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1.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 355, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Induction of labour (IOL), or starting labour artificially, can be a lifesaving intervention for pregnant women and their babies, and rates are rising significantly globally. As rates increase, it becomes increasingly important to fully evaluate all available data, especially that from low income settings where the potential benefits and harms are greater. The goal of this paper is to describe the datasets collected as part of the Induction with Foley OR Misoprostol (INFORM) Study, a randomised trial comparing two of the recommended methods of cervical ripening for labour induction, oral misoprostol and Foley catheter, in women being induced for hypertension in pregnancy, at two sites in India during 2013-15. DATA DESCRIPTION: This dataset includes comprehensive data on 602 women who underwent IOL for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Women were randomly assigned to cervical ripening with oral misoprostol or a transcervical Foley catheter in two government hospitals in India. The main dataset has 367 variables including monitoring during the induction of labour, medications administered, timing and mode of delivery, measures of neonatal morbidity and mortality, maternal mortality and morbidity, maternal satisfaction and health economic data. The dataset is anonymised and available on ReShare.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Misoprostol , Ocitócicos , Cateteres , Maturidade Cervical , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Gravidez
2.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 19(3): 251-261, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696372

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In January 2018 the European Commission published a Proposal for a Regulation on Health Technology Assessment (HTA): 'Proposal for a Regulation on health technology assessment and amending Directive 2011/24/EU'. A number of stakeholders, including some Member States, welcomed this initiative as it was considered to improve collaboration, reduce duplication and improve efficiency. There were however a number of concerns including its legal basis, the establishment of a single managing authority, the preservation of national jurisdiction over HTA decision-making and the voluntary/mandatory uptake of joint assessments by Member States. Areas covered: This paper presents the consolidated views and considerations on the original Proposal as set by the European Commission of a number of policy makers, payers, experts from pricing and reimbursement authorities and academics from across Europe. Expert commentary: The Proposal has since been extensively discussed at Council and while good progress has been achieved, there are still divergent positions. The European Parliament gave a number of recommendations for amendments. If the Proposal is approved, it is important that a balanced, improved outcome is achieved for all stakeholders. If not approved, the extensive contribution and progress attained should be sustained and preserved, and the best alternative solutions found.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Formulação de Políticas , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoal Administrativo , Comportamento Cooperativo , Tomada de Decisões , União Europeia , Humanos
3.
Europace ; 21(2): 290-297, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590458

RESUMO

Aims: Transvenous lead extraction is challenging, often requiring specialist equipment and prolonged hospital admission. A single tariff or itemized costs may be available for reimbursement. Due to limited data relating to the costs of transvenous extraction, it is unclear whether either form of reimbursement is adequate. We aim to describe accurately the total real-world costs of managing patients undergoing transvenous extraction at a single, large centre. We further aim to consider the additional costs of device reimplantation. Methods and results: At a single UK extraction centre, a retrospective, patient level service line analysis was undertaken, during a complete financial year. Seventy-four patients required transvenous extraction (47 infected and 27 non-infected; 156 leads). Sixty-nine procedures (93%) were performed under general anaesthesia, with a median time in theatre of 95 min [interquartile range (IQR) 71-120]. Specialist extraction tools were required for 130 leads (83%). The median hospitalization duration was 3 days (IQR 1-8). The mean cost of extraction was £9228 (±4099); infected £10 727 (±4178) and non-infected £6619 (±2269). With the additional costs of device reimplantation, the overall mean cost rose to £17 574 (±12 882); infected £22 615 (±13 343) and non-infected £8801 (±5007). At the time of this study, the UK NHS tariff was £2530 for elective and £4764 for non-elective extraction, covering barely half of the real costs. Conclusion: We demonstrated a substantial difference between the real-world cost of extraction and the UK NHS tariff. Extracting centres should scrutinize their practice, including the timing of reimplantation.


