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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1250, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144257

RESUMO

Currently, there are no non-invasive tools to accurately diagnose wound and surgical site infections before they become systemic or cause significant anatomical damage. Fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging are cost-effective imaging modalities that can be used to noninvasively diagnose bacterial infections when paired with a molecularly targeted infection imaging agent. Here, we develop a fluorescent derivative of maltotriose (Cy7-1-maltotriose), which is shown to be taken up in a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains in vitro. In vivo fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging studies highlight the ability of this probe to detect infection, assess infection burden, and visualize the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment in E. coli-induced myositis and a clinically relevant S. aureus wound infection murine model. In addition, we show that maltotriose is an ideal scaffold for infection imaging agents encompassing better pharmacokinetic properties and in vivo stability than other maltodextrins (e.g. maltohexose).

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31938892

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the safety, biodistribution, and radiation dosimetry of the novel positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceutical 1-((2-fluoro-6-[[18F]]fluorophenyl)sulfonyl)-4-((4-methoxyphenyl)sulfonyl)piperazine ([18F]DASA-23) in healthy volunteers. METHODS: We recruited 5 healthy volunteers who provided a written informed consent. Volunteers were injected with 295.0 ± 8.2 MBq of [18F]DASA-23 intravenously. Immediately following injection, a dynamic scan of the brain was acquired for 15 min. This was followed by serial whole-body PET/MRI scans acquired up to 3 h post-injection. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals, and vital signs monitored pre- and post-radiotracer administration. Regions of interest were drawn around multiple organs, time-activity curves were calculated, and organ uptake and dosimetry were estimated with OLINDA/EXM (version 1.1) software. RESULTS: All subjects tolerated the PET/MRI examination, without adverse reactions to [18F]DASA-23. [18F]DASA-23 passively crossed the blood-brain barrier, followed by rapid clearance from the brain. High accumulation of [18F]DASA-23 was noted in organs such as the gallbladder, liver, small intestine, and urinary bladder, suggesting hepatobiliary and urinary clearance. The effective dose of [18F]DASA-23 was 23.5 ± 5.8 µSv/MBq. CONCLUSION: We successfully completed a pilot first-in-human study of [18F]DASA-23. Our results indicate that [18F]DASA-23 can be used safely in humans to evaluate pyruvate kinase M2 levels. Ongoing studies are evaluating the ability of [18F]DASA-23 to visualize intracranial malignancies, NCT03539731. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03539731 (registered 28 May 2018).

3.
J Nucl Med ; 60(12): 1812-1817, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171595

RESUMO

The aim of this study was development of an improved PET radiotracer for measuring xC - activity with increased tumor uptake and reduced uptake in inflammatory cells compared with (S)-4-(3-18F-fluoropropyl)-l-glutamate (18F-FSPG). Methods: A racemic glutamate derivative, 18F-hGTS13, was evaluated in cell culture and animal tumor models. 18F-hGTS13 was separated into C5 epimers, and the corresponding 18F-hGTS13-isomer1 and 18F-hGTS13-isomer2 were evaluated in H460 tumor-bearing rats. Preliminary studies investigated the cellular uptake of 18F-hGTS13-isomer2 in multiple immune cell populations and states. Results: 18F-hGTS13 demonstrated excellent H460 tumor visualization with high tumor-to-background ratios, confirmed by ex vivo biodistribution studies. Tumor-associated radioactivity was significantly higher for 18F-hGTS13 (7.5 ± 0.9 percentage injected dose [%ID]/g, n = 3) than for 18F-FSPG (4.6 ± 0.7 %ID/g, n = 3, P = 0.01). 18F-hGTS13-isomer2 exhibited excellent H460 tumor visualization (6.3 ± 1.1 %ID/g, n = 3) and significantly reduced uptake in multiple immune cell populations relative to 18F-FSPG. 18F-hGTS13-isomer2 exhibited increased liver uptake relative to 18F-FSPG (4.6 ± 0.8 vs. 0.7 ± 0.01 %ID/g), limiting its application in hepatocellular carcinoma. Conclusion: 18F-hGTS13-isomer2 is a new PET radiotracer for molecular imaging of xC - activity that may provide information on tumor oxidation states. 18F-hGTS13-isomer2 has potential for clinical translation for imaging cancers of the thorax because of the low background signal in healthy tissue.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(23): 11402-11407, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123153

