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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481615

RESUMO

Britain and Ireland are known to show population genetic structure; however, large swathes of Scotland, in particular, have yet to be described. Delineating the structure and ancestry of these populations will allow variant discovery efforts to focus efficiently on areas not represented in existing cohorts. Thus, we assembled genotype data for 2,554 individuals from across the entire archipelago with geographically restricted ancestry, and performed population structure analyses and comparisons to ancient DNA. Extensive geographic structuring is revealed, from broad scales such as a NE to SW divide in mainland Scotland, through to the finest scale observed to date: across 3 km in the Northern Isles. Many genetic boundaries are consistent with Dark Age kingdoms of Gaels, Picts, Britons, and Norse. Populations in the Hebrides, the Highlands, Argyll, Donegal, and the Isle of Man show characteristics of isolation. We document a pole of Norwegian ancestry in the north of the archipelago (reaching 23 to 28% in Shetland) which complements previously described poles of Germanic ancestry in the east, and "Celtic" to the west. This modern genetic structure suggests a northwestern British or Irish source population for the ancient Gaels that contributed to the founding of Iceland. As rarer variants, often with larger effect sizes, become the focus of complex trait genetics, more diverse rural cohorts may be required to optimize discoveries in British and Irish populations and their considerable global diaspora.

2.
Aging Cell ; : e13011, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385385

RESUMO

Late-onset retinal degeneration (L-ORD) is an autosomal dominant macular degeneration characterized by the formation of sub-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) deposits and neuroretinal atrophy. L-ORD results from mutations in the C1q-tumor necrosis factor-5 protein (CTRP5), encoded by the CTRP5/C1QTNF5 gene. To understand the mechanism underlying L-ORD pathology, we used a human cDNA library yeast two-hybrid screen to identify interacting partners of CTRP5. Additionally, we analyzed the Bruch's membrane/choroid (BM-Ch) from wild-type (Wt), heterozygous S163R Ctrp5 mutation knock-in (Ctrp5S163R/wt ), and homozygous knock-in (Ctrp5S163R/S163R ) mice using mass spectrometry. Both approaches showed an association between CTRP5 and HTRA1 via its C-terminal PDZ-binding motif, stimulation of the HTRA1 protease activity by CTRP5, and CTRP5 serving as an HTRA1 substrate. The S163R-CTRP5 protein also binds to HTRA1 but is resistant to HTRA1-mediated cleavage. Immunohistochemistry and proteomic analysis showed significant accumulation of CTRP5 and HTRA1 in BM-Ch of Ctrp5S163R/S163R and Ctrp5S163R/wt mice compared with Wt. Additional extracellular matrix (ECM) components that are HTRA1 substrates also accumulated in these mice. These results implicate HTRA1 and its interaction with CTRP5 in L-ORD pathology.

3.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421134

RESUMO

Nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that has been gaining attention in the field of pharmacology and especially in the chemoprevention of diseases such as cancer, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, etc. This is because natural compounds such as sulforaphane, which is found in broccoli sprout extracts, can activate Nrf2. The repertoire of the roles of Nrf2 is ever increasing; besides its traditional antioxidant and cytoprotective effects, Nrf2 can have other functions as a transcription factor. We have recently shown that Nrf2 directly regulates the expression of thyroglobulin (Tg), which is the most abundant thyroidal protein and the precursor of thyroid hormones. Two functional binding sites for Nrf2 (antioxidant response elements, AREs) were identified in the regulatory region of the TG gene. Interestingly, we then observed that one of these AREs harbors a rare single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Also recently, we performed the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) for common SNPs that impact the circulating levels of Tg. Based on these investigations, we were triggered (i) to investigate whether common SNPs in the Nrf2 pathway correlate with circulating Tg levels; and (ii) to examine whether the rare SNP in one of the TG regulatory AREs may affect gene expression. To address the first question, we analyzed GWAS data from a general population and its two subpopulations, one with thyroid disease and/or abnormal thyroid function tests and the other without, in which circulating Tg levels had been measured. Statistically significant associations with Tg levels were observed in the genes encoding Nrf2 and Keap1, including, notably, a known functional SNP in the promoter of the gene encoding Nrf2. Regarding the rare SNP (rs778940395) in the proximal ARE of the TG enhancer, luciferase reporter gene expression studies in PCCL3 rat thyroid follicular cells showed that this SNP abrogated the basal and sulforaphane- or TSH-induced luciferase activity, behaving as a complete loss-of-function mutation. Thus, both rare and common genetic variation in the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway can impact TG expression and Tg circulating levels, respectively.

