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1.
PLoS Genet ; 17(1): e1009224, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417599

RESUMO

Discovering drugs that efficiently treat brain diseases has been challenging. Genetic variants that modulate the expression of potential drug targets can be utilized to assess the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. We therefore employed Mendelian Randomization (MR) on gene expression measured in brain tissue to identify drug targets involved in neurological and psychiatric diseases. We conducted a two-sample MR using cis-acting brain-derived expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) from the Accelerating Medicines Partnership for Alzheimer's Disease consortium (AMP-AD) and the CommonMind Consortium (CMC) meta-analysis study (n = 1,286) as genetic instruments to predict the effects of 7,137 genes on 12 neurological and psychiatric disorders. We conducted Bayesian colocalization analysis on the top MR findings (using P<6x10-7 as evidence threshold, Bonferroni-corrected for 80,557 MR tests) to confirm sharing of the same causal variants between gene expression and trait in each genomic region. We then intersected the colocalized genes with known monogenic disease genes recorded in Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and with genes annotated as drug targets in the Open Targets platform to identify promising drug targets. 80 eQTLs showed MR evidence of a causal effect, from which we prioritised 47 genes based on colocalization with the trait. We causally linked the expression of 23 genes with schizophrenia and a single gene each with anorexia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder within the psychiatric diseases and 9 genes with Alzheimer's disease, 6 genes with Parkinson's disease, 4 genes with multiple sclerosis and two genes with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis within the neurological diseases we tested. From these we identified five genes (ACE, GPNMB, KCNQ5, RERE and SUOX) as attractive drug targets that may warrant follow-up in functional studies and clinical trials, demonstrating the value of this study design for discovering drug targets in neuropsychiatric diseases.

2.
Nat Genet ; 52(10): 1122-1131, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895551

RESUMO

The human proteome is a major source of therapeutic targets. Recent genetic association analyses of the plasma proteome enable systematic evaluation of the causal consequences of variation in plasma protein levels. Here we estimated the effects of 1,002 proteins on 225 phenotypes using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) and colocalization. Of 413 associations supported by evidence from MR, 130 (31.5%) were not supported by results of colocalization analyses, suggesting that genetic confounding due to linkage disequilibrium is widespread in naïve phenome-wide association studies of proteins. Combining MR and colocalization evidence in cis-only analyses, we identified 111 putatively causal effects between 65 proteins and 52 disease-related phenotypes ( https://www.epigraphdb.org/pqtl/ ). Evaluation of data from historic drug development programs showed that target-indication pairs with MR and colocalization support were more likely to be approved, evidencing the value of this approach in identifying and prioritizing potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Proteoma/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2735-2739, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether circulating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are associated with pancreatic cancer risk is uncertain. Mendelian randomization (MR) represents a study design using genetic instruments to better characterize the relationship between exposure and outcome. METHODS: We utilized data from genome-wide association studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, involving approximately 9,269 cases and 12,530 controls of European descent, to evaluate associations between pancreatic cancer risk and genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels. Conventional MR analyses were performed using individual-level and summary-level data. RESULTS: Using genetic instruments, we did not find evidence of associations between genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels and pancreatic cancer risk [estimates per one SD increase in each PUFA-specific weighted genetic score using summary statistics: linoleic acid odds ratio (OR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-1.02; arachidonic acid OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.99-1.01; and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.87-1.02]. The OR estimates remained virtually unchanged after adjustment for covariates, using individual-level data or summary statistics, or stratification by age and sex. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that variations of genetically determined plasma n-6 PUFA levels are not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. IMPACT: These results suggest that modifying n-6 PUFA levels through food sources or supplementation may not influence risk of pancreatic cancer.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914876