RESUMO

There is a growing need for monitoring or imaging gene therapy in the central nervous system (CNS). This can be achieved with a positron emission tomography (PET) reporter gene strategy. Here we report the development of a PET reporter gene system using the PKM2 gene with its associated radiotracer [18F]DASA-23. The PKM2 reporter gene was delivered to the brains of mice by adeno-associated virus (AAV9) via stereotactic injection. Serial PET imaging was carried out over 8 wk to assess PKM2 expression. After 8 wk, the brains were excised for further mRNA and protein analysis. PET imaging at 8 wk post-AAV delivery showed an increase in [18F]DASA-23 brain uptake in the transduced site of mice injected with the AAV mice over all controls. We believe PKM2 shows great promise as a PET reporter gene and to date is the only example that can be used in all areas of the CNS without breaking the blood-brain barrier, to monitor gene and cell therapy.

5.
Stroke ; 50(2): 373-380, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636572

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Noninvasive imaging of brain perfusion has the potential to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms underlying Moyamoya disease and enable clinical imaging of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to select revascularization therapies for patients. We used hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology to characterize the distribution of hypoperfusion in Moyamoya disease and its relationship to vessel stenosis severity, through comparisons with a normative perfusion database of healthy controls. Methods- To image CBF, we acquired [15O]-water PET as a reference and simultaneously acquired arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI scans in 20 Moyamoya patients and 15 age-matched, healthy controls on a PET/MRI scanner. The ASL MRI scans included a standard single-delay ASL scan with postlabel delay of 2.0 s and a multidelay scan with 5 postlabel delays (0.7-3.0s) to estimate and account for arterial transit time in CBF quantification. The percent volume of hypoperfusion in patients (determined as the fifth percentile of CBF values in the healthy control database) was the outcome measure in a logistic regression model that included stenosis grade and location. Results- Logistic regression showed that anterior ( P<0.0001) and middle cerebral artery territory regions ( P=0.003) in Moyamoya patients were susceptible to hypoperfusion, whereas posterior regions were not. Cortical regions supplied by arteries with stenosis on MR angiography showed more hypoperfusion than normal arteries ( P=0.001), but the extent of hypoperfusion was not different between mild-moderate versus severe stenosis. Multidelay ASL did not perform differently from [15O]-water PET in detecting perfusion abnormalities, but standard ASL overestimated the extent of hypoperfusion in patients ( P=0.003). Conclusions- This simultaneous PET/MRI study supports the use of multidelay ASL MRI in clinical evaluation of Moyamoya disease in settings where nuclear medicine imaging is not available and application of a normative perfusion database to automatically identify abnormal CBF in patients.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Artéria Cerebral Média , Doença de Moyamoya , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Doença de Moyamoya/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Moyamoya/fisiopatologia , Marcadores de Spin
6.
Medchemcomm ; 9(8): 1311-1314, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30151085

RESUMO

Herein we report the preparation of ammonium [11C]thiocyanate via the reaction of [11C]CS2 with ammonia. The [11C]SCN- ion is demonstrated as a potent nucleophile that can be used to readily generate a range of 11C-labelled thiocyanate molecules in high conversions. Furthermore, novel 11C-labelled thiazolone molecules can be easily prepared from the intermediate α-thiocyanatophenones via an acid mediated cyclisation reaction.

7.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 20(6): 1015-1024, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29736561

