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1.
Food Chem ; 369: 130915, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496318

RESUMO

Commercial enzymatic pretreatment is being classically used for enhancing the oil extraction yield in the olive oil industry in China. Nevertheless, the mechanism is not yet clearly defined. The aim was to study the action of pectinase and cellulase for improving the oil yield from the aspects of oil droplets coalescence and rheological properties changes of olive paste during malaxation process. From confocal laser scanning microscopy imaging, the bound oil droplets were released and gradually coalesced into larger droplets, eventually formed a continuous oil phase with enzymatic pretreatment. Furthermore, the mixed enzymatic pretreatment effectively decreased viscosity of the olive pastes and promoted the depolymerization and solubilization of pectic polymers involved in the cell-cell adhesion, thus further enhanced the oil extraction yield from 7.15 % to 11.68 % (w/w). Finally, the mixed enzymatic pretreatment improved the droplet release and coalescence, reduced the viscosity of olive paste, and increased the oil yield.


Assuntos
Celulase , Poligalacturonase , Azeite de Oliva , Reologia , Viscosidade
2.
Food Chem ; 371: 131137, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562777

RESUMO

The role of amino acids and α-dicarbonyls in the flavor formation of Amadori rearrangement product (ARP) during thermal processing was investigated. Comparisons of the volatile compounds and their concentrations when N-(1-deoxy-α-d-ribulos-1-yl)-glycine reacted with different amino acids or glyoxal (GO) at 100 °C were executed. Additional amino acids, such as glycine (Gly), in ARP models contributed to the diversity of furanoids by the chain elongation of the derived formaldehyde. Whereas the monoanion of additional glutamic acid acted as nucleophile, favored 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine and 2,5-dimethylpyrazine formation; the nonionized amino group of additional lysine were involved in α-dicarbonyls formation, causing pyrazine and methylpyrazine accumulation in the ARP model. Moreover, the high dosage and pH stabilization of additional GO probably promoted the ARP degradation and deoxyosones retro-aldol cleavage, resulting in methylpyrazine rather than furanoids formation. The present work provided the guidance for the controlled flavor formation of ARP in industrial application.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Glicina , Aromatizantes , Glioxal , Reação de Maillard
3.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 760242, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795590

RESUMO

Background: Polyphenols and flavonoid-rich foods help in arresting reactive oxygen species development and protecting DNA from oxidative damage. Coffee peel (CP) preparations are consumed as beverages, and their total polyphenol or flavonoid content and their effect on oxidative stress-induced human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are poorly understood. Method: We prepared hot water extracts of CP (CPE) and quantified the amount of total polyphenol and flavonoid using HPLC analysis. In addition, CPE have been studied for their α-amylase inhibitory effect and beneficial effects in oxidative stress-induced hMSCs. Results: The obtained results show that the availability of chlorogenic acid, vanillin, and salicylic acid levels in CPE is more favorable for enhancing cell growth, nuclear integrity, and mitochondrial efficiency which is confirmed by propidium iodide staining and JC-1 staining. CPE treatment to hMSCs for 48 h reduced oxidative stress by decreasing mRNA expression levels of LPO and NOX-4 and in increasing antioxidant CYP1A, GSH, GSK-3ß, and GPX mRNA expressions. Decreased pro-inflammatory (TNF-α, NF-κß, IL-1ß, TLR-4) and increased tumor suppressor genes (except Bcl-2) such as Cdkn2A, p53 expressions have been observed. Conclusions: The availability of CGA in CPs effectively reduced mitochondrial oxidative stress, reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased tumor suppressor genes.

