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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(4): 622-635, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946763

RESUMO

Quantifying the functional effects of complex disease risk variants can provide insights into mechanisms underlying disease biology. Genome-wide association studies have identified 39 regions associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The vast majority of these variants lie in the non-coding genome, where they likely function through interaction with gene regulatory elements. In this study we first estimated the heritability explained by known common low penetrance risk alleles for EOC. The narrow sense heritability (hg2) of EOC overall and high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOCs) were estimated to be 5%-6%. Partitioned SNP heritability across broad functional categories indicated a significant contribution of regulatory elements to EOC heritability. We collated epigenomic profiling data for 77 cell and tissue types from Roadmap Epigenomics and ENCODE, and from H3K27Ac ChIP-seq data generated in 26 ovarian cancer and precursor-related cell and tissue types. We identified significant enrichment of risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in active regulatory elements marked by H3K27Ac in HGSOCs. To further investigate how risk SNPs in active regulatory elements influence predisposition to ovarian cancer, we used motifbreakR to predict the disruption of transcription factor binding sites. We identified 469 candidate causal risk variants in H3K27Ac peaks that are predicted to significantly break transcription factor (TF) motifs. The most frequently broken motif was REST (p value = 0.0028), which has been reported as both a tumor suppressor and an oncogene. Overall, these systematic functional annotations with epigenomic data improve interpretation of EOC risk variants and shed light on likely cells of origin.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Proteínas Correpressoras/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Histonas/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Alelos , Sítios de Ligação , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Proteínas Correpressoras/metabolismo , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/diagnóstico , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Penetrância , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2020, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332753

RESUMO

The functional consequences of somatic non-coding mutations in ovarian cancer (OC) are unknown. To identify regulatory elements (RE) and genes perturbed by acquired non-coding variants, here we establish epigenomic and transcriptomic landscapes of primary OCs using H3K27ac ChIP-seq and RNA-seq, and then integrate these with whole genome sequencing data from 232 OCs. We identify 25 frequently mutated regulatory elements, including an enhancer at 6p22.1 which associates with differential expression of ZSCAN16 (P = 6.6 × 10-4) and ZSCAN12 (P = 0.02). CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of this enhancer induces downregulation of both genes. Globally, there is an enrichment of single nucleotide variants in active binding sites for TEAD4 (P = 6 × 10-11) and its binding partner PAX8 (P = 2×10-10), a known lineage-specific transcription factor in OC. In addition, the collection of cis REs associated with PAX8 comprise the most frequently mutated set of enhancers in OC (P = 0.003). These data indicate that non-coding somatic mutations disrupt the PAX8 transcriptional network during OC development.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Ovário/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA-Seq , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
3.
Cell Rep ; 29(11): 3726-3735.e4, 2019 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825847

RESUMO

Fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells (FTSECs) are likely the main precursor cell type of high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOCs), but these tumors may also arise from ovarian surface epithelial cells (OSECs). We profiled global landscapes of gene expression and active chromatin to characterize molecular similarities between OSECs (n = 114), FTSECs (n = 74), and HGSOCs (n = 394). A one-class machine learning algorithm predicts that most HGSOCs derive from FTSECs, with particularly high FTSEC scores in mesenchymal-type HGSOCs (padj < 8 × 10-4). However, a subset of HGSOCs likely derive from OSECs, particularly HGSOCs of the proliferative type (padj < 2 × 10-4), suggesting a dualistic model for HGSOC origins. Super-enhancer (SE) landscapes were also more similar between FTSECs and HGSOCs than between OSECs and HGSOCs (p < 2.2 × 10-16). The SOX18 transcription factor (TF) coincided with a HGSOC-specific SE, and ectopic overexpression of SOX18 in FTSECs caused epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, indicating that SOX18 plays a role in establishing the mesenchymal signature of fallopian-derived HGSOCs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXF/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Tubas Uterinas/metabolismo , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Ovário/patologia , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Transcrição SOXF/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma
4.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 745, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of next generation sequencing (NGS) methods led to a rapid rise in the generation of large genomic datasets, but the development of user-friendly tools to analyze and visualize these datasets has not developed at the same pace. This presents a two-fold challenge to biologists; the expertise to select an appropriate data analysis pipeline, and the need for bioinformatics or programming skills to apply this pipeline. The development of graphical user interface (GUI) applications hosted on web-based servers such as Shiny can make complex workflows accessible across operating systems and internet browsers to those without programming knowledge. RESULTS: We have developed GENAVi (Gene Expression Normalization Analysis and Visualization) to provide a user-friendly interface for normalization and differential expression analysis (DEA) of human or mouse feature count level RNA-Seq data. GENAVi is a GUI based tool that combines Bioconductor packages in a format for scientists without bioinformatics expertise. We provide a panel of 20 cell lines commonly used for the study of breast and ovarian cancer within GENAVi as a foundation for users to bring their own data to the application. Users can visualize expression across samples, cluster samples based on gene expression or correlation, calculate and plot the results of principal components analysis, perform DEA and gene set enrichment and produce plots for each of these analyses. To allow scalability for large datasets we have provided local install via three methods. We improve on available tools by offering a range of normalization methods and a simple to use interface that provides clear and complete session reporting and for reproducible analysis. CONCLUSION: The development of tools using a GUI makes them practical and accessible to scientists without bioinformatics expertise, or access to a data analyst with relevant skills. While several GUI based tools are currently available for RNA-Seq analysis we improve on these existing tools. This user-friendly application provides a convenient platform for the normalization, analysis and visualization of gene expression data for scientists without bioinformatics expertise.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Software , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Visualização de Dados , Internet , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Interface Usuário-Computador
5.
Gynecol Oncol ; 153(2): 343-355, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898391

