IS and adiponectin levels and visceral fat area (VFA) and VFA/subcutaneous fat area (SFA) relative to baseline measurements. Vyto10 therapy significantly decreased CRP and insulin levels and increased adiponectin levels and IS, and reduced VFA, VFA/SFA, and blood pressure. Vyto20 therapy did not significantly change insulin levels and IS and adiponectin levels but significantly reduced CRP levels and VFA, VFA/SFA, and blood pressure. Simva20 therapy significantly decreased adiponectin levels and IS but did not significantly change VFA, VFA/SFA, and blood pressure. Of note, these different effects of each therapy were significant by ANOVA. CONCLUSIONS: Vyto10, Vyto20, and Simva20 showed significant reduction of LDL cholesterol levels and improvement of flow-mediated dilation in patients with hypercholesterolemia. However, Vyto10, Vyto20, and Simva20 showed significantly differential metabolic effects, depending on dosages of simvastatin.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Ezetimiba/farmacologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Sinvastatina/farmacologia , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Idoso , Animais , Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína C-Reativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ezetimiba/administração & dosagem , Corpo Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipolipemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insulina/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ratos , Sinvastatina/administração & dosagem , Método Simples-Cego
19.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0123169, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25879533

RESUMO

Impaired glucose tolerance characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which occurs frequently in elderly persons and represents an important preliminary step in diabetes mellitus, poses an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Endothelial cellular senescence is reported to precede atherosclerosis. We reported that continuous high glucose stimulus causes endothelial senescence more markedly than hypertension or dyslipidemia stimulus. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of fluctuating glucose levels on human endothelial senescence. Constant high glucose increased senescence-associated-ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-gal) activity, a widely used marker for cellular senescence. Interestingly, in intermittent high glucose, this effect was more pronounced as well as increase of p21 and p16INK4a , senescence related proteins with DNA damage. However, telomerase was not activated and telomere length was not shortened, thus stress-induced senescence was shown. However, constant high glucose activated telomerase and shortened telomere length, which suggested replicative senescence. Intermittent but not constant high glucose strikingly up-regulated the expression of p22phox, an NADPH oxidase component, increasing superoxide. The small interfering RNA of p22phox undermined the increase in SA-ß-gal activity induced by intermittent high glucose. Conclusively, intermittent high glucose can promote vascular endothelial senescence more than constant high glucose, which is in partially dependent on superoxide overproduction.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Glucose/administração & dosagem , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/enzimologia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos
20.
J Occup Health ; 57(2): 142-50, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25735625

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Organizational justice (OJ) is an important psychosocial factor and it consists of several components. Previous studies have shown that low perceived OJ is associated with various health problems. However, the relationships between each justice component and health outcomes have not been fully examined. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationships between OJ and insomnia, including OJ components and insomnia symptoms. METHODS: Cross-sectional self-reported questionnaire data from 1,893 employees (92.2% of subjects) were collected. OJ was measured using the Japanese version of the OJ questionnaire, which has four components (distributive, procedural, interpersonal and informational). Insomnia was assessed with the Athens Insomnia Scale. Logistic regression analysis, with insomnia as a dependent variable and OJ as an independent variable, was conducted. RESULTS: Subjects with low overall OJ had a higher risk of insomnia (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.59 to 3.53) and two insomnia symptoms (AOR of 2.47 and 95% CI of 1.68 to 3.65 for sleep induction problem; AOR of 1.73 and 95% CI of 1.21 to 2.48 for sleep maintenance problem). The four justice components were all associated with insomnia and sleep induction problems. Sleep maintenance problems were associated with only the distributive justice component. CONCLUSIONS: All four justice components were associated with both insomnia and sleep induction problems. Sleep maintenance problems, however, showed different features. Specifically, the distributive justice component seemed to be a key factor in the relationship between OJ and insomnia. These findings might provide useful information for preventing the adverse effects of insomnia.


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Organizacional , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/etiologia , Justiça Social , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Japão , Modelos Logísticos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA