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1.
J Surg Educ ; 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to determine the effect of formal, preclinical curricular interventions on medical students' perceptions of surgeons, surgical learning objectives, and concerns regarding the surgical clerkship. METHODS: Thirty-eight medical students underwent a newly required, formal introduction to surgery during the preclinical curriculum. Two months later, these students were given surveys regarding their perception of surgery before and after a bootcamp-style transitions to the wards workshop that immediately preceded their core clinical rotations. Student responses were compared to historical peers. RESULTS: Thirty-seven students participated in the study (97.4%). Relative to historical peers, students demonstrated improved overall perception of surgery (71.2 vs 66.6, p = 0.046). A smaller proportion of students indicated that they were worried about evaluation (18.9% in 2018 vs 55.3% in 2017, p = 0.001) and interactions with surgical educators (18.9% vs 50%, p = 0.005). Students' overall perception of surgery significantly improved after participation in the transition to the wards workshop (71.2 to 77.8, p ≤ 0.0001), as did student agreement with 9 of 21 specific items. Improvement in surgical perception across the bootcamp-style workshop was similar to that of a prior workshop (8.6 in 2018 vs 6.4 in 2017, p = 0.21). CONCLUSIONS: A preclinical introduction to surgery can have a positive impact on medical student perception of surgery prior to entry to the wards and may mitigate student fears regarding their surgical rotation.

3.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(1): 43-44, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452050
4.
J Surg Res ; 246: 614-622, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization's (WHO) surgical safety checklist is meant to be customized to facilitate local implementation, encourage full-team participation, and promote a culture of safety. Although it has been globally adopted, little is known about the extent of checklist modification and the type of changes made. METHODS: Nonsubspecialty surgical checklists were obtained through online search and targeted hospital requests. A detailed coding scheme was created to capture modifications to checklist content and formatting. Descriptive statistics were performed. RESULTS: Of 155 checklists analyzed, all were modified. Compared with the WHO checklist, those in our sample contained more lines of text (median: 63 [interquartile range: 50-73] versus 56) and items (36 [interquartile range: 30-43] versus 28). A median of 13 new items were added. Items most frequently added included implants/special equipment (added by 84%), deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis/anticoagulation (added by 75%), and positioning (added by 63%). Checklists removed a median of 5 WHO items. The most frequently removed item was the pulse oximeter check (removed in 75%), followed by 4 items (each removed in 39%-48%) that comprise part of the WHO Checklist's "Anticipated Critical Events" section, which is intended for exchanging critical information. The surgeon was not explicitly mentioned in the checklist in 12%; the anesthesiologist/certified registered nurse anesthetist in 14%, the circulator in 10%, and the surgical tech/scrub in 79%. CONCLUSIONS: Checklists are highly modified but often enlarged with items that may not prompt discussion or teamwork. Of concern is the frequent removal of items from the WHO's "Anticipated Critical Events" section.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem/normas , Relações Interprofissionais , Salas Cirúrgicas/organização & administração , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Erros Médicos/prevenção & controle , Salas Cirúrgicas/normas , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
5.
JAMA Surg ; : 1-7, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657854