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) have focused largely on populations of European ancestry. We aimed to identify common germline variants associated with EOC risk in Asian women. METHODS: Genotyping was performed as part of the OncoArray project. Samples with >60% Asian ancestry were included in the analysis. Genotyping was performed on 533,631 SNPs in 3238 Asian subjects diagnosed with invasive or borderline EOC and 4083 unaffected controls. After imputation, genotypes were available for 11,595,112 SNPs to identify associations. RESULTS: At chromosome 6p25.2, SNP rs7748275 was associated with risk of serous EOC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34, P = 8.7 × 10-9) and high-grade serous EOC (HGSOC) (OR = 1.34, P = 4.3 × 10-9). SNP rs6902488 at 6p25.2 (r2 = 0.97 with rs7748275) lies in an active enhancer and is predicted to impact binding of STAT3, P300 and ELF1. We identified additional risk loci with low Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP) scores, indicating they are likely to be true risk associations (BFDP <10%). At chromosome 20q11.22, rs74272064 was associated with HGSOC risk (OR = 1.27, P = 9.0 × 10-8). Overall EOC risk was associated with rs10260419 at chromosome 7p21.3 (OR = 1.33, P = 1.2 × 10-7) and rs74917072 at chromosome 2q37.3 (OR = 1.25, P = 4.7 × 10-7). At 2q37.3, expression quantitative trait locus analysis in 404 HGSOC tissues identified ESPNL as a putative candidate susceptibility gene (P = 1.2 × 10-7). CONCLUSION: While some risk loci were shared between East Asian and European populations, others were population-specific, indicating that the landscape of EOC risk in Asian women has both shared and unique features compared to women of European ancestry.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
6.
Bioinformatics ; 35(11): 1974-1977, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30364927

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: DNA methylation has been used to identify functional changes at transcriptional enhancers and other cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) in tumors and other disease tissues. Our R/Bioconductor package ELMER (Enhancer Linking by Methylation/Expression Relationships) provides a systematic approach that reconstructs altered gene regulatory networks (GRNs) by combining enhancer methylation and gene expression data derived from the same sample set. RESULTS: We present a completely revised version 2 of ELMER that provides numerous new features including an optional web-based interface and a new Supervised Analysis mode to use pre-defined sample groupings. We show that Supervised mode significantly increases statistical power and identifies additional GRNs and associated Master Regulators, such as SOX11 and KLF5 in Basal-like breast cancer. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: ELMER v.2 is available as an R/Bioconductor package at http://bioconductor.org/packages/ELMER/. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Transcriptoma , Metilação de DNA , Software
7.
Cancer Res ; 79(3): 467-481, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487138

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified 40 ovarian cancer risk loci. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain elusive. In this study, we conducted a two-pronged approach to identify candidate causal SNPs and assess underlying biological mechanisms at chromosome 9p22.2, the first and most statistically significant associated locus for ovarian cancer susceptibility. Three transcriptional regulatory elements with allele-specific effects and a scaffold/matrix attachment region were characterized and, through physical DNA interactions, BNC2 was established as the most likely target gene. We determined the consensus binding sequence for BNC2 in vitro, verified its enrichment in BNC2 ChIP-seq regions, and validated a set of its downstream target genes. Fine-mapping by dense regional genotyping in over 15,000 ovarian cancer cases and 30,000 controls identified SNPs in the scaffold/matrix attachment region as among the most likely causal variants. This study reveals a comprehensive regulatory landscape at 9p22.2 and proposes a likely mechanism of susceptibility to ovarian cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: Mapping the 9p22.2 ovarian cancer risk locus identifies BNC2 as an ovarian cancer risk gene.See related commentary by Choi and Brown, p. 439.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
8.
Nat Med ; 24(12): 1887-1898, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478421

RESUMO

Treatment of prostate cancer (PC) by androgen suppression promotes the emergence of aggressive variants that are androgen receptor (AR) independent. Here we identify the transcription factor ONECUT2 (OC2) as a master regulator of AR networks in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). OC2 acts as a survival factor in mCRPC models, suppresses the AR transcriptional program by direct regulation of AR target genes and the AR licensing factor FOXA1, and activates genes associated with neural differentiation and progression to lethal disease. OC2 appears active in a substantial subset of human prostate adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors. Inhibition of OC2 by a newly identified small molecule suppresses metastasis in mice. These findings suggest that OC2 displaces AR-dependent growth and survival mechanisms in many cases where AR remains expressed, but where its activity is bypassed. OC2 is also a potential drug target in the metastatic phase of aggressive PC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Androgênios/genética , Androgênios/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Progressão da Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
Genome Biol ; 19(1): 160, 2018 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 loci associated with increased risk of prostate cancer, most of which are in non-coding regions of the genome. Understanding the function of these non-coding risk loci is critical to elucidate the genetic susceptibility to prostate cancer. RESULTS: We generate genome-wide regulatory element maps and performed genome-wide chromosome confirmation capture assays (in situ Hi-C) in normal and tumorigenic prostate cells. Using this information, we annotate the regulatory potential of 2,181 fine-mapped prostate cancer risk-associated SNPs and predict a set of target genes that are regulated by prostate cancer risk-related H3K27Ac-mediated loops. We next identify prostate cancer risk-associated CTCF sites involved in long-range chromatin loops. We use CRISPR-mediated deletion to remove prostate cancer risk-associated CTCF anchor regions and the CTCF anchor regions looped to the prostate cancer risk-associated CTCF sites, and we observe up to 100-fold increases in expression of genes within the loops when the prostate cancer risk-associated CTCF anchor regions are deleted. CONCLUSIONS: We identify GWAS risk loci involved in long-range loops that function to repress gene expression within chromatin loops. Our studies provide new insights into the genetic susceptibility to prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Fator de Ligação a CCCTC/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas/genética , Deleção de Genes , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Acetilação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lisina/metabolismo , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Canais de Potássio Ativados por Cálcio de Condutância Baixa/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 109(8)2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29117387

RESUMO

Prostate cancer incidence is 1.6-fold higher in African Americans than in other populations. The risk factors that drive this disparity are unknown and potentially consist of social, environmental, and genetic influences. To investigate the genetic basis of prostate cancer in men of African ancestry, we performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis using two-sided statistical tests in 10 202 case subjects and 10 810 control subjects. We identified novel signals on chromosomes 13q34 and 22q12, with the risk-associated alleles found only in men of African ancestry (13q34: rs75823044, risk allele frequency = 2.2%, odds ratio [OR] = 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37 to 1.76, P = 6.10 × 10-12; 22q12.1: rs78554043, risk allele frequency = 1.5%, OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.39 to 1.89, P = 7.50 × 10-10). At 13q34, the signal is located 5' of the gene IRS2 and 3' of a long noncoding RNA, while at 22q12 the candidate functional allele is a missense variant in the CHEK2 gene. These findings provide further support for the role of ancestry-specific germline variation in contributing to population differences in prostate cancer risk.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 13 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22 , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/genética , Masculino
11.
Immunity ; 47(5): 890-902.e4, 2017 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29166589