Assuntos
Remoção de Dispositivo/economia , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado/economia , Custos Hospitalares , Marca-Passo Artificial/economia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/economia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anestesia Geral/economia , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Marca-Passo Artificial/efeitos adversos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medicina Estatal/economia , Equipamentos Cirúrgicos/economia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 130: 92-107, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196916

RESUMO

Overexpression of the HER2 gene is predictive of treatment benefit with trastuzumab therapy for breast cancer (BC) patients. The study objective was to investigate whether all eligible patients with HER2-positive BC initiated trastuzumab therapy. A systematic search was conducted through PubMed, Web of Science PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Cochrane Library. From 2651 studies identified, 107 observational studies were included for full text review, of which 26 met the inclusion criteria and an additional 7 studies were identified through citation searching. Two independent reviewers extracted data for accuracy and completeness. From 33 observational studies, 14,644 patients were exposed to trastuzumab therapy. Age range varied across studies; the youngest cohort had a median age of 50 and the oldest had a median age of 84. Sample sizes ranged from 11 to 1928 and included patients from 10 countries. Studies were heterogenous and few studies accounted for confounders. We identified large variability in uptake of trastuzumab in HER2-positive early BC patients (9.1-100%) and metastatic BC patients (50.8-84.0%). The pooled uptake was 71.3% (95% CI 64.6-77.9%), with high heterogeneity (I2 = 99.05%). The most conservative predictors of higher uptake included younger age (OR 2.09; 95% CI 1.36-3.20) and lower Charlson Comorbidity Index of patients (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.32-1.99). In addition, tumour characteristics including higher tumour grade (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.23-2.45), larger tumour size (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.54-2.10), advanced tumour stage (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.44-2.96) and hormone receptor negative tumor (OR 1.54; 95% CI 1.35-1.77) were associated with higher uptake. The uptake of trastuzumab therapy varied widely between studies and across subgroups suggesting that there may be some inequalities in the use of this agent. However, our findings should be interpreted with caution due to study heterogeneity and potential confounding, and thus additional studies of individual level data which control for confounders are needed to understand more about inequalities in uptake.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
5.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 18(9): 992-1003, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral meningitis is increasingly recognised, but little is known about the frequency with which it occurs, or the causes and outcomes in the UK. We aimed to determine the incidence, causes, and sequelae in UK adults to improve the management of patients and assist in health service planning. METHODS: We did a multicentre prospective observational cohort study of adults with suspected meningitis at 42 hospitals across England. Nested within this study, in the National Health Service (NHS) northwest region (now part of NHS England North), was an epidemiological study. Patients were eligible if they were aged 16 years or older, had clinically suspected meningitis, and either underwent a lumbar puncture or, if lumbar puncture was contraindicated, had clinically suspected meningitis and an appropriate pathogen identified either in blood culture or on blood PCR. Individuals with ventricular devices were excluded. We calculated the incidence of viral meningitis using data from patients from the northwest region only and used these data to estimate the population-standardised number of cases in the UK. Patients self-reported quality-of-life and neuropsychological outcomes, using the EuroQol EQ-5D-3L, the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), and the Aldenkamp and Baker neuropsychological assessment schedule, for 1 year after admission. FINDINGS: 1126 patients were enrolled between Sept 30, 2011, and Sept 30, 2014. 638 (57%) patients had meningitis: 231 (36%) cases were viral, 99 (16%) were bacterial, and 267 (42%) had an unknown cause. 41 (6%) cases had other causes. The estimated annual incidence of viral meningitis was 2·73 per 100 000 and that of bacterial meningitis was 1·24 per 100 000. The median length of hospital stay for patients with viral meningitis was 4 days (IQR 3-7), increasing to 9 days (6-12) in those treated with antivirals. Earlier lumbar puncture resulted in more patients having a specific cause identified than did those who had a delayed lumbar puncture. Compared with the age-matched UK population, patients with viral meningitis had a mean loss of 0·2 quality-adjusted life-years (SD 0·04) in that first year. INTERPRETATION: Viruses are the most commonly identified cause of meningitis in UK adults, and lead to substantial long-term morbidity. Delays in getting a lumbar puncture and unnecessary treatment with antivirals were associated with longer hospital stays. Rapid diagnostics and rationalising treatments might reduce the burden of meningitis on health services. FUNDING: Meningitis Research Foundation and UK National Institute for Health Research.