RESUMO

At the time of cancer diagnosis, body mass index (BMI) is inversely correlated with lung cancer risk, which may reflect reverse causality and confounding due to smoking behavior. We used two-sample univariable and multivariable Mendelian randomization (MR) to estimate causal relationships of BMI and smoking behaviors on lung cancer and histological subtypes based on an aggregated genome-wide association studies (GWASs) analysis of lung cancer in 29 266 cases and 56 450 controls. We observed a positive causal effect for high BMI on occurrence of small-cell lung cancer (odds ratio (OR) = 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-2.06, P = 2.70 × 10-4 ). After adjustment of smoking behaviors using multivariable Mendelian randomization (MVMR), a direct causal effect on small cell lung cancer (ORMVMR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.06-1.55, PMVMR = .011), and an inverse effect on lung adenocarcinoma (ORMVMR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77-0.96, PMVMR = .008) were observed. A weak increased risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma was observed for higher BMI in univariable Mendelian randomization (UVMR) analysis (ORUVMR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.01-1.40, PUVMR = .036), but this effect disappeared after adjustment of smoking (ORMVMR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.90-1.16, PMVMR = .746). These results highlight the histology-specific impact of BMI on lung carcinogenesis and imply mediator role of smoking behaviors in the association between BMI and lung cancer.

5.
J Bone Miner Res ; 35(7): 1224-1235, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163637

RESUMO

Several epidemiological studies have reported a relationship between statin treatment and increased bone mineral density (BMD) and reduced fracture risk, but the mechanism underlying the purported relationship is unclear. We used Mendelian randomization (MR) to assess whether this relationship is explained by a specific effect in response to statin use or by a general effect of lipid lowering. We utilized 400 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated with plasma lipid levels as exposure. The outcome results were obtained from a heel estimated BMD (eBMD) genomewide association study (GWAS) from the UK Biobank and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) BMD at four body sites and fracture GWAS from the GEFOS consortium. We performed univariate and multivariable MR analyses of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride levels on BMD and fracture. Univariate MR analyses suggested a causal effect of LDL-C on eBMD (ß = -0.06; standard deviation change in eBMD per standard deviation change in LDL-C, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.08 to -0.04; p = 4 × 10-6 ), total body BMD (ß = -0.05, 95% CI = -0.08 to -0.01, p = 6 × 10-3 ) and potentially on lumbar spine BMD. Multivariable MR suggested that the effects of LDL-C on eBMD and total body BMD were independent of HDL-C and triglycerides. Sensitivity MR analyses suggested that the LDL-C results were robust to pleiotropy. MR analyses of LDL-C restricted to SNPs in the HMGCR region showed similar effects on eBMD (ß = -0.083; -0.132 to -0.034; p = .001) to those excluding these SNPs (ß = -0.063; -0.090 to -0.036; p = 8 × 10-6 ). Bidirectional MR analyses provided some evidence for a causal effect of eBMD on plasma LDL-C levels. Our results suggest that effects of statins on eBMD and total body BMD are at least partly due to their LDL-C lowering effect. Further studies are required to examine the potential role of modifying plasma lipid levels in treating osteoporosis. © 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(4): 860-870, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from epidemiologic studies examining polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and colorectal cancer risk are inconsistent. Mendelian randomization may strengthen causal inference from observational studies. Given their shared metabolic pathway, examining the combined effects of aspirin/NSAID use with PUFAs could help elucidate an association between PUFAs and colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: Information was leveraged from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) regarding PUFA-associated SNPs to create weighted genetic scores (wGS) representing genetically predicted circulating blood PUFAs for 11,016 non-Hispanic white colorectal cancer cases and 13,732 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Associations per SD increase in the wGS were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interactions between PUFA wGSs and aspirin/NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk were also examined. RESULTS: Modest colorectal cancer risk reductions were observed per SD increase in circulating linoleic acid [ORLA = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-0.98; P = 5.2 × 10-4] and α-linolenic acid (ORALA = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.92-0.97; P = 5.4 × 10-5), whereas modest increased risks were observed for arachidonic (ORAA = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03-1.08; P = 3.3 × 10-5), eicosapentaenoic (OREPA = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.07; P = 2.5 × 10-3), and docosapentaenoic acids (ORDPA = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01-1.06; P = 1.2 × 10-2). Each of these effects was stronger among aspirin/NSAID nonusers in the stratified analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that higher circulating shorter-chain PUFAs (i.e., LA and ALA) were associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk, whereas longer-chain PUFAs (i.e., AA, EPA, and DPA) were associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk. IMPACT: The interaction of PUFAs with aspirin/NSAID use indicates a shared colorectal cancer inflammatory pathway. Future research should continue to improve PUFA genetic instruments to elucidate the independent effects of PUFAs on colorectal cancer.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1010, 2020 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081875