4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807609

RESUMO

Compared to the method of aqueous Maillard reaction at atmospheric pressure tandem vacuum concentration, a coupling dehydration method combining spray drying and vacuum drying was used to increase aspartic acid-xylose conversion to the Amadori rearrangement product (ARP). The water activity and moisture states were found as effective indicators to characterize the degree of dehydration of Maillard reaction intermediates and efficient formation of ARP. During the vacuum drying process, the water activity of the product powder decreased significantly. Because the formation of ARP was accompanied by intramolecular dehydration, combining spray drying and vacuum drying increased the proportion of bound water in the vacuum-dried product. Free water was easily dissipated via dehydration, which then converted the immobilized water continuously to free water, and the decreased immobilized water further converted the bound water to immobilized water. The reduction in bound water contributed to the intramolecular dehydration of N-substituted d-xylosamine, which would further be transformed to be the ARP through an intramolecular rearrangement. The yield of ARP was increased from 1.68 to 21.53% after spray drying. The ARP yield was substantially increased up to 77.9% by subsequent vacuum drying.

5.
Metabolites ; 11(11)2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822427

RESUMO

Soil contamination with heavy metals is an emerging concern in the modern era, affecting all forms of life. Pigeon pea is a multi-use shrub with medicinal and nutritional values. On the basis of a randomized complete design, we investigated in the current project the combined cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) effect on plant growth and physio-chemical/medicinal properties of pigeon pea. Three-week-old seedlings were grown in combined Cd and Cu amended soil with increasing metal concentrations (control, 20 + 30 mg/kg, 40 + 60 mg/kg, and 60 + 90 mg/kg) for three months. At high-dose metal cumulative stress (60 + 90 mg/kg), plant shoot and root growth in terms of plant height as well as fresh and dry weight were significantly inhibited in association with decreased photosynthetic attributes (chlorophyll a and b contents, net photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentrations) and diminished nutrient contents. Cd and Cu at high amounts inflicted oxidative stresses as assessed in elevated lipid peroxidation (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and electrolyte leakage contents. Antioxidant enzyme activities, namely, those of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), were enhanced, along with proline content with increasing metal quantity. Phenolics and flavonoids exhibited a diverse response regarding metal concentration, and their biosynthesis was significantly suppressed at high Cd and Cu cumulative stress. The reduction in secondary metabolites may account for declined medicinal properties of pigeon pea as appraised in reduced antibacterial, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) activities. Our results clearly demonstrate that the exposure of pigeon pea to Cd- and Cu-contaminated soil might affect consumers due to the presence of metals and the negligible efficacy of the herbal products.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657262

RESUMO

The present research aimed to provide a mechanism for enhancing sustainable supply chain survivability (SSCS) during and after the COVID-19 outbreak. Logistical and manufacturing operations have been restricted due to the severe lockdown, which significantly impacts the demand and supply of various items. COVID-19 has a massive effect on a multitude of units of various sectors. This research emphasized the important elements that must be considered to adapt the sustainable supply chain (SSC) practices. As a result, businesses are now attempting to improve the system for SSC. The stepwise weight assessment ratio analysis (SWARA) approach is used in this research to classify dynamic aspects for improving SSC survival in an epidemic condition. The results reveal that the viability of the supply chain network is the essential criteria for managing the relationships of suppliers and buyers and maximizing SSCS during and after COVID-19. This research will help businesses, manufacturers, and other stakeholders to concentrate on the described factors to achieve a brighter environment.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34594390

RESUMO

Coffee is an intricate mixture of thousands of chemical compounds that are accountable for its flavor and aroma. Roasting is a key step in the processing of coffee beans. This study assessed the effect of microwave roasting (MW) and extraction solvents (ES) on the total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of coffee beans. The untreated and microwave-roasted (MR) coffee beans showed a total polyphenol content of 40.40 and 35.15 mg GAE/gm DW, respectively, when methanol was used as the solvent for extraction. Similarly, for the untreated coffee beans, the methanol extracted coffee had a significantly (p < 0.05) higher total flavonoid content (39.34 mg CE/g DW) as compared to ethanol (34.82 mg CE/g DW). The obtained IC50 for the untreated and microwave-roasted samples as extracted by methanol were 4.13 and 5.68 mg/mL, respectively, while the IC50 values of untreated and microwave-roasted samples extracted by ethanol were 4.59 and 6.24 mg/mL, respectively. Untreated coffee beans exhibited a higher reducing power (1.237) than that of the microwave-roasted ones (0.839) when extracted with methanol. Chlorogenic acid was the major (2.31-2.68%) phenolic compound found in all the coffee samples whether it was untreated or microwave-roasted. Vanillin demonstrated the lowest (0.118-0.166%) phenolic compound found in the coffee bean samples. These results might be helpful for obtaining the maximum health benefits from coffee.