4.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People who opt to participate in scientific studies tend to be healthier, wealthier and more educated than the broader population. Although selection bias does not always pose a problem for analysing the relationships between exposures and diseases or other outcomes, it can lead to biased effect size estimates. Biased estimates may weaken the utility of genetic findings because the goal is often to make inferences in a new sample (such as in polygenic risk score analysis). METHODS: We used data from UK Biobank, Generation Scotland and Partners Biobank and conducted phenotypic and genome-wide association analyses on two phenotypes that reflected mental health data availability: (i) whether participants were contactable by e-mail for follow-up; and (ii) whether participants responded to follow-up surveys of mental health. RESULTS: In UK Biobank, we identified nine genetic loci associated (P <5 × 10-8) with e-mail contact and 25 loci associated with mental health survey completion. Both phenotypes were positively genetically correlated with higher educational attainment and better health and negatively genetically correlated with psychological distress and schizophrenia. One single nucleotide polymorphism association replicated along with the overall direction of effect of all association results. CONCLUSIONS: Re-contact availability and follow-up participation can act as further genetic filters for data on mental health phenotypes.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10964, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358886

RESUMO

The Viking Health Study Shetland is a population-based research cohort of 2,122 volunteer participants with ancestry from the Shetland Isles in northern Scotland. The high kinship and detailed phenotype data support a range of approaches for associating rare genetic variants, enriched in this isolate population, with quantitative traits and diseases. As an exemplar, the c.1750G > A; p.Gly584Ser variant within the coding sequence of the KCNH2 gene implicated in Long QT Syndrome (LQTS), which occurred once in 500 whole genome sequences from this population, was investigated. Targeted sequencing of the KCNH2 gene in family members of the initial participant confirmed the presence of the sequence variant and identified two further members of the same family pedigree who shared the variant. Investigation of these three related participants for whom single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array genotypes were available allowed a unique shared haplotype of 1.22 Mb to be defined around this locus. Searching across the full cohort for this haplotype uncovered two additional apparently unrelated individuals with no known genealogical connection to the original kindred. All five participants with the defined haplotype were shown to share the rare variant by targeted Sanger sequencing. If this result were verified in a healthcare setting, it would be considered clinically actionable, and has been actioned in relatives ascertained independently through clinical presentation. The General Practitioners of four study participants with the rare variant were alerted to the research findings by letters outlining the phenotype (prolonged electrocardiographic QTc interval). A lack of detectable haplotype sharing between c.1750G > A; p.Gly584Ser chromosomes from previously reported individuals from Finland and those in this study from Shetland suggests that this mutation has arisen more than once in human history. This study showcases the potential value of isolate population-based research resources for genomic medicine. It also illustrates some challenges around communication of actionable findings in research participants in this context.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2154, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089142

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and has a strong heritable basis. We report a genome-wide association analysis of 34,627 CRC cases and 71,379 controls of European ancestry that identifies SNPs at 31 new CRC risk loci. We also identify eight independent risk SNPs at the new and previously reported European CRC loci, and a further nine CRC SNPs at loci previously only identified in Asian populations. We use in situ promoter capture Hi-C (CHi-C), gene expression, and in silico annotation methods to identify likely target genes of CRC SNPs. Whilst these new SNP associations implicate target genes that are enriched for known CRC pathways such as Wnt and BMP, they also highlight novel pathways with no prior links to colorectal tumourigenesis. These findings provide further insight into CRC susceptibility and enhance the prospects of applying genetic risk scores to personalised screening and prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2069, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043600