RESUMO

In Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis, variants that exert horizontal pleiotropy are typically treated as a nuisance. However, they could be valuable in identifying alternative pathways to the traits under investigation. Here, we develop MR-TRYX, a framework that exploits horizontal pleiotropy to discover putative risk factors for disease. We begin by detecting outliers in a single exposure-outcome MR analysis, hypothesising they are due to horizontal pleiotropy. We search across hundreds of complete GWAS summary datasets to systematically identify other (candidate) traits that associate with the outliers. We develop a multi-trait pleiotropy model of the heterogeneity in the exposure-outcome analysis due to pathways through candidate traits. Through detailed investigation of several causal relationships, many pleiotropic pathways are uncovered with already established causal effects, validating the approach, but also alternative putative causal pathways. Adjustment for pleiotropic pathways reduces the heterogeneity across the analyses.


Assuntos
Pleiotropia Genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Modelos Genéticos , Causalidade , Simulação por Computador , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 27, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911640

RESUMO

Impaired lung function is often caused by cigarette smoking, making it challenging to disentangle its role in lung cancer susceptibility. Investigation of the shared genetic basis of these phenotypes in the UK Biobank and International Lung Cancer Consortium (29,266 cases, 56,450 controls) shows that lung cancer is genetically correlated with reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1: rg = 0.098, p = 2.3 × 10-8) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC: rg = 0.137, p = 2.0 × 10-12). Mendelian randomization analyses demonstrate that reduced FEV1 increases squamous cell carcinoma risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% confidence intervals: 1.21-1.88), while reduced FEV1/FVC increases the risk of adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.17, 1.01-1.35) and lung cancer in never smokers (OR = 1.56, 1.05-2.30). These findings support a causal role of pulmonary impairment in lung cancer etiology. Integrative analyses reveal that pulmonary function instruments, including 73 novel variants, influence lung tissue gene expression and implicate immune-related pathways in mediating the observed effects on lung carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Capacidade Vital
9.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(2): 587-596, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the second most common male cancer worldwide, but there is substantial geographical variation, suggesting a potential role for modifiable risk factors in prostate carcinogenesis. METHODS: We identified previously reported prostate cancer risk factors from the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF)'s systematic appraisal of the global evidence (2018). We assessed whether each identified risk factor was causally associated with risk of overall (79 148 cases and 61 106 controls) or aggressive (15 167 cases and 58 308 controls) prostate cancer using Mendelian randomization (MR) based on genome-wide association-study summary statistics from the PRACTICAL and GAME-ON/ELLIPSE consortia. We assessed evidence for replication in UK Biobank (7844 prostate-cancer cases and 204 001 controls). RESULTS: WCRF identified 57 potential risk factors, of which 22 could be instrumented for MR analyses using single nucleotide polymorphisms. For overall prostate cancer, we identified evidence compatible with causality for the following risk factors (odds ratio [OR] per standard deviation increase; 95% confidence interval): accelerometer-measured physical activity, OR = 0.49 (0.33-0.72; P = 0.0003); serum iron, OR = 0.92 (0.86-0.98; P = 0.007); body mass index (BMI), OR = 0.90 (0.84-0.97; P = 0.003); and monounsaturated fat, OR = 1.11 (1.02-1.20; P = 0.02). Findings in our replication analyses in UK Biobank were compatible with our main analyses (albeit with wide confidence intervals). In MR analysis, height was positively associated with aggressive-prostate-cancer risk: OR = 1.07 (1.01-1.15; P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The results for physical activity, serum iron, BMI, monounsaturated fat and height are compatible with causality for prostate cancer. The results suggest that interventions aimed at increasing physical activity may reduce prostate-cancer risk, although interventions to change other risk factors may have negative consequences on other diseases.