RESUMO

Granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (GMPs) and monocyte-dendritic cell progenitors (MDPs) produce monocytes during homeostasis and in response to increased demand during infection. Both progenitor populations are thought to derive from common myeloid progenitors (CMPs), and a hierarchical relationship (CMP-GMP-MDP-monocyte) is presumed to underlie monocyte differentiation. Here, however, we demonstrate that mouse MDPs arose from CMPs independently of GMPs, and that GMPs and MDPs produced monocytes via similar but distinct monocyte-committed progenitors. GMPs and MDPs yielded classical (Ly6Chi) monocytes with gene expression signatures that were defined by their origins and impacted their function. GMPs produced a subset of "neutrophil-like" monocytes, whereas MDPs gave rise to a subset of monocytes that yielded monocyte-derived dendritic cells. GMPs and MDPs were also independently mobilized to produce specific combinations of myeloid cell types following the injection of microbial components. Thus, the balance of GMP and MDP differentiation shapes the myeloid cell repertoire during homeostasis and following infection.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/fisiologia , Células Precursoras de Granulócitos/fisiologia , Monócitos/fisiologia , Células Progenitoras Mieloides/fisiologia , Animais , Antígenos Ly/análise , Diferenciação Celular , Leucossialina/análise , Camundongos , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma
12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(1): 126-135, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27697780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common cancers develop through a multistep process often including inherited susceptibility. Collaboration among multiple institutions, and funding from multiple sources, has allowed the development of an inexpensive genotyping microarray, the OncoArray. The array includes a genome-wide backbone, comprising 230,000 SNPs tagging most common genetic variants, together with dense mapping of known susceptibility regions, rare variants from sequencing experiments, pharmacogenetic markers, and cancer-related traits. METHODS: The OncoArray can be genotyped using a novel technology developed by Illumina to facilitate efficient genotyping. The consortium developed standard approaches for selecting SNPs for study, for quality control of markers, and for ancestry analysis. The array was genotyped at selected sites and with prespecified replicate samples to permit evaluation of genotyping accuracy among centers and by ethnic background. RESULTS: The OncoArray consortium genotyped 447,705 samples. A total of 494,763 SNPs passed quality control steps with a sample success rate of 97% of the samples. Participating sites performed ancestry analysis using a common set of markers and a scoring algorithm based on principal components analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Results from these analyses will enable researchers to identify new susceptibility loci, perform fine-mapping of new or known loci associated with either single or multiple cancers, assess the degree of overlap in cancer causation and pleiotropic effects of loci that have been identified for disease-specific risk, and jointly model genetic, environmental, and lifestyle-related exposures. IMPACT: Ongoing analyses will shed light on etiology and risk assessment for many types of cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(1); 126-35. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Seleção Genética
13.
Oncotarget ; 8(65): 108316-108332, 2017 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29312534

RESUMO

PAX8 is a lineage-restricted transcription factor that is expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) precursor tissues, and in the major EOC histotypes. Frequent overexpression of PAX8 in primary EOCs suggests this factor functions as an oncogene during tumorigenesis, however, the biological role of PAX8 in EOC development is poorly understood. We found that stable knockdown of PAX8 in EOC models significantly reduced cell proliferation and anchorage dependent growth in vitro, and attenuated tumorigenicity in vivo. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) and transcriptional profiling were used to create genome-wide maps of PAX8 binding and putative target genes. PAX8 binding sites were significantly enriched in promoter regions (p < 0.05) and superenhancers (p < 0.05). MEME-ChIP analysis revealed that PAX8 binding sites overlapping superenhancers or enhancers, but not promoters, were enriched for JUND/B and ARNT/AHR motifs. Integrating PAX8 ChIP-seq and gene expression data identified PAX8 target genes through their associations within shared topological association domains. Across two EOC models we identified 62 direct regulatory targets based on PAX8 binding in promoters and 1,330 putative enhancer regulatory targets. SEPW1, which is involved in oxidation-reduction, was identified as a PAX8 target gene in both cell line models. While the PAX8 cistrome exhibits a high degree of cell-type specificity, analyses of PAX8 target genes and putative cofactors identified common molecular targets and partners as candidate therapeutic targets for EOC.

