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1.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 63: 101615, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is a well-established risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). However, less is known about the potential impact of exposure to tobacco at an early age on HNC risk. METHODS: We analyzed individual-level data on ever tobacco smokers from 27 case-control studies (17,146 HNC cases and 17,449 controls) in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using random-effects logistic regression models. RESULTS: Without adjusting for tobacco packyears, we observed that younger age at starting tobacco use was associated with an increased HNC risk for ever smokers (OR<10 years vs. ≥30 years: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.35, 1.97). However, the observed association between age at starting tobacco use and HNC risk became null after adjusting for tobacco packyears (OR<10 years vs. ≥30 years: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.80, 1.19). In the stratified analyses on HNC subsites by tobacco packyears or years since quitting, no difference in the association between age at start and HNC risk was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this pooled analysis suggest that increased HNC risks observed with earlier age at starting tobacco smoking are largely due to longer duration and higher cumulative tobacco exposures.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing in individuals younger than 50 years, who do not usually undergo screening if they are of average risk. We sought to identify risk factors for CRC in this population. METHODS: We compared sociodemographic and medical characteristics of patients who received a diagnosis of CRC at an age of 18-49 years (early-onset) with patients who received a diagnosis of CRC at an age of 50 years or older (late-onset) and with age-matched, cancer-free individuals (controls) at a tertiary academic hospital. We collected data from all adult patients with a diagnosis of CRC from January 1, 2011 through April 3, 2017 from electronic health records. Associations with risk factors were assessed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: We identified 269 patients with early-onset CRC, 2802 with late-onset CRC, and 1122 controls. Compared with controls, patients with early-onset CRC were more likely to be male (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95% CI, 1.39-2.51), have inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (3% vs 0.4% for controls; univariable P < .01), and have a family history of CRC (OR, 8.61; CI, 4.83-15.75). Prevalence values of well-established modifiable CRC risk factors, including obesity, smoking, and diabetes, were similar. Compared to patients with late-onset CRC, patients with early-onset CRC were more likely to be male (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.11-1.87), black (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.08-2.65) or Asian (OR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.57-4.15), and have IBD (OR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.16-6.63) or a family history of CRC (OR, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.89-4.25). Sensitivity analyses excluding IBD and family history of CRC showed comparable results. Early-onset CRC was more likely than late-onset disease to be detected in the left colon or rectum (75% vs 59%, P = .02) and at a late stage of tumor development (77% vs 62%, P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: In a retrospective study of patients with early-onset CRC vs late-onset CRC or no cancer, we identified non-modifiable risk factors, including sex, race, IBD, and family history of CRC, to be associated with early-onset CRC.

3.
Gut ; 68(12): 2179-2185, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing in the USA despite rapid declines in older ages. Similar patterns are reported in Australia and Canada, but a comprehensive global analysis of contemporary data is lacking. DESIGN: We extracted long-term data from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents and supplemental sources to report on worldwide CRC incidence rates and trends by age (20-49 years and ≥50 years) through diagnosis year 2012 or beyond (Australia, Finland, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, USA). RESULTS: During 2008-2012, age-standardised CRC incidence rates in adults <50 ranged from 3.5 per 100 000 (95% CI 3.2 to 3.9) in India (Chennai) to 12.9 (95% CI 12.6 to 13.3) in Korea. During the most recent decade of available data, incidence in adults <50 was stable in 14 of 36 countries; declined in Austria, Italy and Lithuania; and increased in 19 countries, nine of which had stable or declining trends in older adults (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, New Zealand, Slovenia, Sweden, UK and USA). In Cyprus, Netherlands and Norway, inclines in incidence in young adults were twice as rapid as those in older adults (eg, Norway average annual per cent change (AAPC), 1.9 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.5) vs 0.5 (95% CI 0.3 to 0.7)). Among most high-income countries with long-term data, the uptick in early-onset disease began in the mid-1990s. The steepest increases in young adults were in Korea (AAPC, 4.2 (95% CI 3.4 to 5.0)) and New Zealand (AAPC, 4.0 (95% CI 2.1 to 6.0)). CONCLUSION: CRC incidence increased exclusively in young adults in nine high-income countries spanning three continents, potentially signalling changes in early-life exposures that influence large bowel carcinogenesis.