10.
Wellcome Open Res ; 4: 113, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448343

RESUMO

Mendelian randomization (MR) estimates the causal effect of exposures on outcomes by exploiting genetic variation to address confounding and reverse causation. This method has a broad range of applications, including investigating risk factors and appraising potential targets for intervention. MR-Base has become established as a freely accessible, online platform, which combines a database of complete genome-wide association study results with an interface for performing Mendelian randomization and sensitivity analyses. This allows the user to explore millions of potentially causal associations. MR-Base is available as a web application or as an R package. The technical aspects of the tool have previously been documented in the literature. The present article is complementary to this as it focuses on the applied aspects. Specifically, we describe how MR-Base can be used in several ways, including to perform novel causal analyses, replicate results and enable transparency, amongst others. We also present three use cases, which demonstrate important applications of Mendelian randomization and highlight the benefits of using MR-Base for these types of analyses.

11.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(5): 1493-1504, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation changes in peripheral blood have recently been identified in relation to lung cancer risk. Some of these changes have been suggested to mediate part of the effect of smoking on lung cancer. However, limitations with conventional mediation analyses mean that the causal nature of these methylation changes has yet to be fully elucidated. METHODS: We first performed a meta-analysis of four epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of lung cancer (918 cases, 918 controls). Next, we conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis, using genetic instruments for methylation at CpG sites identified in the EWAS meta-analysis, and 29 863 cases and 55 586 controls from the TRICL-ILCCO lung cancer consortium, to appraise the possible causal role of methylation at these sites on lung cancer. RESULTS: Sixteen CpG sites were identified from the EWAS meta-analysis [false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05], for 14 of which we could identify genetic instruments. Mendelian randomization provided little evidence that DNA methylation in peripheral blood at the 14 CpG sites plays a causal role in lung cancer development (FDR > 0.05), including for cg05575921-AHRR where methylation is strongly associated with both smoke exposure and lung cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: The results contrast with previous observational and mediation analysis, which have made strong claims regarding the causal role of DNA methylation. Thus, previous suggestions of a mediating role of methylation at sites identified in peripheral blood, such as cg05575921-AHRR, could be unfounded. However, this study does not preclude the possibility that differential DNA methylation at other sites is causally involved in lung cancer development, especially within lung tissue.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana
12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(12): 2070-2078, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 5-year mortality rate for pancreatic cancer is among the highest of all cancers. Greater understanding of underlying causes could inform population-wide intervention strategies for prevention. Summary genetic data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become available for thousands of phenotypes. These data can be exploited in Mendelian randomization (MR) phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS) to efficiently screen the phenome for potential determinants of disease risk. METHODS: We conducted an MR-PheWAS of pancreatic cancer using 486 phenotypes, proxied by 9,124 genetic variants, and summary genetic data from a GWAS of pancreatic cancer (7,110 cancer cases, 7,264 controls). ORs and 95% confidence intervals per 1 SD increase in each phenotype were generated. RESULTS: We found evidence that previously reported risk factors of body mass index (BMI; 1.46; 1.20-1.78) and hip circumference (1.42; 1.21-1.67) were associated with pancreatic cancer. We also found evidence of novel associations with metabolites that have not previously been implicated in pancreatic cancer: ADpSGEGDFXAEGGGVR*, a fibrinogen-cleavage peptide (1.60; 1.31-1.95), and O-sulfo-l-tyrosine (0.58; 0.46-0.74). An inverse association was also observed with lung adenocarcinoma (0.63; 0.54-0.74). CONCLUSIONS: Markers of adiposity (BMI and hip circumference) are potential intervention targets for pancreatic cancer prevention. Further clarification of the causal relevance of the fibrinogen-cleavage peptides and O-sulfo-l-tyrosine in pancreatic cancer etiology is required, as is the basis of our observed association with lung adenocarcinoma. IMPACT: For pancreatic cancer, MR-PheWAS can augment existing risk factor knowledge and generate novel hypotheses to investigate.