Assuntos
Meningite Viral/diagnóstico , Meningite Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Vigilância da População , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Meningite Viral/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
7.
Pharmacoecon Open ; 2(4): 423-432, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29396661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The Ministry of Health (MoH) leads and organizes health policy in Kosovo, which includes procurement and provision of medicines, including anti-cancer medicines, which compose a special group of medicines. However, there has been limited analysis of the utilization and expenditure on anti-cancer medicines in Kosovo; consequently, the objective of this study is to undertake research to provide future guidance on the use of anti-cancer medicines. METHOD: National drug utilization data is available in Kosovo. Utilization and expenditure on anti-cancer medicines [Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) code L], initially from 2011 to 2013, especially for anti-cancer medicines on the essential medicines list was analysed from national data. In addition, current systems for procuring and managing anti-cancer medicines in Kosovo was documented. RESULTS: There was appreciable variability in the utilization of anti-cancer medicines over the years, with low or limited use of some anti-cancer medicines on the Essential Medicine List. This is a concern in view of their essential medicine status. From 2011 to 2013, €16.49 million was spent on anti-cancer medicines (ATC L). The process of selection of new medicines begins with suggestions from doctors at the University Clinical Centre in Kosovo. CONCLUSION: The analysis has shown appreciable variation with current utilization patterns for anti-cancer medicines in Kosovo. This needs to be addressed as part of improving the drug management process to optimize patient care within available resources. Future years and reforms need to be assessed to improve current utilization and expenditure patterns.

9.
Pharmacogenomics ; 18(16): 1541-1550, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29095091

RESUMO

This review assessed evidence of disparities in benefits of pharmacogenomics related to 'model performance' in subgroups of patients and studies which reported impact on health inequalities. 'Model performance' refers to the ability of algorithms including clinical, environmental and genetic information to guide treatment. A total of 4978 abstracts were screened by one reviewer and 30% (1494) were double screened by a second independent reviewer, after which data extraction was performed. Additional forward and backward citation searching of reference lists was conducted. Investigators independently double rated study quality and applicability of included studies. Only five individual studies were identified which met our inclusion criteria, but were contradictory in their conclusions. While three studies of genotype-guided dosing of warfarin reported that ethnic disparities in healthcare may widen, two other studies (one reporting on warfarin and reporting on clopidogrel) suggested that disparities in healthcare may reduce. There is a paucity of studies which evaluates the impact of pharmacogenomics on health disparities. Further work is required not only to evaluate health disparities between ethnic groups and countries but also within ethnic groups in the same country and solutions need to be identified to overcome these disparities.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacogenética/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Genótipo , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Front Pharmacol ; 8: 497, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28878667

RESUMO

Medicines receiving a conditional marketing authorization through Medicines Adaptive Pathways to Patients (MAPPs) will be a challenge for payers. The "introduction" of MAPPs is already seen by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) as a fait accompli, with payers not consulted or involved. However, once medicines are approved through MAPPs, they will be evaluated for funding by payers through different activities. These include Health Technology Assessment (HTA) with often immature clinical data and high uncertainty, financial considerations, and negotiations through different types of agreements, which can require monitoring post launch. Payers have experience with new medicines approved through conditional approval, and the fact that MAPPs present additional challenges is a concern from their perspective. There may be some activities where payers can collaborate. The final decisions on whether to reimburse a new medicine via MAPPs will have more variation than for medicines licensed via conventional processes. This is due not only to increasing uncertainty associated with medicines authorized through MAPPs but also differences in legal frameworks between member states. Moreover, if the financial and side-effect burden from the period of conditional approval until granting full marketing authorization is shifted to the post-authorization phase, payers may have to bear such burdens. Collection of robust data during routine clinical use is challenging along with high prices for new medicines during data collection. This paper presents the concept of MAPPs and possible challenges. Concerns and potential ways forward are discussed and a number of recommendations are presented from the perspective of payers.