RESUMO

Importance: Patient-generated health data captured from smartphone sensors have the potential to better quantify the physical outcomes of surgery. The ability of these data to discriminate between postoperative trends in physical activity remains unknown. Objective: To assess whether physical activity captured from smartphone accelerometer data can be used to describe postoperative recovery among patients undergoing cancer operations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective observational cohort study was conducted from July 2017 to April 2019 in a single academic tertiary care hospital in the United States. Preoperatively, adults (age ≥18 years) who spoke English and were undergoing elective operations for skin, soft tissue, head, neck, and abdominal cancers were approached. Patients were excluded if they did not own a smartphone. Exposures: Study participants downloaded an application that collected smartphone accelerometer data continuously for 1 week preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end points were trends in daily exertional activity and the ability to achieve at least 60 minutes of daily exertional activity after surgery among patients with vs without a clinically significant postoperative event. Postoperative events were defined as complications, emergency department presentations, readmissions, reoperations, and mortality. Results: A total of 139 individuals were approached. In the 62 enrolled patients, who were followed up for a median (interquartile range [IQR]) of 147 (77-179) days, there were no preprocedural differences between patients with vs without a postoperative event. Seventeen patients (27%) experienced a postoperative event. These patients had longer operations than those without a postoperative event (median [IQR], 225 [152-402] minutes vs 107 [68-174] minutes; P < .001), as well as greater blood loss (median [IQR], 200 [35-515] mL vs 25 [5-100] mL; P = .006) and more follow-up visits (median [IQR], 2 [2-4] visits vs 1 [1-2] visits; P = .002). Compared with mean baseline daily exertional activity, patients with a postoperative event had lower activity at week 1 (difference, -41.6 [95% CI, -75.1 to -8.0] minutes; P = .02), week 3 (difference, -40.0 [95% CI, -72.3 to -3.6] minutes; P = .03), week 5 (difference, -39.6 [95% CI, -69.1 to -10.1] minutes; P = .01), and week 6 (difference, -36.2 [95% CI, -64.5 to -7.8] minutes; P = .01) postoperatively. Fewer of these patients were able to achieve 60 minutes of daily exertional activity in the 6 weeks postoperatively (proportions: week 1, 0.40 [95% CI, 0.31-0.49]; P < .001; week 2, 0.49 [95% CI, 0.40-0.58]; P = .003; week 3, 0.39 [95% CI, 0.30-0.48]; P < .001; week 4, 0.47 [95% CI, 0.38-0.57]; P < .001; week 5, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.42-0.60]; P < .001; week 6, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.68-0.79] vs 0.43 [95% CI, 0.33-0.52]; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Smartphone accelerometer data can describe differences in postoperative physical activity among patients with vs without a postoperative event. These data help objectively quantify patient-centered surgical recovery, which have the potential to improve and promote shared decision-making, recovery monitoring, and patient engagement.

7.
Ann Surg ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449139

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study simulates the regionalization of pancreatectomies to assess its impact on spatial access in terms of patient driving times. BACKGROUND: Although policies to regionalize complex procedures to high-volume centers may improve outcomes, the impact on patient access is unknown. METHODS: Patients who underwent pancreatectomies from 2005 to 2014 were identified from California's statewide database. Round-trip driving times between patients' home ZIP code and hospital addresses were calculated via Google Maps. Regionalization was simulated by eliminating hospitals performing <20 pancreatectomies/yr, and reassigning patients to the next closest hospital that satisfied the volume threshold. Sensitivity analyses were performed for New York and Medicare patients to assess for influence of geography and insurance coverage, respectively. RESULTS: Of 13,317 pancreatectomies, 6335 (47.6%) were performed by hospitals with <20 cases/yr. Patients traveled a median of 49.8 minutes [interquartile range (IQR) 30.8-96.2] per round-trip. A volume-restriction policy would increase median round-trip driving time by 24.1 minutes (IQR 4.5-53.5). Population in-hospital mortality rates were estimated to decrease from 6.7% to 2.8% (P < 0.001). Affected patients were more likely to be racial minorities (44.6% vs 36.5% of unaffected group, P < 0.001) and covered by Medicaid or uninsured (16.3% vs 9.8% of unaffected group, P < 0.001). Sensitivity analyses revealed a 17.8 minutes increment for patients in NY (IQR 0.8-47.4), and 27.0 minutes increment for Medicare patients (IQR 6.2-57.1). CONCLUSIONS: A policy that limits access to low-volume pancreatectomy hospitals will increase round-trip driving time by 24 minutes, but up to 54 minutes for 25% of patients. Population mortality rates may improve by 1.5%.

8.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 45(12): 2287-2288, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353063

RESUMO

Perioperative shared decision-making can be improved through the development of novel patient-centered outcome measures made possible by digital phenotyping-"the moment-by-moment quantification of individual-level human phenotype in situ using data from personal digital devices, in particular smartphones." This Short Report presents data from a patient with breast cancer that illustrates the opportunities of digital phenotyping to better inform patient quality of life while also discussing the challenges to its adoption. With time, effort, and physician engagement, digital phenotyping can help surgeons better understand the patient experience in the postoperative period and in turn, help them provide care that maximizes patient quality of life.

9.
Am J Surg ; 218(2): 424-429, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to determine the effect of a pre-clerkship workshop on medical students' perceptions of surgery and surgeons and to describe their concerns and learning goals. METHODS: Thirty-nine medical students completed surveys before and after a workshop preceding their surgery clerkship. Quantitative data and free responses that were inductively coded were used to assess effectiveness. RESULTS: Perceptions from 38 students (response rate = 97.4%) significantly improved for 11 of 21 items. At pre-workshop, the most frequently cited learning goals were improving technical skills (58%), surgical knowledge (53%), and understanding surgical culture and work (53%). Students' top concerns were meeting clerkship demands (68%) and being evaluated (55%). After the workshop, student learning objectives and concerns remained largely unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: A pre-clerkship workshop improved student perceptions of surgery and surgeons. Understanding students' intrinsic motivations may facilitate future clerkship curriculum improvement via better alignment of educator and student goals and objectives.