4.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, yet uncertainty remains about the size of risks at lower levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure which now occur in the USA and elsewhere. METHODS: We investigated the relationship of ambient PM2.5 exposure with cause-specific cardiovascular disease mortality in 565 477 men and women, aged 50 to 71 years, from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. During 7.5 x 106 person-years of follow up, 41 286 cardiovascular disease deaths, including 23 328 ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and 5894 stroke deaths, were ascertained using the National Death Index. PM2.5 was estimated using a hybrid land use regression (LUR) geostatistical model. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Each increase of 10 µg/m3 PM2.5 (overall range, 2.9-28.0 µg/m3) was associated, in fully adjusted models, with a 16% increase in mortality from ischaemic heart disease [hazard ratio (HR) 1.16; 95% CI 1.09-1.22] and a 14% increase in mortality from stroke (HR 1.14; CI 1.02-1.27). Compared with PM2.5 exposure <8 µg/m3 (referent), risks for CVD were increased in relation to PM2.5 exposures in the range of 8-12 µg/m3 (CVD: HR 1.04; 95% CI 1.00-1.08), in the range 12-20 µg/m3 (CVD: HR 1.08; 95% CI 1.03-1.13) and in the range 20+ µg/m3 (CVD: HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.10-1.28). Results were robust to alternative approaches to PM2.5 exposure assessment and statistical analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution is associated with ischaemic heart disease and stroke mortality, with excess risks occurring in the range of and below the present US long-term standard for ambient exposure to PM2.5 (12 µg/m3), indicating the need for continued improvements in air pollution abatement for CVD prevention.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10039, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296925

RESUMO

Incense burning is common worldwide and produces environmental toxicants that may influence health; however, biologic effects have been little studied. In 303 Emirati adults, we tested the hypothesis that incense use is linked to compositional changes in the oral microbiota that can be potentially significant for health. The oral microbiota was assessed by amplification of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene from mouthwash samples. Frequency of incense use was ascertained through a questionnaire and examined in relation to overall oral microbiota composition (PERMANOVA analysis), and to specific taxon abundances, by negative binomial generalized linear models. We found that exposure to incense burning was associated with higher microbial diversity (p < 0.013) and overall microbial compositional changes (PERMANOVA, p = 0.003). Our study also revealed that incense use was associated with significant changes in bacterial abundances (i.e. depletion of the dominant taxon Streptococcus), even in occasional users (once/week or less) implying that incense use impacts the oral microbiota even at low exposure levels. In summary, this first study suggests that incense burning alters the oral microbiota, potentially serving as an early biomarker of incense-related toxicities and related health consequences. Although a common indoor air pollutant, guidelines for control of incense use have yet to be developed.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209889

RESUMO

Interindividual differences in DNA repair systems may play a role in modulating the individual risk of developing colorectal cancer. To better ascertain the role of DNA repair gene polymorphisms on colon and rectal cancer risk individually, we evaluated 15,419 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 185 DNA repair genes using GWAS data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), which included 8,178 colon cancer, 2,936 rectum cancer cases and 14,659 controls. Rs1800734 (in MLH1 gene) was associated with colon cancer risk (p-value = 3.5 × 10-6 ) and rs2189517 (in RAD51B) with rectal cancer risk (p-value = 5.7 × 10-6 ). The results had statistical significance close to the Bonferroni corrected p-value of 5.8 × 10-6 . Ninety-four SNPs were significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk after Binomial Sequential Goodness of Fit (BSGoF) procedure and confirmed the relevance of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and homologous recombination pathways for colon and rectum cancer, respectively. Defects in MMR genes are known to be crucial for familial form of colorectal cancer but our findings suggest that specific genetic variations in MLH1 are important also in the individual predisposition to sporadic colon cancer. Other SNPs associated with the risk of colon cancer (e.g., rs16906252 in MGMT) were found to affect mRNA expression levels in colon transverse and therefore working as possible cis-eQTL suggesting possible mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

7.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(8): 1022-1031, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051079