11.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 35(12): 1271-1285, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28836222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Managed entry agreements (MEAs) are a set of instruments to facilitate access to new medicines. This study surveyed the implementation of MEAs in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) where limited comparative information is currently available. METHOD: We conducted a survey on the implementation of MEAs in CEE between January and March 2017. RESULTS: Sixteen countries participated in this study. Across five countries with available data on the number of different MEA instruments implemented, the most common MEAs implemented were confidential discounts (n = 495, 73%), followed by paybacks (n = 92, 14%), price-volume agreements (n = 37, 5%), free doses (n = 25, 4%), bundle and other agreements (n = 19, 3%), and payment by result (n = 10, >1%). Across seven countries with data on MEAs by therapeutic group, the highest number of brand names associated with one or more MEA instruments belonged to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC)-L group, antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents (n = 201, 31%). The second most frequent therapeutic group for MEA implementation was ATC-A, alimentary tract and metabolism (n = 87, 13%), followed by medicines for neurological conditions (n = 83, 13%). CONCLUSIONS: Experience in implementing MEAs varied substantially across the region and there is considerable scope for greater transparency, sharing experiences and mutual learning. European citizens, authorities and industry should ask themselves whether, within publicly funded health systems, confidential discounts can still be tolerated, particularly when it is not clear which country and party they are really benefiting. Furthermore, if MEAs are to improve access, countries should establish clear objectives for their implementation and a monitoring framework to measure their performance, as well as the burden of implementation.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Farmacoeconomia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Preparações Farmacêuticas/economia , Atenção à Saúde/economia , Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Europa (Continente) , Europa Oriental , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Lancet ; 390(10095): 669-680, 2017 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28668289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Between 62 000 and 77 000 women die annually from pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Prompt delivery, preferably by the vaginal route, is vital for good maternal and neonatal outcomes. Two low-cost interventions-low-dose oral misoprostol tablets and transcervical Foley catheterisation-are already used in low-resource settings. We aimed to compare the relative risks and benefits of these interventions. METHODS: We undertook this multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial in two public hospitals in Nagpur, India. Women (aged ≥18 years) who were at 20 weeks' gestation or later with a live fetus and required delivery as a result of pre-eclampsia or hypertension were randomly assigned (1:1), via computer-generated block randomisation (block sizes of four, six, and eight) with concealment by use of opaque, sequentially numbered, sealed envelopes, to receive labour induction with either oral misoprostol 25 µg every 2 h (maximum of 12 doses) or a transcervical Foley catheter (silicone, size 18 F with 30 mL balloon). Randomisation was stratified by study centre. The catheter remained in place until active labour started, the catheter fell out, or 12 h had elapsed. If the catheter did not fall out within 12 h, induction continued with artificial membrane rupture and oxytocin, administered through a micro-drip gravity infusion set. Fetal monitoring was by intermittent auscultation. The primary outcome was vaginal birth within 24 h. Due to the nature of the interventions, masking of participants, study investigators, and care providers to group allocation was not possible. We analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01801410. FINDINGS: Between Dec 20, 2013, and June 29, 2015, we randomly assigned 602 women to induction with misoprostol (n=302) or the Foley catheter (n=300; intention-to-treat population). Vaginal birth within 24 h was more common in women in the misoprostol group than in the Foley catheter group (172 [57·0%] vs 141 [47·0%] women; absolute risk difference 10·0%, 95% CI 2·0-17·9; p=0·0136). Rates of uterine hyperstimulation were low in both the misoprostol and Foley catheter groups (two [0·7%] vs one [0·3%] cases; absolute risk difference 0·3%, 95% CI -0·8 to 1·5; p=0·566) and neonatal deaths did not differ significantly between groups (six [2·0%] vs three [1·0%] neonatal deaths; 1·0, -1·04 to 2·97; p=0·322). 17 serious adverse events (3%) were reported during the study: one case of intrapartum convulsion and one case of disseminated intravascular coagulation (both in the Foley group); ten perinatal deaths, including two stillbirths (both in the Foley catheter group) and eight neonatal deaths (n=5 in the misoprostol group and n=3 in the Foley catheter group); and five of neonatal morbidity, comprising birth asphyxia (n=3), septicaemia (n=1), and neonatal convulsion (n=1). INTERPRETATION: Oral misoprostol was more effective than transcervical Foley catheterisation for induction of labour in women with pre-eclampsia or hypertension. Future studies are required to assess whether oxytocin augmentation following misoprostol can be replaced by regular doses of oral misoprostol tablets. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, Department for International Development, and Wellcome Trust Joint Global Health Trials Scheme.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/terapia , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Misoprostol , Ocitócicos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/terapia , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/economia , Índia , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/economia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/economia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Comprimidos , Cateterismo Urinário/economia , Cateterismo Urinário/estatística & dados numéricos , Vagina , Adulto Jovem
13.
Front Pharmacol ; 7: 305, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27733828