RESUMO

In the original version of this Article, the legend in the upper panel of Figure 2 incorrectly read 'paternal imprinting' and should have read 'maternal imprinting'. This has been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

10.
Thyroid ; 29(6): 886-893, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929638

RESUMO

Background: Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a 660 kDa iodoglycoprotein that serves as a scaffold for thyroid hormone synthesis. Although a twin study showed that variability of serum Tg levels has a substantial genetic basis, no genome-wide association study (GWAS) of serum/plasma Tg levels has been performed to date. The aim of this study was to identify genetic variants associated with plasma Tg levels among healthy individuals. Methods: A GWAS was conducted on two Croatian cohorts, and a combined analysis was performed. The analyses included 1094 individuals. A total of 7,597,379 variants, imputed using the 1000 Genomes reference panel, were analyzed for association. GWAS was performed under an additive model, controlling for age, sex, and relatedness within each data set. Combined analysis was conducted using the inverse-variance fixed-effects method. Results: Sixteen variants located on chromosome 3, within the ST6GAL1 gene, reached genome-wide significance. The lead SNP was rs4012172 ( \documentclass{aastex}\usepackage{amsbsy}\usepackage{amsfonts}\usepackage{amssymb}\usepackage{bm}\usepackage{mathrsfs}\usepackage{pifont}\usepackage{stmaryrd}\usepackage{textcomp}\usepackage{portland, xspace}\usepackage{amsmath, amsxtra}\usepackage{upgreek}\pagestyle{empty}\DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6}\begin{document} $$p = 1.29 \times {10^{ - 10}}$$ \end{document} ), which explained 3.19% of the variance in Tg levels. ST6GAL1 belongs to the sialyltransferase protein family, which has a fundamental role in the synthesis of specific sialylated structures on various glycoproteins, including Tg. It is known that only immature Tg (poorly sialylated or desialylated) can be transferred to the bloodstream. Conclusions: A highly biologically plausible locus was identified that could have a role in the regulation of plasma Tg levels in healthy individuals.

11.
Circulation ; 139(24): 2754-2764, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is great interest in widening the use of high-sensitivity cardiac troponins for population cardiovascular disease (CVD) and heart failure screening. However, it is not clear whether cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and troponin I (cTnI) are equivalent measures of risk in this setting. We aimed to compare and contrast (1) the association of cTnT and cTnI with CVD and non-CVD outcomes, and (2) their determinants in a genome-wide association study. METHODS: High-sensitivity cTnT and cTnI were measured in serum from 19 501 individuals in Generation Scotland Scottish Family Health Study. Median follow-up was 7.8 years (quartile 1 to quartile 3, 7.1-9.2). Associations of each troponin with a composite CVD outcome (1177 events), CVD death (n=266), non-CVD death (n=374), and heart failure (n=216) were determined by using Cox models. A genome-wide association study was conducted using a standard approach developed for the cohort. RESULTS: Both cTnI and cTnT were strongly associated with CVD risk in unadjusted models. After adjusting for classical risk factors, the hazard ratio for a 1 SD increase in log transformed troponin was 1.24 (95% CI, 1.17-1.32) and 1.11 (1.04-1.19) for cTnI and cTnT, respectively; ratio of hazard ratios 1.12 (1.04-1.21). cTnI, but not cTnT, was associated with myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease. Both cTnI and cTnT had strong associations with CVD death and heart failure. By contrast, cTnT, but not cTnI, was associated with non-CVD death; ratio of hazard ratios 0.77 (0.67-0.88). We identified 5 loci (53 individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms) that had genome-wide significant associations with cTnI, and a different set of 4 loci (4 single-nucleotide polymorphisms) for cTnT. CONCLUSIONS: The upstream genetic causes of low-grade elevations in cTnI and cTnT appear distinct, and their associations with outcomes also differ. Elevations in cTnI are more strongly associated with some CVD outcomes, whereas cTnT is more strongly associated with the risk of non-CVD death. These findings help inform the selection of an optimal troponin assay for future clinical care and research in this setting.