RESUMO

Rationale: Many studies have linked short-term exposure to ozone (O3) with morbidity and mortality, but epidemiologic evidence of associations between long-term O3 exposure and mortality is more limited.Objectives: To investigate associations of long-term (annual or warm season average of daily 8-h maximum concentrations) O3 exposure with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, a large prospective cohort of U.S. adults with 17 years of follow-up from 1995 to 2011.Methods: The cohort (n = 548,780) was linked to census tract-level estimates for O3. Associations between long-term O3 exposure (averaged values from 2002 to 2010) and multiple causes of death were evaluated using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for individual- and census tract-level covariates, and potentially confounding copollutants and temperature.Measurements and Main Results: Long-term annual average exposure to O3 was significantly associated with deaths caused by cardiovascular disease (per 10 ppb; hazard ratio [HR], 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.06), ischemic heart disease (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.09), respiratory disease (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.09), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03-1.15) in single-pollutant models. The results were robust to alternative models and adjustment for copollutants (fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide), although some evidence of confounding by temperature was observed. Significantly elevated respiratory disease mortality risk associated with long-term O3 exposure was found among those living in locations with high temperature (Pinteraction < 0.05).Conclusions: This study found that long-term exposure to O3 is associated with increased risk for multiple causes of mortality, suggesting that establishment of annual and/or seasonal federal O3 standards is needed to more adequately protect public health from ambient O3 exposures.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037736

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, while studies have consistently reported elevated risk of CRC among heavy drinkers, associations at moderate levels of alcohol consumption are less clear. We conducted a combined analysis of 16 studies of CRC to examine the shape of the alcohol-CRC association, investigate potential effect modifiers of the association, and examine differential effects of alcohol consumption by cancer anatomic site and stage. We collected information on alcohol consumption for 14,276 CRC cases and 15,802 controls from 5 case-control and 11 nested case-control studies of CRC. We compared adjusted logistic regression models with linear and restricted cubic splines to select a model that best fit the association between alcohol consumption and CRC. Study-specific results were pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Compared to non-/occasional drinking (≤1 g/day), light/moderate drinking (up to 2 drinks/day) was associated with a decreased risk of CRC (odds ratio [OR]: 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.98, p = 0.005), heavy drinking (2-3 drinks/day) was not significantly associated with CRC risk (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.99-1.24, p = 0.08) and very heavy drinking (more than 3 drinks/day) was associated with a significant increased risk (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.11-1.40, p < 0.001). We observed no evidence of interactions with lifestyle risk factors or of differences by cancer site or stage. These results provide further evidence that there is a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk. This overall pattern was not significantly modified by other CRC risk factors and there was no effect heterogeneity by tumor site or stage.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(4): 731-740, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human microbiota have many functions that could contribute to cancer initiation and/or progression at local sites, yet the relation of the lung microbiota to lung cancer prognosis has not been studied. METHODS: In a pilot study, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on paired lung tumor and remote normal samples from the same lobe/segment in 19 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We explored associations of tumor or normal tissue microbiome diversity and composition with recurrence-free (RFS) and disease-free survival (DFS), and compared microbiome diversity and composition between paired tumor and normal samples. RESULTS: Higher richness and diversity in normal tissue were associated with reduced RFS (richness P = 0.08, Shannon index P = 0.03) and DFS (richness P = 0.03, Shannon index P = 0.02), as was normal tissue overall microbiome composition (Bray-Curtis P = 0.09 for RFS and P = 0.02 for DFS). In normal tissue, greater abundance of family Koribacteraceae was associated with increased RFS and DFS, whereas greater abundance of families Bacteroidaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae were associated with reduced RFS or DFS (P < 0.05). Tumor tissue diversity and overall composition were not associated with RFS or DFS. Tumor tissue had lower richness and diversity (P ≤ 0.0001) than paired normal tissue, though overall microbiome composition did not differ between the paired samples. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate, for the first time, a potential relationship between the normal lung microbiota and lung cancer prognosis, which requires confirmation in a larger study. IMPACT: Definition of bacterial biomarkers of prognosis may lead to improved survival outcomes for patients with lung cancer.