14.
Sci Rep ; 6: 30509, 2016 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27461410

RESUMO

Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of Parkinson's disease (PD) revealed at least 26 risk loci, with associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in non-coding DNA having unknown functions in risk. In order to explore in which cell types these SNPs (and their correlated surrogates at r(2) ≥ 0.8) could alter cellular function, we assessed their location overlap with histone modification regions that indicate transcription regulation in 77 diverse cell types. We found statistically significant enrichment of risk SNPs at 12 loci in active enhancers or promoters. We investigated 4 risk loci in depth that were most significantly enriched (-logeP > 14) and contained 8 putative enhancers in the different cell types. These enriched loci, along with eQTL associations, were unexpectedly present in non-neuronal cell types. These included lymphocytes, mesendoderm, liver- and fat-cells, indicating that cell types outside the brain are involved in the genetic predisposition to PD. Annotating regulatory risk regions within specific cell types may unravel new putative risk mechanisms and molecular pathways that contribute to PD development.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Cromossomos Humanos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
15.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 108(7)2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26823525

RESUMO

The 8q24 region harbors multiple risk variants for distinct cancers, including >8 for prostate cancer. In this study, we conducted fine mapping of the 8q24 risk region (127.8-128.8Mb) in search of novel associations with common and rare variation in 4853 prostate cancer case patients and 4678 control subjects of African ancestry. All statistical tests were two-sided. We identified three independent associations at P values of less than 5.00×10(-8), all of which were replicated in studies from Ghana and Uganda (combined sample = 5869 case patients, 5615 control subjects; rs114798100: risk allele frequency [RAF] = 0.04, per-allele odds ratio [OR] = 2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.04 to 2.61, P = 2.38×10(-40); rs72725879: RAF = 0.33, OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.30 to 1.45, P = 3.04×10(-27); and rs111906932: RAF = 0.03, OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.53 to 2.08, P = 1.39×10(-13)). Risk variants rs114798100 and rs111906923 are only found in men of African ancestry, with rs111906923 representing a novel association signal. The three variants are located within or near a number of prostate cancer-associated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), including PRNCR1, PCAT1, and PCAT2. These findings highlight ancestry-specific risk variation and implicate prostate-specific lncRNAs at the 8q24 prostate cancer susceptibility region.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Cell Cycle ; 15(1): 22-4, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26771711

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous genomic 'hits' associated with complex phenotypes. In most cases these hits, along with surrogate genetic variation as measure by numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are in linkage disequilibrium, are not in coding genes making assignment of functionality or causality intractable. Here we propose that fine-mapping along with the matching of risk SNPs at chromatin biofeatures lessen this complexity by reducing the number of candidate functional/causal SNPs. For example, we show here that only on average 2 SNPs per prostate cancer risk locus are likely candidates for functionality/causality; we further propose that this manageable number should be taken forward in mechanistic studies. The candidate SNPs can be looked up for each prostate cancer risk region in 2 recent publications in 2015 (1,2) from our groups.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/fisiologia , Animais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/tendências , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia
17.
Carcinogenesis ; 36(11): 1341-53, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26424751

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified 20 genomic regions associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but many additional risk variants may exist. Here, we evaluated associations between common genetic variants [single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and indels] in DNA repair genes and EOC risk. We genotyped 2896 common variants at 143 gene loci in DNA samples from 15 397 patients with invasive EOC and controls. We found evidence of associations with EOC risk for variants at FANCA, EXO1, E2F4, E2F2, CREB5 and CHEK2 genes (P ≤ 0.001). The strongest risk association was for CHEK2 SNP rs17507066 with serous EOC (P = 4.74 x 10(-7)). Additional genotyping and imputation of genotypes from the 1000 genomes project identified a slightly more significant association for CHEK2 SNP rs6005807 (r (2) with rs17507066 = 0.84, odds ratio (OR) 1.17, 95% CI 1.11-1.24, P = 1.1×10(-7)). We identified 293 variants in the region with likelihood ratios of less than 1:100 for representing the causal variant. Functional annotation identified 25 candidate SNPs that alter transcription factor binding sites within regulatory elements active in EOC precursor tissues. In The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset, CHEK2 gene expression was significantly higher in primary EOCs compared to normal fallopian tube tissues (P = 3.72×10(-8)). We also identified an association between genotypes of the candidate causal SNP rs12166475 (r (2) = 0.99 with rs6005807) and CHEK2 expression (P = 2.70×10(-8)). These data suggest that common variants at 22q12.1 are associated with risk of serous EOC and CHEK2 as a plausible target susceptibility gene.