Assuntos
Obesidade/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Adiposidade , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fenômica , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
13.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(3): 807-816, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are observational data suggesting an inverse association between circulating concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. However, causality is uncertain and few studies have investigated this association by tumour receptor status. We aimed to investigate these associations under the causal framework of Mendelian randomization (MR). METHODS: We used summary association estimates extracted from published genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses for SHBG and breast cancer, to perform two-sample MR analyses. Summary statistics were available for 122 977 overall breast cancer cases, of which 69 501 were estrogen receptor positive (ER+ve) and 21 468 were ER-ve, and 105 974 controls. To control for potential horizontal pleiotropy acting via body mass index (BMI), we performed multivariable inverse-variance weighted (IVW) MR as the main analysis, with the robustness of this approach further tested in sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: The multivariable IVW MR analysis indicated a lower risk of overall (odds ratio [OR]: 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.90, 0.98; P: 0.006) and ER+ve (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87, 0.97; P: 0.003) breast cancer, and a higher risk of ER-ve disease (OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.18; P: 0.047) per 25 nmol/L higher SHBG levels. Sensitivity analyses were consistent with the findings of the main analysis. CONCLUSIONS: We corroborated the previous literature evidence coming from observational studies for a potentially causal inverse association between SHBG concentrations and risk of ER+ve breast cancer, but our findings also suggested a potential novel positive association with ER-ve disease that warrants further investigation, given the low prior probability of being true.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Razão de Chances , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/genética
14.
Thorax ; 74(7): 633-642, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936389