10.
Circulation ; 139(15): 1766-1775, 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent experimental evidence suggests that nutritional supplementation can blunt adverse cardiopulmonary effects induced by acute air pollution exposure. However, whether usual individual dietary patterns can modify the association between long-term air pollution exposure and health outcomes has not been previously investigated. We assessed, in a large cohort with detailed diet information at the individual level, whether a Mediterranean diet modifies the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and cardiovascular disease mortality risk. METHODS: The National Institutes of Health-American Association for Retired Persons Diet and Health Study, a prospective cohort (N=548 845) across 6 states and 2 cities in the United States and with a follow-up period of 17 years (1995-2011), was linked to estimates of annual average exposures to fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide at the residential census-tract level. The alternative Mediterranean Diet Index, which uses a 9-point scale to assess conformity with a Mediterranean-style diet, was constructed for each participant from information in cohort baseline dietary questionnaires. We evaluated mortality risks for cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, or cardiac arrest associated with long-term air pollution exposure. Effect modification of the associations between exposure and the mortality outcomes by alternative Mediterranean Diet Index was examined via interaction terms. RESULTS: For fine particulate matter, we observed elevated and significant associations with cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio [HR] per 10 µg/m3, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08-1.18), ischemic heart disease (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.10-1.23), and cerebrovascular disease (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.28). For nitrogen dioxide, we found significant associations with cardiovascular disease (HR per 10 ppb, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.08) and ischemic heart disease (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.05-1.11). Analyses indicated that Mediterranean diet modified these relationships, as those with a higher alternative Mediterranean Diet Index score had significantly lower rates of cardiovascular disease mortality associated with long-term air pollution exposure ( P-interaction<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A Mediterranean diet reduced cardiovascular disease mortality risk related to long-term exposure to air pollutants in a large prospective US cohort. Increased consumption of foods rich in antioxidant compounds may aid in reducing the considerable disease burden associated with ambient air pollution.

11.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520970

RESUMO

Background: There is international consensus that benzene exposure is causally related to acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and more recent evidence of association with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, there are uncertainties about the exposure response, particularly risks by time since exposure and age at exposure. Methods: In a case-cohort study in 110 631 Chinese workers followed up during 1972-1999 we evaluated combined MDS/AML (n = 44) and chronic myeloid leukemia (n = 18). We estimated benzene exposures using hierarchical modeling of occupational factors calibrated with historical routine measurements, and evaluated exposure response for cumulative exposure and average intensity using Cox regression; P values were two-sided. Results: Increased MDS/AML risk with increasing cumulative exposure in our a priori defined time window (2 to <10 years) before the time at risk was suggested (Ptrend = 08). For first exposure (within the 2 to <10-year window) before age 30 years, the exposure response was stronger (P = .004) with rate ratios of 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.27 to 4.29), 5.58 (95% CI = 1.65 to 19.68), and 4.50 (95% CI = 1.22 to 16.68) for cumulative exposures of more than 0 to less than 40, 40 to less than 100, and at least 100 ppm-years, respectively, compared with no exposure. There was little evidence of exposure response after at least 10 years (Ptrend = .94), regardless of age at first exposure. Average intensity results were generally similar. The risk for chronic myeloid leukemia was increased in exposed vs unexposed workers, but appeared to increase and then decrease with increasing exposure. Conclusion: For myeloid neoplasms, the strongest effects were apparent for MDS/AML arising within 10 years of benzene exposure and for first exposure in the 2 to less than 10-year window before age 30 years.