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is a strong, unmet need for superior positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents that are able to measure biochemical processes specific to prostate cancer. Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) catalyzes the concluding step in glycolysis and is a key regulator of tumor growth and metabolism. Elevation of PKM2 expression was detected in Gleason 8-10 tumors compared to Gleason 6-7 carcinomas, indicating that PKM2 may potentially be a marker of aggressive prostate cancer. We have recently reported the development of a PKM2-specific radiopharmaceutical [18F]DASA-23 and herein describe its evaluation in cell culture and preclinical models of prostate cancer. PROCEDURE: The cellular uptake of [18F]DASA-23 was evaluated in a panel of prostate cancer cell lines and compared to that of [18F]FDG. The specificity of [18F]DASA-23 to measure PKM2 levels in cell culture was additionally confirmed through the use of PKM2-specific siRNA. PET imaging studies were then completed utilizing subcutaneous prostate cancer xenografts using either PC3 or DU145 cells in mice. RESULTS: [18F]DASA-23 uptake values over 60-min incubation period in PC3, LnCAP, and DU145 respectively were 23.4 ± 4.5, 18.0 ± 2.1, and 53.1 ± 4.6 % tracer/mg protein. Transient reduction in PKM2 protein expression with siRNA resulted in a 50.1 % reduction in radiotracer uptake in DU145 cells. Small animal PET imaging revealed 0.86 ± 0.13 and 1.6 ± 0.2 % ID/g at 30 min post injection of radioactivity in DU145 and PC3 subcutaneous tumor bearing mice respectively. CONCLUSION: Herein, we evaluated a F-18-labeled PKM2-specific radiotracer, [18F]DASA-23, for the molecular imaging of prostate cancer with PET. [18F]DASA-23 revealed rapid and extensive uptake levels in cellular uptake studies of prostate cancer cells; however, there was only modest tumor uptake when evaluated in mouse subcutaneous tumor models.


Assuntos
Compostos de Diazônio/química , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/química , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Ácidos Sulfanílicos/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Compostos de Diazônio/farmacocinética , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/farmacocinética , Glicólise/fisiologia , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Transplante de Neoplasias , Células PC-3 , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Ácidos Sulfanílicos/farmacocinética
8.
Stroke ; 48(9): 2441-2449, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28765286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI is a promising, noninvasive technique to image cerebral blood flow (CBF) but is difficult to use in cerebrovascular patients with abnormal, long arterial transit times through collateral pathways. To be clinically adopted, ASL must first be optimized and validated against a reference standard in these challenging patient cases. METHODS: We compared standard-delay ASL (post-label delay=2.025 seconds), multidelay ASL (post-label delay=0.7-3.0 seconds), and long-label long-delay ASL acquisitions (post-label delay=4.0 seconds) against simultaneous [15O]-positron emission tomography (PET) CBF maps in 15 Moyamoya patients on a hybrid PET/MRI scanner. Dynamic susceptibility contrast was performed in each patient to identify areas of mild, moderate, and severe time-to-maximum (Tmax) delays. Relative CBF measurements by each ASL scan in 20 cortical regions were compared with the PET reference standard, and correlations were calculated for areas with moderate and severe Tmax delays. RESULTS: Standard-delay ASL underestimated relative CBF by 20% in areas of severe Tmax delays, particularly in anterior and middle territories commonly affected by Moyamoya disease (P<0.001). Arterial transit times correction by multidelay acquisitions led to improved consistency with PET, but still underestimated CBF in the presence of long transit delays (P=0.02). Long-label long-delay ASL scans showed the strongest correlation relative to PET, and there was no difference in mean relative CBF between the modalities, even in areas of severe delays. CONCLUSIONS: Post-label delay times of ≥4 seconds are needed and may be combined with multidelay strategies for robust ASL assessment of CBF in Moyamoya disease.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Doença de Moyamoya/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Circulação Colateral , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal , Radioisótopos de Oxigênio , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Marcadores de Spin
9.
Chemistry ; 21(25): 9034-8, 2015 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25965348

RESUMO

Herein a new (11) C radiolabelling strategy for the fast and efficient synthesis of thioureas and related derivatives using the novel synthon, (11) CS2 , is reported. This approach has enabled the facile labelling of a potent progesterone receptor (PR) agonist, [(11) C]Tanaproget, by the intramolecular reaction of the acyclic aminohydroxyl precursor with (11) CS2 , which has potential applications as a positron emission tomography radioligand for cancer imaging.


Assuntos
Benzoxazinas/química , Radioisótopos de Carbono/química , Lobo Parietal/química , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/química , Receptores de Progesterona/química , Tionas/química , Tioureia/síntese química , Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Receptores de Progesterona/antagonistas & inibidores , Tioureia/química
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