RESUMO

Payers are a major stakeholder in any considerations and initiatives concerning adaptive licensing of new medicinal products, also referred to as Medicines Adaptive Pathways to patients (MAPPs). Firstly, the scope and necessity of MAPPs need further scrutiny, especially with regard to the definition of unmet need. Conditional approval pathways already exist for new medicines for seriously debilitating or life-threatening diseases and only a limited number of new medicines are innovative. Secondly, MAPPs will result in new medicines on the market with limited evidence about their effectiveness and safety. Additional data are to be collected after approval. Consequently, adaptive pathways may increase the risk of exposing patients to ineffective or unsafe medicines. We have already seen medicines approved conventionally that subsequently proved ineffective or unsafe amongst a wider, more co-morbid population as well as medicines that could have been considered for approval under MAPPs but subsequently proved ineffective or unsafe in Phase III trials and were never licensed. Thirdly, MAPPs also put high demands on payers. Routine collection of patient level data is difficult with high transaction costs. It is not clear who will fund these. Other challenges for payers include shifts in the risk governance framework, implications for evaluation and HTA, increased complexity of setting prices, difficulty with ensuring equity in the allocation of resources, definition of responsibility and liability and implementation of stratified use. Exit strategies also need to be agreed in advance, including price reductions, rebates, or reimbursement withdrawals when price premiums are not justified. These issues and concerns will be discussed in detail including potential ways forward.

14.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 34(7): 625-7, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27194312

Assuntos
Neoplasias , Humanos
15.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 16(6): 685-687, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26966924

RESUMO

All European countries face increasing challenges in the provision of equitable and comprehensive healthcare for their citizens in view of a number of factors. These include changing demographics and the continual launch of new premium priced medicines. The challenges are even more difficult among Central and Eastern European healthcare systems. Consequently, there is a need for countries to learn from each other to help address some of these challenges and to maintain sustainable systems. This was the basis of the 2-day conference, The Fifth International Conference: Challenges for Efficient Healthcare in Central and Eastern Europe, 9-10 October 2015, Belgrade, Serbia.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Cooperação Internacional , Europa (Continente) , Europa Oriental , Humanos , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos
16.
J Clin Apher ; 31(5): 434-42, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26415895