Assuntos
Atitude , Estágio Clínico , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Motivação , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
Ann Surg ; 270(1): 84-90, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29578910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We merged direct, multisource, and systematic assessments of surgeon behavior with malpractice claims, to analyze the relationship between surgeon 360-degree reviews and malpractice history. BACKGROUND: Previous work suggests that malpractice claims are associated with a poor physician-patient relationship, which is likely related to behaviors captured by 360-degree review. We hypothesize that 360-degree review results are associated with malpractice claims. METHODS: Surgeons from 4 academic medical centers covered by a common malpractice carrier underwent 360-degree review in 2012 to 2013 (n = 385). Matched, de-identified reviews and malpractice claims data were available for 264 surgeons from 2000 to 2015. We analyzed 23 questions, highlighting positive and negative behaviors within the domains of education, excellence, humility, openness, respect, service, and teamwork. Regression analysis with robust standard error was used to assess the potential association between 360-degree review results and malpractice claims. RESULTS: The range of claims among the 264 surgeons was 0 to 8, with 48.1% of surgeons having at least 1 claim. Multiple positive and negative behaviors were significantly associated with the risk of having malpractice claims (P < 0.05). Surgeons in the bottom decile for several items had an increased likelihood of having at least 1 claim. CONCLUSION: Surgeon behavior, as assessed by 360-degree review, is associated with malpractice claims. These findings highlight the importance of teamwork and communication in exposure to malpractice. Although the nature of malpractice claims is complex and multifactorial, the identification and modification of negative physician behaviors may mitigate malpractice risk and ultimately result in the improved quality of patient care.


Assuntos
Relações Interprofissionais , Imperícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Comportamento Social , Cirurgiões/legislação & jurisprudência , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Competência Clínica , Cirurgia Geral , Humanos , Massachusetts , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Satisfação do Paciente , Revisão dos Cuidados de Saúde por Pares , Gestão de Riscos , Cirurgiões/ética
12.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 37(11): 1779-1786, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395507

RESUMO

Proven patient safety solutions such as the World Health Organization's Surgical Safety Checklist are challenging to implement at scale. A voluntary initiative was launched in South Carolina hospitals in 2010 to encourage use of the checklist in all operating rooms. Hospitals that reported completing implementation of the checklist in their operating rooms by 2017 had significantly higher levels of CEO and physician participation and engaged more in higher-touch activities such as in-person meetings and teamwork skills trainings than comparison hospitals did. Based on our experience and the participation data collected, we suggest three considerations for hospital, hospital association, state, and national policy makers: Successful programs must be designed to engage all stakeholders (CEOs, physicians, nurses, surgical technologists, and others); offering a variety of program activities-both lower-touch and higher-touch-over the duration of the program allows more hospital and individual participation; and change takes time and resources.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem/métodos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Salas Cirúrgicas/normas , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/normas , Lista de Checagem/normas , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , South Carolina , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade
13.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 102(5): 1496-1504, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077789

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chordomas are malignant tumors arising from remnant notochordal tissue. Despite improved local control with preoperative/postoperative radiation therapy (RT), progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) remain poor in patients with high-risk features. Chordoma has been identified to express and activate platelet-derived growth factor receptor signaling. We conducted a phase 1 trial to identify the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, and feasibility of nilotinib with RT as either preoperative or definitive treatment for patients with high-risk chordoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We recruited 23 patients with high-risk, nonmetastatic chordoma. High risk was defined as the presence of any of the following: local recurrence after surgery, previous intralesional resection, unplanned incomplete resection, unresectable or marginally resectable disease based on locally advanced stage, or declining surgery because of excessive morbidity. Patients were treated with nilotinib and concurrent RT to 50.4 Gy relative biological effectiveness (RBE) followed by surgery and postoperative RT to a cumulative dose up to 70.2 Gy RBE or definitively up to 77.4 Gy RBE without surgery. On completion of RT, patients were eligible to continue nilotinib until disease progression. RESULTS: In patients receiving nilotinib 200 mg twice daily with RT, 3 dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) occurred in 5 patients. One DLT was seen among 6 patients receiving nilotinib 200 mg daily with RT. Therefore, 200 mg daily was declared the maximum tolerated dose. Eleven additional patients received nilotinib with RT at the maximum tolerated dose, and 1 additional DLT occurred. The objective best response rate was 6% (1 of 18 patients, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1%-27%). The median progression-free survival was 58.15 months (95% CI, 39.10-∞). The median OS was 61.5 months (43.1-∞), and the 2-year OS rate was 95%. CONCLUSIONS: Nilotinib 200 mg/d with RT is safe and tolerated in patients with high-risk chordoma. Long-term follow-up is needed to understand whether nilotinib combined with RT, with or without surgery, adds greater improvement to progression-free survival or OS than with RT with or without surgery alone in patients with high-risk chordoma.