12.
EBioMedicine ; 43: 576-586, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The causes of poor respiratory function and COPD are incompletely understood, but it is clear that genes and the environment play a role. As DNA methylation is under both genetic and environmental control, we hypothesised that investigation of differential methylation associated with these phenotypes would permit mechanistic insights, and improve prediction of COPD. We investigated genome-wide differential DNA methylation patterns using the recently released 850 K Illumina EPIC array. This is the largest single population, whole-genome epigenetic study to date. METHODS: Epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) of respiratory function and COPD were performed in peripheral blood samples from the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) cohort (n = 3781; 274 COPD cases and 2919 controls). In independent COPD incidence data (n = 149), significantly differentially methylated sites (DMSs; p < 3.6 × 10-8) were evaluated for their added predictive power when added to a model including clinical variables, age, sex, height and smoking history using receiver operating characteristic analysis. The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936) was used to replicate association (n = 895) and prediction (n = 178) results. FINDINGS: We identified 28 respiratory function and/or COPD associated DMSs, which mapped to genes involved in alternative splicing, JAK-STAT signalling, and axon guidance. In prediction analyses, we observed significant improvement in discrimination between COPD cases and controls (p < .05) in independent GS:SFHS (p = .016) and LBC1936 (p = .010) datasets by adding DMSs to a clinical model. INTERPRETATION: Identification of novel DMSs has provided insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating respiratory function and aided prediction of COPD risk. Further studies are needed to assess the causality and clinical utility of identified associations. FUND: Wellcome Trust Strategic Award 10436/Z/14/Z.

13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842574

RESUMO

Autosomal variants have successfully been associated with trait neuroticism in genome-wide analysis of adequately powered samples. But such studies have so far excluded the X chromosome from analysis. Here, we report genetic association analyses of X chromosome and XY pseudoautosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and trait neuroticism using UK Biobank samples (N = 405,274). Significant association was found with neuroticism on the X chromosome for 204 markers found within three independent loci (a further 783 were suggestive). Most of the lead neuroticism-related X chromosome variants were located in intergenic regions (n = 397). Involvement of HS6ST2, which has been previously associated with sociability behaviour in the dog, was supported by single SNP and gene-based tests. We found that the amino acid and nucleotide sequences are highly conserved between dogs and humans. From the suggestive X chromosome variants, there were 19 nearby genes which could be linked to gene ontology information. Molecular function was primarily related to binding and catalytic activity; notable biological processes were cellular and metabolic, and nucleic acid binding and transcription factor protein classes were most commonly involved. X-variant heritability of neuroticism was estimated at 0.22% (SE = 0.05) from a full dosage compensation model. A polygenic X-variant score created in an independent sample (maximum N ≈ 7,300) did not predict significant variance in neuroticism, psychological distress, or depressive disorder. We conclude that the X chromosome harbours significant variants influencing neuroticism, and might prove important for other quantitative traits and complex disorders.

14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1383, 2019 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918249

RESUMO

Parent-of-origin effects (POE) exist when there is differential expression of alleles inherited from the two parents. A genome-wide scan for POE on DNA methylation at 639,238 CpGs in 5,101 individuals identifies 733 independent methylation CpGs potentially influenced by POE at a false discovery rate ≤ 0.05 of which 331 had not previously been identified. Cis and trans methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTL) regulate methylation variation through POE at 54% (399/733) of the identified POE-influenced CpGs. The combined results provide strong evidence for previously unidentified POE-influenced CpGs at 171 independent loci. Methylation variation at 14 of the POE-influenced CpGs is associated with multiple metabolic traits. A phenome-wide association analysis using the POE mQTL SNPs identifies a previously unidentified imprinted locus associated with waist circumference. These results provide a high resolution population-level map for POE on DNA methylation sites, their local and distant regulators and potential consequences for complex traits.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Impressão Genômica/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Adulto , Ilhas de CpG , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Escócia
15.
J Hum Genet ; 64(5): 473-480, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824882