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Males have a higher prevalence of asthma in childhood, whereas females have a higher prevalence in adolescence and adulthood. The 'adolescent switch' observed between sexes during puberty has been hypothesised to be due to fluctuating sex hormones. Robust evidence of the involvement of sex hormones in asthma could lead to development of therapeutic interventions. METHODS: We combine observational evidence using longitudinal data on sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), total and bioavailable testosterone and asthma from a subset of males (n=512) in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, and genetic evidence of SHBG and asthma using two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR), a method of causal inference. We meta-analysed two-sample MR results across two large data sets, the Trans-National Asthma Genetics Consortium genome-wide association study of asthma and UK Biobank (over 460 000 individuals combined). RESULTS: Observational evidence indicated weak evidence of a protective effect of increased circulating testosterone on asthma in males in adolescence, but no strong pattern of association with SHBG. Genetic evidence using two-sample MR indicated a protective effect of increased SHBG, with an OR for asthma of 0.86 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.00) for the inverse-variance weighted approach and an OR of 0.83 (95% CI 0.72 to 0.96) for the weighted median estimator, per unit increase in natural log SHBG. A sex-stratified sensitivity analysis suggested the protective effect of SHBG was mostly evident in females. CONCLUSION: We report the first suggestive evidence of a protective effect of genetically elevated SHBG on asthma, which may provide a biological explanation behind the observed asthma sex discordance. Further work is required to disentangle the downstream effects of SHBG on asthma and the molecular pathways involved.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/fisiologia , Asma/sangue , Asma/fisiopatologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Fatores Sexuais , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/fisiologia , Bancos de Tecidos
15.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(5): 1416-1424, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have suggested an association between circulating vitamin D concentrations [25(OH)D] and risk of breast and prostate cancer, which was not supported by a recent Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis comprising 15 748 breast and 22 898 prostate-cancer cases. Demonstrating causality has proven challenging and one common limitation of MR studies is insufficient power. METHODS: We aimed to determine whether circulating concentrations of vitamin D are causally associated with the risk of breast and prostate cancer, by using summary-level data from the largest ever genome-wide association studies conducted on vitamin D (N = 73 699), breast cancer (Ncase = 122 977) and prostate cancer (Ncase = 79 148). We constructed a stronger instrument using six common genetic variants (compared with the previous four variants) and applied several two-sample MR methods. RESULTS: We found no evidence to support a causal association between 25(OH)D and risk of breast cancer [OR per 25 nmol/L increase, 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 0.97-1.08), P = 0.47], oestrogen receptor (ER)+ [1.00 (0.94-1.07), P = 0.99] or ER- [1.02 (0.90-1.16), P = 0.75] subsets, prostate cancer [1.00 (0.93-1.07), P = 0.99] or the advanced subtype [1.02 (0.90-1.16), P = 0.72] using the inverse-variance-weighted method. Sensitivity analyses did not reveal any sign of directional pleiotropy. CONCLUSIONS: Despite its almost five-fold augmented sample size and substantially improved statistical power, our MR analysis does not support a causal effect of circulating 25(OH)D concentrations on breast- or prostate-cancer risk. However, we can still not exclude a modest or non-linear effect of vitamin D. Future studies may be designed to understand the effect of vitamin D in subpopulations with a profound deficiency.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Causalidade , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/biossíntese , Fatores de Risco
16.
PLoS Med ; 16(1): e1002724, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several obesity-related factors have been associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but it is unclear which individual factors directly influence risk. We addressed this question using genetic markers as proxies for putative risk factors and evaluated their relation to RCC risk in a mendelian randomization (MR) framework. This methodology limits bias due to confounding and is not affected by reverse causation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genetic markers associated with obesity measures, blood pressure, lipids, type 2 diabetes, insulin, and glucose were initially identified as instrumental variables, and their association with RCC risk was subsequently evaluated in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 10,784 RCC patients and 20,406 control participants in a 2-sample MR framework. The effect on RCC risk was estimated by calculating odds ratios (ORSD) for a standard deviation (SD) increment in each risk factor. The MR analysis indicated that higher body mass index increases the risk of RCC (ORSD: 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-1.70), with comparable results for waist-to-hip ratio (ORSD: 1.63, 95% CI 1.40-1.90) and body fat percentage (ORSD: 1.66, 95% CI 1.44-1.90). This analysis further indicated that higher fasting insulin (ORSD: 1.82, 95% CI 1.30-2.55) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; ORSD: 1.28, 95% CI 1.11-1.47), but not systolic blood pressure (ORSD: 0.98, 95% CI 0.84-1.14), increase the risk for RCC. No association with RCC risk was seen for lipids, overall type 2 diabetes, or fasting glucose. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel evidence for an etiological role of insulin in RCC, as well as confirmatory evidence that obesity and DBP influence RCC risk.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/etiologia , Neoplasias Renais/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade/genética , Fatores de Risco
17.
Front Genet ; 9: 525, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483309

RESUMO

Gliomas are a group of primary brain tumors, the most common and aggressive subtype of which is glioblastoma. Glioblastoma has a median survival of just 15 months after diagnosis. Only previous exposure to ionizing radiation and particular inherited genetic syndromes are accepted risk factors for glioma; the vast majority of cases are thought to occur spontaneously. Previous observational studies have described associations between several risk factors and glioma, but studies are often conflicting and whether these associations reflect true casual relationships is unclear because observational studies may be susceptible to confounding, measurement error and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization (MR) is a form of instrumental variable analysis that can be used to provide supporting evidence for causal relationships between exposures (e.g., risk factors) and outcomes (e.g., disease onset). MR utilizes genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), that are robustly associated with an exposure to determine whether there is a causal effect of the exposure on the outcome. MR is less susceptible to confounding, reverse causation and measurement errors as it is based on the random inheritance during conception of genetic variants that can be relatively accurately measured. In previous studies, MR has implicated a genetically predicted increase in telomere length with an increased risk of glioma, and found little evidence that obesity related factors, vitamin D or atopy are causal in glioma risk. In this review, we describe MR and its potential use to discover and validate novel risk factors, mechanistic factors, and therapeutic targets in glioma.