8.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 80: 105789, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689068

RESUMO

To enhance the extraction yield of pecan protein and modify its functional properties, this study investigated whether both ultrasound and enzyme have a synergistic impact on the extraction of pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch) protein. The highest protein extraction rate (25.51%) was obtained under the conditions of 1415.43 W.cm-2, 15 min, pH 10.0, 50 °C, and 1% (w/w) alkaline proteinase. Owing to its high shear, mechanical energy and cavitation, the ultrasound process increased the solubility of the substrate making it readily accessible to the enzyme, thereby accelerating the chemical reaction and improving the yield of the protein. The optimized ultrasound-assisted enzymatic method (400 W, 20 kHz, 5 s/3s) effectively changed the secondary and tertiary structure of the pecan protein. The results of surface hydrophobicity, intrinsic fluorescence spectra, sulfhydryl content and scanning electron microscopy all indicated the unfolding of protein and exposure of hydrophobic groups and sulfhydryl groups. Moreover, the protein obtained by this method showed higher solubility (70.77%), higher emulsifying activity (120.56 m2/g), smaller particle size (326.7 nm), and better dispersion (0.305) than single ultrasound and non-ultrasound methods (p < 0.05). To conclude, ultrasound-assisted enzymatic method could be an appropriate technique to improve the yield and quality of the pecan protein. The study also provides a theoretical basis for the application of pecan protein in food processing.

9.
Soft comput ; : 1-12, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539233

RESUMO

The approach of dealing with uncertainty is enhancing day-by-day with new rudiments and tools which possess their specific qualities. Usually, aggregation operators can easily manage the information in an exact manner. But each operator has different specifications in each problem. In recent few years, aggregation operators on intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets (IFSSs) or generalized intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets (GIFSSs) have been investigated but a lot of improvement is needed to obtain more accurate results. In this research, we defined new aggregation operators on GIFSSs which are used to aggregate our multi-criteria decision-making method. Reasonably, we assigned the weights with both intuitionistic fuzzy values of IFSS and intuitionistic fuzzy values of extra input in a GIFSS, and then by establishing new aggregation operators we appraised the computation in a more precise way. We defined the necessary properties of new aggregation operators and preparatory work of decision making in an algorithm. Then we expressed a real-life application by dint of the proposed methodology. Finally, we presented the comparisons of our work with already existing methods and techniques comprising aggregation operators.

10.
Comput Biol Chem ; 94: 107567, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500323

RESUMO

Benzimidazolium salts (3-6) were synthesized as stable N-Heterocyclic Carbene (NHC) precursors and their selenium-NHC compounds/Selenones (7-10) were prepared using water as a solvent. Characterization of each of the synthesized compounds was carried out by various analytical and spectroscopic (FT-IR, 1H-, 13C NMR) methods. X-ray crystallographic analyses of single crystals obtained for salts 3 and 5 were carried out. Synthesized salts and their Se-NHCs were tested in-vitro for their anticancer potential against Cervical Cancer Cell line from Henrietta Lacks (HeLa), Breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231), Adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) and human normal endothelial cell line (EA.hy926). MTT assay was used for analysis and compared with standard drug 5-flourouracil. Benzimidazolium salts (3-6) and their selenium counter parts (7-10) were found potent anticancer agents. Salt 3-5 were found to be potent anticancer against HeLa with IC50 values 0.072, 0.017 and 0.241 µM, respectively, which are less than standard drug (4.9 µM). The Se-NHCs (7-10) had also shown significant anticancer potential against HeLa with IC50 values less than standard drug. Salts 3, 4 against EA.hy926, compounds 3,5,6, and 10 against MDA-MB-321, and compounds 4, 10 against A-549 cell line were found more potent anticancer agents with IC50 values less than standard drug. Molecular docking for (7-10) showed their good anti-angiogenic potential having low binding energy and significant inhibition constant values with VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor), EGF (human epidermal growth factor), COX1 (cyclooxygenase-1) and HIF (hypoxia inducible factor).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Compostos Heterocíclicos/farmacologia , Metano/análogos & derivados , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Selênio/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Humanos , Ligantes , Metano/química , Metano/farmacologia , Selênio/química , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463924

