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1.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 38(1): e143-e146, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170569

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Isolated intraperitoneal free fluid (IIFF) is defined as intraperitoneal fluid seen on computed tomography (CT) without identifiable injury. In a hemodynamically stable patient, this finding creates a challenge for physicians regarding the next steps in management because the clinical significance of this fluid is not completely understood. We hypothesized that pediatric blunt trauma patients with a finding of simple IIFF on CT would not have clinically significant intraabdominal injury. METHODS: A retrospective review (2009-2018) was conducted of all pediatric blunt trauma patients who underwent CT scan of the abdomen/pelvis at our institution. All patients with scans performed at our institution with the finding of IIFF were included. Scans were reviewed to measure the Hounsfield Units (HU) of the intraabdominal fluid. Groups were stratified into HU > 25 and HU ≤ 25, below accepted cutoffs for acute blood, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 413 patients had free fluid on CT abdomen/pelvis with 279 (68%) having only the finding of IIFF. The HU was 25 or less in 236 (85%) patients. No patients in the HU ≤ 25 group required operative exploration or had examination findings to indicate they had intraabdominal injury. Four (9%) patients in the HU > 25 required laparotomy (P < 0.0001). No patients in the HU ≤ 25 group required further workup or hospital admission over concern for intraabdominal injury. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric blunt trauma patients with HU of 25 or less IIFF and a nonperitonitic physical examination did not require operative exploration or further workup for intraabdominal injury. In the absence of other injuries, it is safe to discharge these patients without further workup.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais , Ferimentos não Penetrantes , Traumatismos Abdominais/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Criança , Humanos , Laparotomia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/cirurgia
2.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(2): 355-361, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prehospital identification of the injured patient likely to require emergent care remains a challenge. End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) has been used in the prehospital setting to monitor respiratory physiology and confirmation of endotracheal tube placement. Low levels of ETCO2 have been demonstrated to correlate with injury severity and mortality in a number of in-hospital studies. We hypothesized that prehospital ETCO2 values would be predictive of mortality and need for massive transfusion (MT) in intubated patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter trial with 24 participating centers. Prehospital, emergency department, and hospital values were collected. Receiver operating characteristic curves were created and compared. Massive transfusion defined as >10 U of blood in 6 hours or death in 6 hours with at least 1 U of blood transfused. RESULTS: A total of 1,324 patients were enrolled. ETCO2 (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.67; confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.71) was better in predicting mortality than shock index (SI) (AUROC, 0.55; CI, 0.50-0.60) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (AUROC, 0.58; CI, 0.53-0.62) (p < 0.0005). Prehospital lowest ETCO2 (AUROC, 0.69; CI, 0.64-0.75), SBP (AUROC, 0.75; CI, 0.70-0.81), and SI (AUROC, 0.74; CI, 0.68-0.79) were all predictive of MT. Analysis of patients with normotension demonstrated lowest prehospital ETCO2 (AUROC, 0.66; CI, 0.61-0.71), which was more predictive of mortality than SBP (AUROC, 0.52; CI, 0.47-0.58) or SI (AUROC, 0.56; CI, 0.50-0.62) (p < 0.001). Lowest prehospital ETCO2 (AUROC, 0.75; CI, 0.65-0.84), SBP (AUROC, 0.63; CI, 0.54-0.74), and SI (AUROC, 0.64; CI, 0.54-0.75) were predictive of MT in normotensive patients. ETCO2 cutoff for MT was 26 mm Hg. The positive predictive value was 16.1%, and negative predictive value was high at 98.1%. CONCLUSION: Prehospital ETCO2 is predictive of mortality and MT. ETCO2 outperformed traditional measures such as SBP and SI in the prediction of mortality. ETCO2 may outperform traditional measures in predicting need for transfusion in occult shock. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic test, level III.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Estados Unidos , Sinais Vitais
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20654, 2021 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675321

RESUMO

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, gun violence (GV) in the United States (U.S.) was postulated to increase strain on already taxed healthcare resources, such as blood products, intensive care beds, personal protective equipment, and even hospital staff. This report aims to estimate the relative risk of GV in the U.S. during the pandemic compared to before the pandemic. Daily police reports corresponding to gun-related injuries and deaths in the 50 states and the District of Columbia from February 1st, 2019, to March 31st, 2021 were obtained from the GV Archive. Generalized linear mixed-effects models in the form of Poisson regression analysis were utilized to estimate the state-specific rates of GV. Nationally, GV rates were 30% higher between March 01, 2020, and March 31, 2021 (during the pandemic), compared to the same period in 2019 (before the pandemic) [intensity ratio (IR) = 1.30; 95% CI 1.29, 1.32; p < 0.0001]. The risk of GV was significantly higher in 28 states and significantly lower in only one state. National and state-specific rates of GV were higher during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the same timeframe 1 year prior. State-specific steps to mitigate violence, or at a minimum adequately prepare for its toll during the COVID-19 pandemic, should be taken.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Violência com Arma de Fogo , Crime , Bases de Dados Factuais , Armas de Fogo , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Lineares , Distribuição Normal , Pandemias , Distribuição de Poisson , Estados Unidos
4.
Am Surg ; : 31348211038587, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384252