18.
Gigascience ; 7(8)2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165448

RESUMO

Background: Identifying phenotypic correlations between complex traits and diseases can provide useful etiological insights. Restricted access to much individual-level phenotype data makes it difficult to estimate large-scale phenotypic correlation across the human phenome. Two state-of-the-art methods, metaCCA and LD score regression, provide an alternative approach to estimate phenotypic correlation using only genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary results. Results: Here, we present an integrated R toolkit, PhenoSpD, to use LD score regression to estimate phenotypic correlations using GWAS summary statistics and to utilize the estimated phenotypic correlations to inform correction of multiple testing for complex human traits using the spectral decomposition of matrices (SpD). The simulations suggest that it is possible to identify nonindependence of phenotypes using samples with partial overlap; as overlap decreases, the estimated phenotypic correlations will attenuate toward zero and multiple testing correction will be more stringent than in perfectly overlapping samples. Also, in contrast to LD score regression, metaCCA will provide approximate genetic correlations rather than phenotypic correlation, which limits its application for multiple testing correction. In a case study, PhenoSpD using UK Biobank GWAS results suggested 399.6 independent tests among 487 human traits, which is close to the 352.4 independent tests estimated using true phenotypic correlation. We further applied PhenoSpD to an estimated 5,618 pair-wise phenotypic correlations among 107 metabolites using GWAS summary statistics from Kettunen's publication and PhenoSpD suggested the equivalent of 33.5 independent tests for these metabolites. Conclusions: PhenoSpD extends the use of summary-level results, providing a simple and conservative way to reduce dimensionality for complex human traits using GWAS summary statistics. This is particularly valuable in the age of large-scale biobank and consortia studies, where GWAS results are much more accessible than individual-level data.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Software , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Modelos Genéticos
19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(18): 3293-3304, 2018 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29893838

RESUMO

We have undertaken a systematic Mendelian randomization (MR) study using methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTL) as genetic instruments to assess the relationship between genetic variation, DNA methylation and 139 complex traits. Using two-sample MR, we identified 1148 associations across 61 traits where genetic variants were associated with both proximal DNA methylation (i.e. cis-meQTL) and complex trait variation (P < 1.39 × 10-08). Joint likelihood mapping provided evidence that the genetic variant which influenced DNA methylation levels for 348 of these associations across 47 traits was also responsible for variation in complex traits. These associations showed a high rate of replication in the BIOS QTL and UK Biobank datasets for 14 selected traits, as 101 of the attempted 128 associations survived multiple testing corrections (P < 3.91 × 10-04). Integrating expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data suggested that genetic variants responsible for 306 of the 348 refined meQTL associations also influence gene expression, which indicates a coordinated system of effects that are consistent with causality. CpG sites were enriched for histone mark peaks in tissue types relevant to their associated trait and implicated genes were enriched across relevant biological pathways. Though we are unable to distinguish mediation from horizontal pleiotropy in these analyses, our findings should prove valuable in prioritizing candidate loci where DNA methylation may influence traits and help develop mechanistic insight into the aetiology of complex disease.


Assuntos
Ilhas de CpG/ética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana
20.
Elife ; 72018 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846171

RESUMO

Results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) can be used to infer causal relationships between phenotypes, using a strategy known as 2-sample Mendelian randomization (2SMR) and bypassing the need for individual-level data. However, 2SMR methods are evolving rapidly and GWAS results are often insufficiently curated, undermining efficient implementation of the approach. We therefore developed MR-Base (http://www.mrbase.org): a platform that integrates a curated database of complete GWAS results (no restrictions according to statistical significance) with an application programming interface, web app and R packages that automate 2SMR. The software includes several sensitivity analyses for assessing the impact of horizontal pleiotropy and other violations of assumptions. The database currently comprises 11 billion single nucleotide polymorphism-trait associations from 1673 GWAS and is updated on a regular basis. Integrating data with software ensures more rigorous application of hypothesis-driven analyses and allows millions of potential causal relationships to be efficiently evaluated in phenome-wide association studies.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Pleiotropia Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
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