RESUMO

A bulk of literature has examined the asymmetric impact of renewable energy consumption on CO2 emissions by using the advanced econometric approach. While the asymmetric role of renewable energy production in the CO2 equation is largely unknown, our present study quantifies the asymmetric relationship between renewable energy production, natural resources, economic progress, and CO2 emission for Pakistan by using the NARDL approach. It is found that positive change in renewable energy production has a positive effect on CO2 emissions, while a negative change in renewable energy production has a negative effect on CO2 emissions in the long run. Furthermore, a positive and negative change in natural resources contributes negatively to CO2 emissions in the long run. The results reveal that a positive change in economic progress significantly increases CO2 emissions in the long run. Based on findings, Pakistan's government should encourage local and international investors to increase their investment in the production of renewable energy by reducing environmental degradation.

12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(36): 10648-10656, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463101

RESUMO

2-Threityl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA), a nonvolatile precursor of flavor and color, is considered to be more stable than its isomeric Amadori compound (ARP). The degradation behavior of TTCA favors higher temperatures and pH. In order to adjust and control the thermal degradation of TTCA to improve its food processing adaptability, a TTCA-Xyl thermal reaction model was constructed to explore the effect of extra-added Xyl on the thermal degradation behavior of TTCA. The results confirmed that the extra-added Xyl was involved in the degradation pathway of TTCA and accelerated its depletion, thus promoting the formation of characteristic downstream products of TTCA including some α-dicarbonyl compounds, and consequently accelerating the browning formation. The isotope-labeling technique was further applied to confirm that the added Xyl could trap the Cys released from the decomposition of ARP and formed additional TTCA, which could promote the movement of chemical equilibrium and gradually accelerate the degradation rate of TTCA as well as melanoidins formation. The higher pH value could even promote this phenomenon.


Assuntos
Reação de Maillard , Xilose , Cisteína , Tiazolidinas
13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(34): 9924-9933, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427083

RESUMO

The Maillard reaction performed under a stepwise increase of temperature was applied for researching the inhibition of Maillard browning caused by ellagic acid. Ellagic acid was found effective for the inhibition of melanoidin formation in the xylose-glycine Maillard reaction but depended on its dosage and the point of time it was added in the reaction system. The lightest color of the Maillard reaction products was observed when ellagic acid was added at the 90th min, which was the point of time when the Amadori rearrangement product (ARP) developed the most. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis results showed a significant tendency of the ellagic acid hydrolysis product to react with the predominant intermediate ARP to yield an adduct. The adduct stabilized the ARP and delayed its decomposition and inhibited the downstream reactions toward browning. After the ARP was depleted, ellagic acid also showed an effect on scavenging some short-chain dicarbonyls which contributed to the inhibition of Maillard browning.


Assuntos
Ácido Elágico , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Reação de Maillard , Xilose
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 281: 114437, 2021 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391861