RESUMO

Thyroid hormones (THs) are key regulators of cellular growth, development, and metabolism. The thyroid gland secretes two THs, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), into the plasma where they are almost all bound reversibly to plasma proteins. Free forms of THs are metabolically active, however, they represent a very small fraction of total TH levels. No genome-wide studies have been performed to date on total TH levels, comprising of protein-bound and free forms of THs. To detect genetic variants associated with total TH levels, we carried out the first GWAS meta-analysis of total T4 levels in 1121 individuals from two Croatian cohorts (Split and Korcula). We also performed GWAS analyses of total T3 levels in 577 individuals and T3/T4 ratio in 571 individuals from the Split cohort. The top association in GWAS meta-analysis of total T4 was detected for an intronic variant within SLC22A9 gene (rs12282281, P = 4.00 × 10-7). Within the same region, a genome-wide significant variant (rs11822642, P = 2.50 × 10-8) for the T3/T4 ratio was identified. SLC22A9 encodes for an organic anion transporter protein expressed predominantly in the liver and belongs to the superfamily of solute carriers (SLC), a large group of transport membrane proteins. The transport of THs across the plasma membrane in peripheral tissues is facilitated by the membrane proteins, and all TH transport proteins known to date belong to the same SLC superfamily as SLC22A9. These results suggest a potential role for SLC22A9 as a novel transporter protein of THs.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Íntrons , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes , Tiroxina , Tri-Iodotironina , Estudos de Coortes , Croácia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/genética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/metabolismo , Tiroxina/sangue , Tiroxina/genética , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/genética
16.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867560

RESUMO

Higher scores on the personality trait of neuroticism, the tendency to experience negative emotions, are associated with worse mental and physical health. Studies examining links between neuroticism and health typically operationalize neuroticism by summing the items from a neuroticism scale. However, neuroticism is made up of multiple heterogeneous facets, each contributing to the effect of neuroticism as a whole. A recent study showed that a 12-item neuroticism scale described one broad trait of general neuroticism and two special factors, one characterizing the extent to which people worry and feel vulnerable, and the other characterizing the extent to which people are anxious and tense. This study also found that, although individuals who were higher on general neuroticism lived shorter lives, individuals whose neuroticism was characterized by worry and vulnerability lived longer lives. Here, we examine the genetic contributions to the two special factors of neuroticism-anxiety/tension and worry/vulnerability-and how they contrast with that of general neuroticism. First, we show that, whereas the polygenic load for neuroticism is associated with the genetic risk of coronary artery disease, lower intelligence, lower socioeconomic status (SES), and poorer self-rated health, the genetic variants associated with high levels of anxiety/tension, and high levels of worry/vulnerability are associated with genetic variants linked to higher SES, higher intelligence, better self-rated health, and longer life. Second, we identify genetic variants that are uniquely associated with these protective aspects of neuroticism. Finally, we show that different neurological pathways are linked to each of these neuroticism phenotypes.

17.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 14, 2019 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718454

RESUMO

Stress is associated with poorer physical and mental health. To improve our understanding of this link, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of depressive symptoms and genome-wide by environment interaction studies (GWEIS) of depressive symptoms and stressful life events (SLE) in two UK population-based cohorts (Generation Scotland and UK Biobank). No SNP was individually significant in either GWAS, but gene-based tests identified six genes associated with depressive symptoms in UK Biobank (DCC, ACSS3, DRD2, STAG1, FOXP2 and KYNU; p < 2.77 × 10-6). Two SNPs with genome-wide significant GxE effects were identified by GWEIS in Generation Scotland: rs12789145 (53-kb downstream PIWIL4; p = 4.95 × 10-9; total SLE) and rs17070072 (intronic to ZCCHC2; p = 1.46 × 10-8; dependent SLE). A third locus upstream CYLC2 (rs12000047 and rs12005200, p < 2.00 × 10-8; dependent SLE) when the joint effect of the SNP main and GxE effects was considered. GWEIS gene-based tests identified: MTNR1B with GxE effect with dependent SLE in Generation Scotland; and PHF2 with the joint effect in UK Biobank (p < 2.77 × 10-6). Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) analyses incorporating GxE effects improved the prediction of depressive symptom scores, when using weights derived from either the UK Biobank GWAS of depressive symptoms (p = 0.01) or the PGC GWAS of major depressive disorder (p = 5.91 × 10-3). Using an independent sample, PRS derived using GWEIS GxE effects provided evidence of shared aetiologies between depressive symptoms and schizotypal personality, heart disease and COPD. Further such studies are required and may result in improved treatments for depression and other stress-related conditions.