12.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0206519, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High levels of serum leptin and low levels of serum adiponectin are strongly correlated with obesity, a well-established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Growing evidence suggests that dysregulation of leptin and adiponectin levels may play an etiological role in colorectal carcinogenesis. We evaluated 20 candidate variants in 4 genes previously shown to alter serum leptin and adiponectin levels for associations with obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2) and CRC risk. METHODS: We analyzed 6,246 CRC cases and 7,714 population-based controls from 11 studies within the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Associations of each variant with obesity or CRC were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models stratified by sex and adjusted for age, a study variable, and the first three principal components of genetic ancestry. Gene-specific False Discovery Rate (FDR)-adjusted p-values <0.05 denoted statistical significance. RESULTS: Two variants in the leptin gene showed statistically significant associations with CRC among women: LEP rs2167270 (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.06-1.21) and LEP rs4731426 (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02-1.17). These associations remained significant after adjustment for obesity, suggesting that leptin SNPs may influence CRC risk independent of obesity. We observed statistically significant interactions of the leptin variants with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for CRC risk; these variant associations were strengthened when analyses were restricted to post-menopausal women with low estrogen exposure, as estimated by 'never use' of HRT and/or non-obese BMI. No variants were associated with CRC among men. CONCLUSIONS: Leptin gene variants may exhibit sex-specific associations with CRC risk. Endogenous and exogenous estrogen exposure may modify the association between these variants, leptin levels, and CRC risk.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Red and processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, but it is not clear if intake is associated with patient survival after diagnosis METHODS: We pooled data from 7627 patients with stage I-IV CRC from 10 studies in the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the associations of intake of red and processed meat before diagnosis with overall and CRC-specific survival. RESULTS: Among 7627 patients with CRC, 2338 died, including 1576 from CRC, over a median follow-up time of 5.1 years. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, higher intake of red or processed meat was not associated with overall survival of patients with stage I-III CRC: Q4 vs Q1 red meat hazard ratio [HR], 1.08 (95% CI, 0.93-1.26) and Q4 vs Q1 processed meat HR, 1.10 (95% CI, 0.93-1.32) or with CRC-specific survival: Q4 vs Q1 red meat HR, 1.09 (95% CI, 0.89-1.33) and Q4 vs Q1 processed meat HR, 1.11 (95% CI, 0.87-1.42). Results were similar for patients with stage IV CRC. However, patients with stage I-III CRC who reported an intake of processed meat above the study-specific medians had a higher risk of death from any cause (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01-1.25) than patients who reported eating at or less than the median. CONCLUSION: In this large consortium of CRC patient cohorts, intake of red and processed meat before a diagnosis of CRC was not associated with shorter survival time after diagnosis, although a possible weak adverse association cannot be excluded. Studies that evaluate dietary data from several time points before and after cancer diagnosis are required to confirm these findings.

14.
Br J Nutr ; 120(9): 1014-1022, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30355393

RESUMO

Increasing evidence indicates that gut microbiota may influence colorectal cancer risk. Diet, particularly fibre intake, may modify gut microbiota composition, which may affect cancer risk. We investigated the relationship between dietary fibre intake and gut microbiota in adults. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we assessed gut microbiota in faecal samples from 151 adults in two independent study populations: National Cancer Institute (NCI), n 75, and New York University (NYU), n 76. We calculated energy-adjusted fibre intake based on FFQ. For each study population with adjustment for age, sex, race, BMI and smoking, we evaluated the relationship between fibre intake and gut microbiota community composition and taxon abundance. Total fibre intake was significantly associated with overall microbial community composition in NYU (P=0·008) but not in NCI (P=0·81). In a meta-analysis of both study populations, higher fibre intake tended to be associated with genera of class Clostridia, including higher abundance of SMB53 (fold change (FC)=1·04, P=0·04), Lachnospira (FC=1·03, P=0·05) and Faecalibacterium (FC=1·03, P=0·06), and lower abundance of Actinomyces (FC=0·95, P=0·002), Odoribacter (FC=0·95, P=0·03) and Oscillospira (FC=0·96, P=0·06). A species-level meta-analysis showed that higher fibre intake was marginally associated with greater abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (FC=1·03, P=0·07) and lower abundance of Eubacterium dolichum (FC=0·96, P=0·04) and Bacteroides uniformis (FC=0·97, P=0·05). Thus, dietary fibre intake may impact gut microbiota composition, particularly class Clostridia, and may favour putatively beneficial bacteria such as F. prausnitzii. These findings warrant further understanding of diet-microbiota relationships for future development of colorectal cancer prevention strategies.

15.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203484, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212478