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cancer is the top death causing disease in the world, due to its occurrence through various mechanism and form. Medicinal plants have been extensively used for the purifications and isolations of phytochemicals for the treatment and prevention of cancer. OBJECTIVES: Consequently, this research was designed to document the traditional practices of anti-cancer plants and its phytochemical essay across the districts of KP, Pakistan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 24 districts from the informants mostly the traditional herbalists (key informants). The information were compared with the publish data using various authentic search engines including, google, researchgate, google scholar and NCBI. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-four (154) anti-cancer plants were recognized belonging to 69 families among all, Lamiaceae (13 sp.), Asteraceae (12 sp.) and Solanaceae (9 sp.) were the preferred families. The local inhabitants in the area typically prepare ethnomedicinal recipes from leaves (33.70%) and whole plants (23.37%) in the form of decoction and powder (24.67%), respectively. Herbs stayed the most preferred life form (61.68%) followed by shrub (21.4%). Similarly, breast (29.22%) and lung cancer (14.83%) was the common disease type. Literature study also authorize that, the medicinal plants of the research area were rich in phytochemical like quercetin, coumarine, kaempferol, apigenin, colchicine, alliin, rutin, lupeol, allicin, berbarine, lutolin, vanilic acid, urocilic acid and solamargine have revealed significant activates concerning the cancer diseases, that replicating the efficacy of these plants as medicines. CONCLUSION: The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is rural area and the local inhabitants have very strong traditional knowledge about the medicinal plants for different diseases like cancer. The medicinal plants for significant ranked disorder might be pharmacologically and phtyochemicaly explored to demonstrate their efficacy. Moreover, the local flora especially medicinal plants facing overgrazing, overexploitation and inappropriate way of collection, however, proper management strategies like reforestation, controlled grazing, proper permission from concerned department and rangeland strategies among others may be assumed to enhance the proper usage of medicinal plants.

15.
Food Res Int ; 145: 110411, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112414

RESUMO

A two-step emulsification prior to complex coacervation was employed to develop a co-encapsulation technology of hydrophilic and hydrophobic components for nutrition enhancement. Processing parameters of mononuclear ellipse-like microcapsules using gelatin and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as wall materials were evaluated. The particle size and morphology of microcapsules and the encapsulation efficiency of L-ascorbic acid were significantly affected by the water-oil phase ratio and total biopolymer concentration. The L-ascorbic acid and quercetin co-encapsulated microcapsules with an average size of 65.26 µm showed good physical and chemical stability. The encapsulation efficiencies of L-ascorbic acid and quercetin were 69.91% and 88.21%, respectively. To predict the potential of functional lipids as hydrophobic carriers, microcapsules using soybean oil, olive oil, fish oil, and conjugated linoleic acid as interlayer oils were developed. The encapsulation efficiencies of hydrophobic compounds carried by different oils were similarly high (88.21-93.08%), whereas, hydrophilic ones carried by conjugated linoleic acid had the lowest encapsulation efficiency (32.54%). The interface tension results indicated that the interfacial stability was impaired by a competitive relation between conjugated linoleic acid and hydrophobic emulsifier at the interface, due to their structural similarity. These results provided the guidance for improving the quality of interlayer oils from microcapsules.


Assuntos
Carboximetilcelulose Sódica , Gelatina , Ácido Ascórbico , Composição de Medicamentos , Óleos de Peixe , Quercetina , Sódio
16.
Food Res Int ; 144: 110319, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053524

RESUMO

Amadori rearrangement product (ARP) derived from proline and glucose was prepared in aqueous medium, and purified by ion exchange chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. The ARP was confirmed as 1-deoxy-1-L-proline-D-fructose (C11H19O7N, 277 Da) with four main isomers. A preliminary vacuum dehydration coupled with subsequent spray drying was used to improve the yield of ARP conversion from 3.63% to 69.15%. Furthermore, the taste characteristics of spray dried ARP products were analyzed by electronic tongue and sensory evaluation. The results indicated that when the dosage of ARP products was above 0.4%, a 20% salt reduction could be achieved without reduction in the salty taste as well as having a significant enhancement in the umami attribute. The products at low- and medium- extents of reaction could stimulate more secretion of aldosterone in oral cavity and then improve its sensitivity to the salt, while the product at high- extent of reaction inhibits aldosterone secretion.


Assuntos
Reação de Maillard , Paladar , Glucose , Prolina , Água
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(17): 5167-5177, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891395

RESUMO

The effect of additional dl-methionine (Met) on the thermal degradation of a methionine-glucose-derived Amadori rearrangement product (MG-ARP) was investigated under different reaction conditions. The resulting color formation and changes in the concentrations of MG-ARP, Met, and α-dicarbonyl compounds were investigated. Additional Met did not affect the degradation rate of MG-ARP but got involved in subsequent reactions and resulted in a decrease in the contents of C6-α-dicarbonyl compounds. During MG-ARP degradation, the formation of glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO) was facilitated by additional Met, through retro-aldolization reaction of C6-α-dicarbonyl compounds. This effect of Met addition was dependent on the reaction temperature, and the consistent conclusion could be made in a buffer system. The improvement of GO and MGO formation as color precursors caused by the additional Met contributed to the acceleration of browning formation.