Assuntos
Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Risco
18.
Bioinformatics ; 31(23): 3847-9, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26272984

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Functional annotation represents a key step toward the understanding and interpretation of germline and somatic variation as revealed by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), respectively. GWAS have revealed numerous genetic risk variants residing in non-coding DNA associated with complex diseases. For sequences that lie within enhancers or promoters of transcription, it is not straightforward to assess the effects of variants on likely transcription factor binding sites. Consequently we introduce motifbreakR, which allows the biologist to judge whether the sequence surrounding a polymorphism or mutation is a good match, and how much information is gained or lost in one allele of the polymorphism or mutation relative to the other. MotifbreakR is flexible, giving a choice of algorithms for interrogation of genomes with motifs from many public sources that users can choose from. MotifbreakR can predict effects for novel or previously described variants in public databases, making it suitable for tasks beyond the scope of its original design. Lastly, it can be used to interrogate any genome curated within bioconductor. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: https://github.com/Simon-Coetzee/MotifBreakR, www.bioconductor.org. CONTACT: dennis.hazelett@cshs.org.


Assuntos
Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Elementos Reguladores de Transcrição , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Software , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Genômica , Humanos , Camundongos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 24(19): 5603-18, 2015 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26162851

RESUMO

Interpretation of biological mechanisms underlying genetic risk associations for prostate cancer is complicated by the relatively large number of risk variants (n = 100) and the thousands of surrogate SNPs in linkage disequilibrium. Here, we combined three distinct approaches: multiethnic fine-mapping, putative functional annotation (based upon epigenetic data and genome-encoded features), and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses, in an attempt to reduce this complexity. We examined 67 risk regions using genotyping and imputation-based fine-mapping in populations of European (cases/controls: 8600/6946), African (cases/controls: 5327/5136), Japanese (cases/controls: 2563/4391) and Latino (cases/controls: 1034/1046) ancestry. Markers at 55 regions passed a region-specific significance threshold (P-value cutoff range: 3.9 × 10(-4)-5.6 × 10(-3)) and in 30 regions we identified markers that were more significantly associated with risk than the previously reported variants in the multiethnic sample. Novel secondary signals (P < 5.0 × 10(-6)) were also detected in two regions (rs13062436/3q21 and rs17181170/3p12). Among 666 variants in the 55 regions with P-values within one order of magnitude of the most-associated marker, 193 variants (29%) in 48 regions overlapped with epigenetic or other putative functional marks. In 11 of the 55 regions, cis-eQTLs were detected with nearby genes. For 12 of the 55 regions (22%), the most significant region-specific, prostate-cancer associated variant represented the strongest candidate functional variant based on our annotations; the number of regions increased to 20 (36%) and 27 (49%) when examining the 2 and 3 most significantly associated variants in each region, respectively. These results have prioritized subsets of candidate variants for downstream functional evaluation.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 24(19): 5589-602, 2015 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26025378

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous common prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility loci. We have fine-mapped 64 GWAS regions known at the conclusion of the iCOGS study using large-scale genotyping and imputation in 25 723 PrCa cases and 26 274 controls of European ancestry. We detected evidence for multiple independent signals at 16 regions, 12 of which contained additional newly identified significant associations. A single signal comprising a spectrum of correlated variation was observed at 39 regions; 35 of which are now described by a novel more significantly associated lead SNP, while the originally reported variant remained as the lead SNP only in 4 regions. We also confirmed two association signals in Europeans that had been previously reported only in East-Asian GWAS. Based on statistical evidence and linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure, we have curated and narrowed down the list of the most likely candidate causal variants for each region. Functional annotation using data from ENCODE filtered for PrCa cell lines and eQTL analysis demonstrated significant enrichment for overlap with bio-features within this set. By incorporating the novel risk variants identified here alongside the refined data for existing association signals, we estimate that these loci now explain ∼38.9% of the familial relative risk of PrCa, an 8.9% improvement over the previously reported GWAS tag SNPs. This suggests that a significant fraction of the heritability of PrCa may have been hidden during the discovery phase of GWAS, in particular due to the presence of multiple independent signals within the same region.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino
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