RESUMO

United States Veterans are at excess risk for type 2 diabetes, but population differentials in risk have not been characterized. We determined risk of type 2 diabetes in relation to prediabetes and dyslipidemic profiles in Veterans at the VA New York Harbor (VA NYHHS) during 2004-2014. Prediabetes was based on American Diabetes Association hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) testing cut-points, one of several possible criteria used to define prediabetes. We evaluated transition to type 2 diabetes in 4,297 normoglycemic Veterans and 7,060 Veterans with prediabetes. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to relate HbA1c levels, lipid profiles, demographic, anthropometric and comorbid cardiovascular factors to incident diabetes (Hazard Ratio [HR] and 95% confidence intervals). Compared to normoglycemic Veterans (HbA1c: 5.0-5.6%; 31-38 mmol/mol), risks for diabetes were >2-fold in the moderate prediabetes risk group (HbA1c: 5.7-5.9%; 39-41 mmol/mol) (HR 2.37 [1.98-2.85]) and >5-fold in the high risk prediabetes group (HbA1c: 6.0-6.4%; 42-46 mmol/mol) (HR 5.59 [4.75-6.58]). Risks for diabetes were increased with elevated VLDL (≥40mg/dl; HR 1.31 [1.09-1.58]) and TG/HDL (≥1.5mg/dl; HR 1.34 [1.12-1.59]), and decreased with elevated HDL (≥35mg/dl; HR 0.80 [0.67-0.96]). Transition to diabetes in Veterans was related in age-stratified risk score analyses to HbA1c, VLDL, HDL and TG/HDL, BMI, hypertension and race, with 5-year risk differentials of 62% for the lowest (5-year risk, 13.5%) vs. the highest quartile (5-year risk, 21.9%) of the risk score. This investigation identified substantial differentials in risk of diabetes in Veterans, based on a readily-derived risk score suitable for risk stratification for type 2 diabetes prevention.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(38): 9592-9597, 2018 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181279

RESUMO

Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a major global health concern. Quantitative estimates of attributable mortality are based on disease-specific hazard ratio models that incorporate risk information from multiple PM2.5 sources (outdoor and indoor air pollution from use of solid fuels and secondhand and active smoking), requiring assumptions about equivalent exposure and toxicity. We relax these contentious assumptions by constructing a PM2.5-mortality hazard ratio function based only on cohort studies of outdoor air pollution that covers the global exposure range. We modeled the shape of the association between PM2.5 and nonaccidental mortality using data from 41 cohorts from 16 countries-the Global Exposure Mortality Model (GEMM). We then constructed GEMMs for five specific causes of death examined by the global burden of disease (GBD). The GEMM predicts 8.9 million [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.5-10.3] deaths in 2015, a figure 30% larger than that predicted by the sum of deaths among the five specific causes (6.9; 95% CI: 4.9-8.5) and 120% larger than the risk function used in the GBD (4.0; 95% CI: 3.3-4.8). Differences between the GEMM and GBD risk functions are larger for a 20% reduction in concentrations, with the GEMM predicting 220% higher excess deaths. These results suggest that PM2.5 exposure may be related to additional causes of death than the five considered by the GBD and that incorporation of risk information from other, nonoutdoor, particle sources leads to underestimation of disease burden, especially at higher concentrations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Coortes , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(10): 1168-1175, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087123

RESUMO

Background: Several studies have examined association between human papillomaviruses (HPV) and esophageal cancer, but results have been inconsistent. This is the first prospective study to investigate associations between α, ß and γ HPV detection in the oral cavity and risk of esophageal cancer.Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study among 96,650 cancer-free participants in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Cohort and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Incident esophageal cancer cases (n = 125) were identified during an average 3.9 years of follow-up. Three controls per case (n = 372) were selected and matched on age, sex, race/ethnicity, and time since mouthwash collection. α, ß, and γ HPV DNA in oral samples were detected using a next-generation sequencing assay. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for smoking and alcohol consumption. Statistical significance was evaluated using permutation test.Results: Prevalence of oral α, ß, and γ HPV was 18.4%, 64.8%, and 42.4% in cases and 14.3%, 55.1%, and 33.6% in controls, respectively. Oral HPV16 detection was not associated with esophageal cancer (OR = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.1-4.84) and none of the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cases (n = 28) were HPV16 positive. Some oral HPV types were more common in cases than controls; however, none of the associations were statistically significant.Conclusions: Although HPVs in the oral cavity are very common, this study showed no evidence of association between oral HPVs and esophageal cancer.Impact: Oral HPVs may not contribute to risk of esophageal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(10); 1168-75. ©2018 AACR.