Assuntos
Reação de Maillard , Metionina , Glucose , Glioxal , Aldeído Pirúvico
18.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(4)2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921552

RESUMO

Proline plays a significant role in the plant response to stress conditions. However, its role in alleviating metal-induced stresses remains elusive. We conducted an experiment to evaluate the ameliorative role of exogenous proline on cadmium-induced inhibitory effects in pigeon pea subjected to different Cd treatments (4 and 8 mg/mL). Cadmium treatments reduced photosynthetic attributes, decreased chlorophyll contents, disturbed nutrient uptake, and affected growth traits. The elevated activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase), in association with relatively high contents of hydrogen peroxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, electrolyte leakage, and endogenous proline, was measured. Exogenous proline application (3 and 6 mM) alleviated cadmium-induced oxidative damage. Exogenous proline increased antioxidant enzyme activities and improved photosynthetic attributes, nutrient uptake (Mg2+, Ca2+, K+), and growth parameters in cadmium-stressed pigeon pea plants. Our results reveal that proline supplementation can comprehensively alleviate the harmful effects of cadmium on pigeon pea plants.

19.
J Oleo Sci ; 70(4): 471-478, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692242

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effects of harvesting time on the physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, fatty acid composition, and phenolic compounds of peanut kernels. The moisture content (air-dried basis) of peanut kernels was determined between 4.47% (September 15, 2019) and 7.93% (October 6, 2019), whereas the oil contents changed from 45.95% (October 6, 2019) to 49.25% (September 22, 2019). The total carotenoid, chlorophyll, and phenolic contents were low throughout the harvest, showing differences depending on the harvest time. Total phenolic content changed from 0.28 mg GAE/L (September 29, 2019) to 0.43 mg GAE/L (September 8, 2019), whereas the antioxidant activity varied from 4.42% (August 25, 2019) to 4.70% (September 1, 2019). The dominant fatty acids were palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids, depending on the harvest time, followed by stearic, behenic, arachidic, and linolenic acids. The (+)-catechin content ranged from 2.17 mg/L (September 8, 2019) to 5.15 mg/L (September 1, 2019), whereas 1,2-dihydroxybenzene content changed between 2.67 mg/L (October 6, 2019) and 5.85 mg/L (September 29, 2019). The phenolic compound content fluctuated depending on the harvest time. The results showed that peanut kernel and oil had distinctive phenolic profiles and fatty acid contents. The findings of the present study may provide information for the best time to harvest peanut to achieve its maximum health benefits.


Assuntos
Arachis/química , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Estações do Ano , Antioxidantes/análise , Arachis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carotenoides/análise , Catequina/análise , Fenômenos Químicos , Clorofila/análise , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Food Res Int ; 140: 109985, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648220

RESUMO

Maillard reaction intermediates (MRIs) derived from enzymatic hydrolysates of pea protein, mainly initial Maillard reaction products, were prepared at a low temperature (80 °C) and the reaction time was determined by variable-temperature Maillard reaction. Electronic tongue and sensory evaluation were used to analyze the taste qualities of pea protein hydrolysates and their MRIs. Both evaluations showed that bitterness of enzymatic hydrolysates of pea protein reduced but umami taste increased through Maillard reaction. The intensities of umami and saltiness were positively correlated with the concentration of MRIs. Even when the dosage of MRIs was 0.1% (w/w), MRIs could achieve a 20% reduction in NaCl content without decreasing saltiness, which could be great potential substitutes for salt reduction. On the other hand, the increased MRIs promoted aldosterone secretion in saliva, which might enhance human perception of saltiness.


Assuntos
Reação de Maillard , Proteínas de Ervilha , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Humanos , Hidrolisados de Proteína , Paladar
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