Assuntos
Depressão/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/etiologia , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Escócia , Reino Unido
18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(2): 276-287, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721968

RESUMO

Background: Lean body mass (LM) plays an important role in mobility and metabolic function. We previously identified five loci associated with LM adjusted for fat mass in kilograms. Such an adjustment may reduce the power to identify genetic signals having an association with both lean mass and fat mass. Objectives: To determine the impact of different fat mass adjustments on genetic architecture of LM and identify additional LM loci. Methods: We performed genome-wide association analyses for whole-body LM (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, age2, and height with or without fat mass adjustments (Model 1 no fat adjustment; Model 2 adjustment for fat mass as a percentage of body mass; Model 3 adjustment for fat mass in kilograms). Results: Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in separate loci, including one novel LM locus (TNRC6B), were successfully replicated in an additional 47,227 individuals from 29 cohorts. Based on the strengths of the associations in Model 1 vs Model 3, we divided the LM loci into those with an effect on both lean mass and fat mass in the same direction and refer to those as "sumo wrestler" loci (FTO and MC4R). In contrast, loci with an impact specifically on LM were termed "body builder" loci (VCAN and ADAMTSL3). Using existing available genome-wide association study databases, LM increasing alleles of SNPs in sumo wrestler loci were associated with an adverse metabolic profile, whereas LM increasing alleles of SNPs in "body builder" loci were associated with metabolic protection. Conclusions: In conclusion, we identified one novel LM locus (TNRC6B). Our results suggest that a genetically determined increase in lean mass might exert either harmful or protective effects on metabolic traits, depending on its relation to fat mass.

19.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700811

RESUMO

Antidepressants demonstrate modest response rates in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Despite previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of antidepressant treatment response, the underlying genetic factors are unknown. Using prescription data in a population and family-based cohort (Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study; GS:SFHS), we sought to define a measure of (a) antidepressant treatment resistance and (b) stages of antidepressant resistance by inferring antidepressant switching as non-response to treatment. GWAS were conducted separately for antidepressant treatment resistance in GS:SFHS and the Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) study and then meta-analysed (meta-analysis n = 4213, cases = 358). For stages of antidepressant resistance, a GWAS on GS:SFHS only was performed (n = 3452). Additionally, we conducted gene-set enrichment, polygenic risk scoring (PRS) and genetic correlation analysis. We did not identify any significant loci, genes or gene sets associated with antidepressant treatment resistance or stages of resistance. Significant positive genetic correlations of antidepressant treatment resistance and stages of resistance with neuroticism, psychological distress, schizotypy and mood disorder traits were identified. These findings suggest that larger sample sizes are needed to identify the genetic architecture of antidepressant treatment response, and that population-based observational studies may provide a tractable approach to achieving the necessary statistical power.

20.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; 70(5): 638-644, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614303

RESUMO

Although the effect of isolated nutrients on plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) is somewhat familiar, the effect of multiple nutrients on plasma PTH level has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to identify groups of food items that are associated with the plasma PTH level in healthy individuals. This cross-sectional study enrolled 1180 healthy individuals from Croatia with plasma PTH levels inside the referent values. A food frequency questionnaire containing 58 food items was completed to evaluate the dietary intake. We used principal component analysis to reduce food items into dietary groups, followed by linear regression analysis to test the association between dietary groups and the level of PTH. The results indicate that different sorts of vegetables (p = .006), sausages, salami, mushrooms, eggs (p = .033), as well as white bread (p = .009) are associated with the increase, while bran bread (p = .009) is associated with the decreased plasma PTH level.

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