18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 11327, 2018 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054546

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking alters the oral microbiome; however, the effect of alternative tobacco products remains unclear. Middle Eastern tobacco products like dokha and shisha, are becoming globally widespread. We tested for the first time in a Middle Eastern population the hypothesis that different tobacco products impact the oral microbiome. The oral microbiome of 330 subjects from the United Arab Emirates Healthy Future Study was assessed by amplifying the bacterial 16S rRNA gene from mouthwash samples. Tobacco consumption was assessed using a structured questionnaire and further validated by urine cotinine levels. Oral microbiome overall structure and specific taxon abundances were compared, using PERMANOVA and DESeq analyses respectively. Our results show that overall microbial composition differs between smokers and nonsmokers (p = 0.0001). Use of cigarettes (p = 0.001) and dokha (p = 0.042) were associated with overall microbiome structure, while shisha use was not (p = 0.62). The abundance of multiple genera were significantly altered (enriched/depleted) in cigarette smokers; however, only Actinobacillus, Porphyromonas, Lautropia and Bifidobacterium abundances were significantly changed in dokha users whereas no genera were significantly altered in shisha smokers. For the first time, we show that smoking dokha is associated to oral microbiome dysbiosis, suggesting that it could have similar effects as smoking cigarettes on oral health.

19.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 2018 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to antibiotics may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. Veterans are at increased risk for diabetes and for exposure to antibiotics. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of antibiotic exposure for risk of diabetes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Veterans at the New York Harbor Healthcare System enrolled in primary care, 2004-2014, with ≥2 glycosylated hemoglobin test results <6.5%. MAIN MEASURES: The primary exposure was any antimicrobial prescribed >6 months prior to the date of diabetes diagnosis, loss to follow-up, death, or the end of the study, measured as the number of courses of antimicrobial prescriptions filled and the mean daily dose (MDD). The primary outcome was incident diagnosis of diabetes through 2014, defined ≥2 ICD-9 codes for diabetes or ≥2 prescriptions of diabetes medications, other than metformin. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model antimicrobial medications, demographic and anthropometric measures, and comorbid cardiovascular conditions to incident diabetes. Models incorporated time varying covariates of antimicrobial medication and MDD to analyze associations by antimicrobial class. KEY RESULTS: Among 14,361 Veterans, 9922 (69.1%) were prescribed any antimicrobial medication during the study period. 1413 (9.8%) individuals developed type 2 diabetes. Increased risk of diabetes was associated with >1 prescription (HR 1.13 [1.01-1.26]) compared to none. Time varying analysis of the total number of cumulative courses prescribed showed increased diabetes risk for cephalosporin (HR 1.17 [1.04-1.31]), macrolide (HR 1.08 [1.03-1.13]) and penicillin (HR 1.05 [1.02-1.07]). MDD showed increased risk per 100-unit (mg) increase in antibiotic exposure from (HR 1.05 [1.02-1.08]) for sulfonamide to (HR 1.70 [1.51-1.92]) for cephalosporin. CONCLUSION: Any and repeated exposure to certain antibiotics may increase diabetes risk among Veterans. Results from this study add to the growing evidence suggesting that antibiotic exposure increases risk for diabetes. Antibiotic stewardship may be enhanced by better understanding this risk, and may lower the incidence of diabetes in populations at risk.

20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9749, 2018 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29950689

RESUMO

Animal models suggest that gut microbiota contribute to obesity; however, a consistent taxonomic signature of obesity has yet to be identified in humans. We examined whether a taxonomic signature of obesity is present across two independent study populations. We assessed gut microbiome from stool for 599 adults, by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We compared gut microbiome diversity, overall composition, and individual taxon abundance for obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2), overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30), and healthy-weight participants (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25). We found that gut species richness was reduced (p = 0.04), and overall composition altered (p = 0.04), in obese (but not overweight) compared to healthy-weight participants. Obesity was characterized by increased abundance of class Bacilli and its families Streptococcaceae and Lactobacillaceae, and decreased abundance of several groups within class Clostridia, including Christensenellaceae, Clostridiaceae, and Dehalobacteriaceae (q < 0.05). These findings were consistent across two independent study populations. When random forest models were trained on one population and tested on the other as well as a previously published dataset, accuracy of obesity prediction was good (~70%). Our large study identified a strong and consistent taxonomic signature of obesity. Though our study is cross-sectional and causality cannot be determined, identification of microbes associated with obesity can potentially provide targets for obesity prevention and treatment.

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