Assuntos
Cordoma/tratamento farmacológico , Cordoma/radioterapia , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29707609

RESUMO

The development of a primary melanoma within the confines of free tissue transfer is a rare occurrence. In this report, we describe the development of a primary melanoma in situ within a full-thickness skin graft overlying a free latissimus dorsi muscle flap used to cover a scalp defect.

16.
J Am Coll Surg ; 226(6): 1103-1116.e3, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29574175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical infections cause substantial morbidity and mortality in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). To improve adherence to critical perioperative infection prevention standards, we developed Clean Cut, a checklist-based quality improvement program to improve compliance with best practices. We hypothesized that process mapping infection prevention activities can help clinicians identify strategies for improving surgical safety. STUDY DESIGN: We introduced Clean Cut at a tertiary hospital in Ethiopia. Infection prevention standards included skin antisepsis, ensuring a sterile field, instrument decontamination/sterilization, prophylactic antibiotic administration, routine swab/gauze counting, and use of a surgical safety checklist. Processes were mapped by a visiting surgical fellow and local operating theater staff to facilitate the development of contextually relevant solutions; processes were reassessed for improvements. RESULTS: Process mapping helped identify barriers to using alcohol-based hand solution due to skin irritation, inconsistent administration of prophylactic antibiotics due to variable delivery outside of the operating theater, inefficiencies in assuring sterility of surgical instruments through lack of confirmatory measures, and occurrences of retained surgical items through inappropriate guidelines, staffing, and training in proper routine gauze counting. Compliance with most processes improved significantly following organizational changes to align tasks with specific process goals. CONCLUSIONS: Enumerating the steps involved in surgical infection prevention using a process mapping technique helped identify opportunities for improving adherence and plotting contextually relevant solutions, resulting in superior compliance with antiseptic standards. Simplifying these process maps into an adaptable tool could be a powerful strategy for improving safe surgery delivery in LMICs.


Assuntos
Recursos em Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Lista de Checagem , Etiópia , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Roupa de Proteção , Esterilização/normas
17.
Ann Surg ; 266(6): 923-929, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29140848

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether completion of a voluntary, checklist-based surgical quality improvement program is associated with reduced 30-day postoperative mortality. BACKGROUND: Despite evidence of efficacy of team-based surgical safety checklists in improving perioperative outcomes in research trials, effective methods of population-based implementation have been lacking. The Safe Surgery 2015 South Carolina program was designed to foster state-wide engagement of hospitals in a voluntary, collaborative implementation of a checklist program. METHODS: We compared postoperative mortality rates after inpatient surgery in South Carolina utilizing state-wide all-payer discharge claims from 2008 to 2013, linked with state vital statistics, stratifying hospitals on the basis of completion of the checklist program. Changes in risk-adjusted 30-day mortality were compared between hospitals, using propensity score-adjusted difference-in-differences analysis. RESULTS: Fourteen hospitals completed the program by December 2013. Before program launch, there was no difference in mortality trends between the completion cohort and all others (P = 0.33), but postoperative mortality diverged thereafter (P = 0.021). Risk-adjusted 30-day mortality among completers was 3.38% in 2010 and 2.84% in 2013 (P < 0.00001), whereas mortality among other hospitals (n = 44) was 3.50% in 2010 and 3.71% in 2013 (P = 0.3281), reflecting a 22% difference between the groups on difference-in-differences analysis (P = 0.0021). CONCLUSIONS: Despite similar pre-existing rates and trends of postoperative mortality, hospitals in South Carolina completing a voluntary checklist-based surgical quality improvement program had a reduction in deaths after inpatient surgery over the first 3 years of the collaborative compared with other hospitals in the state. This may indicate that effective large-scale implementation of a team-based surgical safety checklist is feasible.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem/métodos , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Lista de Checagem/normas , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pontuação de Propensão , Melhoria de Qualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Risco Ajustado , South Carolina , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade
18.
J Invest Dermatol ; 137(12): 2466-2468, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29169461