RESUMO

Plerixafor is an effective haematopoietic stem cell mobilising agent in candidates for autologous transplantation, including patients with myeloma and lymphoma. Here we compare 98 plerixafor recipients in the PHANTASTIC trial with 151 historic controls mobilised by conventional chemotherapy (each with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, G-CSF). Seventy (71.4%) plerixafor-mobilised patients achieved the composite primary endpoint of ≥4 × 10(6) CD34+ cells kg(-1) in ≤2 aphereses and no clinically significant neutropenia, compared to 48 (31.8%) historic controls (P < 0.001), and this significant advantage was maintained in scenario analyses testing components of this composite endpoint. A patient-level cost analysis was undertaken for 249 patients, which included the cost of remobilising patients where initial mobilisation had failed. Combined mean treatment cost for plerixafor mobilised patients was £12,679 compared with £11,694 for historical controls. However, plerixafor produces an average saving of £3,828 per lymphoma patient but average cost increase by £5,245 per myeloma patient. The present data demonstrate cost-effectiveness for plerixafor as a first line mobilisation agent, certainly for lymphoma patients, where substantial resource savings and achievement of the primary endpoint are likely. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:434-442, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Mobilização de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Compostos Heterocíclicos/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos e Análise de Custo , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/economia , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Mobilização de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/economia , Compostos Heterocíclicos/economia , Estudo Historicamente Controlado , Humanos , Linfoma/economia , Linfoma/terapia , Mieloma Múltiplo/economia , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia
17.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 29(5): 1236-47, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26119403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors investigated whether zero-balance ultrafiltration (Z-BUF) during bypass significantly improves clinical and cost outcomes or biomarkers of kidney injury for patients with preoperative kidney impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]<60 mL/minute) undergoing cardiac surgery. DESIGN: A single-center randomized controlled trial recruited, patients between 2010 and 2013, with a 12-months follow-up. SETTING: Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred ninety-nine patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). INTERVENTIONS: Patients were assigned randomly to receive zero-balance ultrafiltration (Z-BUF) or not, with stratification for degree of kidney dysfunction and diabetes. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors assessed clinical efficacy and kidney function biomarkers. Cumulative probability of discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU) was assessed by Kaplan-Meier plots and was found not to be significantly different between the two trial arms (p = 0.61). After adjusting for EuroSCORE, diabetes, eGFR, cardioplegia types and type of surgery in a Cox proportional hazard model, hazard ratios (HR) for ICU length of stay between the Z-BUF and no-Z-BUF groups was not significantly different: HR (95% CI): 0.89 (0.66, 1.20; p = 0.44). In contrast, significant reductions in postoperative chest infections and the composite of clinical endpoints (death, strokes, and myocardial infarctions) in the Z-BUF group were observed. In addition, Z-BUF significantly abrogated the rise in the kidney damage markers urinary NGAL/creatinine ratio, urea, creatinine and eGFR during CPB and adverse events risks. CONCLUSIONS: Z-BUF during bypass surgery is associated with significant reductions in morbidity and biomarkers of CPB-induced acute kidney injury soon after CPB, which are indicative of clearance of inflammatory/immune mediators from the circulation.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Insuficiência Renal/terapia , Ultrafiltração/métodos , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade/tendências , Insuficiência Renal/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 14: 308, 2014 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25193157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Between 40,000 and 80,000 pregnant women die annually from pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Although magnesium sulphate and anti-hypertensive therapies can reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with pre-eclampsia, the only cure comes with delivery. Prompt delivery of the baby, preferably by vaginal route, is vital in order to achieve good maternal and neonatal outcomes. Induction of labour is therefore a critical intervention in order to prevent morbidity to both mother and baby. Two low cost interventions - oral misoprostol tablets and transcervical Foley catheterization - are already used by some in low resource settings, but their relative risks and benefits are not known. The trial will compare the risks, benefits, and trade-offs in efficacy, safety, acceptability and cost of misoprostol and Foley catheter for induction in women with preeclampsia or uncontrolled hypertension. METHODS/DESIGN: A total of 602 women with an ongoing pregnancy with a live fetus requiring delivery because of pre-eclampsia or uncontrolled hypertension will be randomly assigned to labor induction with a transcervical Foley catheter or oral misoprostol 25 micrograms. Women will be recruited at two hospitals in Nagpur, India. The misoprostol group will receive oral misoprostol 25 microgram every 2 hours for a maximum of 12 doses or until active labor commences. The Foley group will undergo induction using a Foley catheter (silicone, size 18 F with 30 ml balloon) which will remain until active labor starts, the Foley catheter falls out, or 12 hours have elapsed. The primary outcome will be the attainment of vaginal delivery within 24 hours. Providers administering the treatment and those assessing the outcomes will not be blinded to group assignment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01801410 (ClinicalTrials.gov).


Assuntos
Cateterismo/métodos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Misoprostol/administração & dosagem , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Administração Intravaginal , Adolescente , Adulto , Maturidade Cervical/fisiologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Segurança do Paciente , Distribuição de Poisson , Pré-Eclâmpsia/terapia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Cateterismo Urinário , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 32(11): 1055-61, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25118988

RESUMO

Personalised medicine and pharmacogenetic-test-guided treatment strategies will be of increasing importance in the future, both in terms of healthcare provision and evaluation. It is well recognised that significant variability exists in the response of patients to drugs resulting from genetic or biological variations; however, we are only now gradually becoming aware of the complexities involved. Enormous variability occurs in the risk-benefit ratio that will be experienced by each individual patient as a consequence of their overall genetic make-up. Although not a panacea, enhanced scientific knowledge of the genetic basis for such variability offers the potential for a more 'tailored' approach to prescribing in the future, making it more closely attuned to the needs of the individual patient. Such 'personalised' medicine has the potential to revolutionise care provision in a manner that provides a range of challenges to current structures and processes of 'conventional' healthcare delivery. The aim of this paper is to outline such challenges and analyse potential ways in which they may be addressed in the future. It provides non-expert readers with a non-technical case study of the complexities inherent in the evaluation of a pharmacogenetic-test-guided treatment strategy from a health economic perspective. Wherever possible, technical issues have been minimised; however, references are provided for readers who wish to enhance their knowledge of the pharmacological basis of the case study of cytochrome P450 test-guided treatment. The case study aims simply to illustrate the approach and difficulties encountered in the health economic evaluation of complex pharmacogenetic technologies. Such technologies present a range of new and complex issues which have crucial implications for health economists attempting to obtain an accurate assessment of the 'value' of the technology in clinical practice in an array of patient subgroups. Personalised medicine is the future and this paper highlights how pharmaceutical manufacturers, clinicians, regulators and other stakeholders must all play their part in the inevitable and accelerating move into this complex and uncertain future.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/economia , Descoberta de Drogas/economia , Farmacogenética/economia , Medicina de Precisão/economia , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/economia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Humanos
20.
BMC Med ; 11: 179, 2013 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23941275

RESUMO

Considerable variety in how patients respond to treatments, driven by differences in their geno- and/ or phenotypes, calls for a more tailored approach. This is already happening, and will accelerate with developments in personalized medicine. However, its promise has not always translated into improvements in patient care due to the complexities involved. There are also concerns that advice for tests has been reversed, current tests can be costly, there is fragmentation of funding of care, and companies may seek high prices for new targeted drugs. There is a need to integrate current knowledge from a payer's perspective to provide future guidance. Multiple findings including general considerations; influence of pharmacogenomics on response and toxicity of drug therapies; value of biomarker tests; limitations and costs of tests; and potentially high acquisition costs of new targeted therapies help to give guidance on potential ways forward for all stakeholder groups. Overall, personalized medicine has the potential to revolutionize care. However, current challenges and concerns need to be addressed to enhance its uptake and funding to benefit patients.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Atenção à Saúde/tendências , Estudos de Viabilidade , Previsões , Humanos , Assistência ao Paciente/tendências , Farmacogenética/métodos , Farmacogenética/tendências , Medicina de Precisão/tendências
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