RESUMO

Melanoma demonstrates considerable biological heterogeneity and is associated with several routes of dissemination including lymphatic and hematogenous. Locoregional control via surgery may improve outcomes for patients with limited lymphatic metastases. Once stage IV disease is diagnosed, clinical outcomes are determined by molecular and/or immunologic factors and identification of tumor/microenvironmental features correlating with distant metastases is critical for future prognostic stratification.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros
19.
BMJ Open ; 7(10): e016298, 2017 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29042377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effectiveness and meaningful use of paediatric surgical safety checklists (SSCs) and their implementation strategies through a systematic review with narrative synthesis. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Since the launch of the WHO SSC, checklists have been integrated into surgical systems worldwide. Information is sparse on how SSCs have been integrated into the paediatric surgical environment. METHODS: A broad search strategy was created using Pubmed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Central, Web of Science, Science Citation Index and Conference Proceedings Citation Index. Abstracts and full texts were screened independently, in duplicate for inclusion. Extracted study characteristic and outcomes generated themes explored through subgroup analyses and idea webbing. RESULTS: 1826 of 1921 studies were excluded after title and abstract review (kappa 0.77) and 47 after full-text review (kappa 0.86). 20 studies were of sufficient quality for narrative synthesis. Clinical outcomes were not affected by SSC introduction in studies without implementation strategies. A comprehensive SSC implementation strategy in developing countries demonstrated improved outcomes in high-risk surgeries. Narrative synthesis suggests that meaningful compliance is inconsistently measured and rarely achieved. Strategies involving feedback improved compliance. Stakeholder-developed implementation strategies, including team-based education, achieved greater acceptance. Three studies suggest that parental involvement in the SSC is valued by parents, nurses and physicians and may improve patient safety. CONCLUSIONS: A SSC implementation strategy focused on paediatric patients and their families can achieve high acceptability and good compliance. SSCs' role in improving measures of paediatric surgical outcome is not well established, but they may be effective when used within a comprehensive implementation strategy especially for high-risk patients in low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem/normas , Uso Significativo , Segurança do Paciente , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/normas , Criança , Humanos
20.
Surgery ; 162(3): 592-604, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28728882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health care costs are an important policy focus in the United States. The magnitude and drivers of variation in the costs of common operative procedures are not well understood. We sought to characterize variation in costs across hospitals. METHODS: We used data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2001-2011 for 5 elective operations: colectomy, coronary artery bypass graft, total knee arthroplasty, cesarean section, and lung resection. Hospitals were benchmarked for each using hierarchical risk- and reliability-adjustment methods to generate an observed-to-expected cost ratio, which was adjusted for patient demographics, comorbidity, wage index, and procedure complexity. Hospitals were divided into quintiles. Characteristics of high- and low-quintile hospitals and their adjusted outcomes were examined. RESULTS: Cost observed-to-expected ratios ranged widely for all 5 procedures: 14.9-fold for colectomy, 5.5-fold for coronary artery bypass graft, 12.5-fold for lung resection, 10.6-fold for total knee arthroplasty, and 28.0-fold for cesarean section. Comparing highest to lowest cost quintiles of hospitals, high-cost hospitals were more likely to serve minority and Medicaid patients. Mortality was elevated significantly in high-cost hospitals for colectomy, coronary artery bypass graft, and lung resection (adjusted odds ratio 1.99, 1.32, 2.57; respectively). Service lines were correlated at low-cost hospitals. There was a significant association between greater procedure volume and low-cost hospitals for colectomy, coronary artery bypass graft, and total knee arthroplasty. CONCLUSION: Despite robust adjustment, there is wide cost variation for common operative procedures in the United States. High-cost hospitals may need to focus on cost reduction at the hospital level to reduce cost across service lines. Benchmarking costs may identify significant opportunities to promote value, or the balance between cost and quality, in operative care in the United States.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/economia , Custos Hospitalares , Hospitalização/economia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/economia , Artroplastia do Joelho/economia , Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Benchmarking , Cesárea/economia , Cesárea/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Colectomia/economia , Colectomia/métodos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Masculino , Medicaid/economia , Medicare/economia , Pneumonectomia/economia , Pneumonectomia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Estados Unidos
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