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nonoperative management of hemodynamically stable patients with blunt splenic and/or hepatic injury has been widely accepted in the pediatric population. However, variability exists in the utilization and timing of repeat imaging to assess for delayed complications during index hospitalization. Recent level-IV evidence suggests that repeat imaging in children should be performed based on a patient's clinical status rather than on a routine basis. The aim of this study is to examine the rate of delayed complications and interventions in pediatric trauma patients with blunt splenic and/or hepatic injuries who undergo repeat imaging prompted either by a clinical change (CC) or non-clinical change (NCC). METHODS: A 9-year (2011-2019), retrospective, dual-institution study was performed of children (0-17 years) with blunt splenic and/or hepatic injuries. Patients were grouped based on reason for repeat imaging: CC or NCC. The rate of organ-specific delayed complications and interventions was examined by reason for scan. RESULTS: A total of 307 injuries were included in the study period (174 splenic, 113 hepatic, and 20 both). Of 194 splenic injuries, 30(15.5%) underwent repeat imaging (CC = 19; NCC = 11). Of 133 hepatic injuries, 27(20.3%) underwent repeat imaging (CC = 21; NCC = 6). There was no difference in the incidence of organ-specific delayed complications between the CC and NCC groups. Of the 4 patients with complications necessitating intervention, only one was identified based on NCC. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest routine repeat imaging is unnecessary in children with blunt splenic and/or hepatic injuries; therefore, practitioners may rely on a patient's clinical change.

5.
J Surg Res ; 268: 119-124, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is variability regarding the utilization and timing of repeat imaging in adult patients with blunt hepatic injury who are managed nonoperatively. This study examines the rate of delayed complications and interventions in patients with blunt hepatic injuries who undergo repeat imaging prompted either by clinical change (CC) or non-clinical change (NCC). METHODS: A nine-year, retrospective, dual-institution study was performed of adult patients with blunt hepatic injuries. Patients were identified based on whether repeat imaging was performed and reason for reimaging: CC or NCC. The incidence of delayed complications and interventions was examined for each type of scan. RESULTS: Of 365 patients, 122 (33.4%) underwent repeat imaging [CC, n = 72 (59%); NCC, n=50 (41%)]. Mean time to repeat imaging was shorter in the NCC group [CC = 7.6 ± 8 days; NCC = 4.7 ± 6.3 days, P = 0.034]. Delayed complications were found in 30 (25%) patients reimaged, [CC, n = 20; NCC, n = 10, P = 0.395]. Interventions were performed in 12 (40%) patients [CC, n = 10; NCC, n = 2, P = 0.120]. CONCLUSIONS: Repeat imaging due to NCC occurred earlier than imaging performed by CC. One quarter of patients reimaged demonstrated a delayed complication, with nearly half undergoing intervention. There was no difference in incidence of delayed complications or interventions between groups, suggesting repeat imaging can be prompted by clinical change in blunt hepatic injuries.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais , Ferimentos não Penetrantes , Traumatismos Abdominais/complicações , Adulto , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Humanos , Incidência , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/lesões , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/terapia
6.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(1): 24-33, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the widespread institution of modern massive transfusion protocols with balanced blood product ratios, survival for patients with traumatic hemorrhage receiving ultramassive transfusion (UMT) (defined as ≥20 U of packed red blood cells [RBCs]) in 24 hours) remains low and resource consumption remains high. Therefore, we aimed to identify factors associated with mortality in trauma patients receiving UMT in the modern resuscitation era. METHODS: An Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter retrospective study of 461 trauma patients from 17 trauma centers who received ≥20 U of RBCs in 24 hours was performed (2014-2019). Multivariable logistic regression and Classification and Regression Tree analysis were used to identify clinical characteristics associated with mortality. RESULTS: The 461 patients were young (median age, 35 years), male (82%), severely injured (median Injury Severity Score, 33), in shock (median shock index, 1.2; base excess, -9), and transfused a median of 29 U of RBCs, 22 U of fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and 24 U of platelets (PLT). Mortality was 46% at 24 hours and 65% at discharge. Transfusion of RBC/FFP ≥1.5:1 or RBC/PLT ≥1.5:1 was significantly associated with mortality, most pronounced for the 18% of patients who received both RBC/PLT and RBC/FFP ≥1.5:1 (odds ratios, 3.11 and 2.81 for mortality at 24 hours and discharge; both p < 0.01). Classification and Regression Tree identified that age older than 50 years, low initial Glasgow Coma Scale, thrombocytopenia, and resuscitative thoracotomy were associated with low likelihood of survival (14-26%), while absence of these factors was associated with the highest survival (71%). CONCLUSION: Despite modern massive transfusion protocols, one half of trauma patients receiving UMT are transfused with either RBC/FFP or RBC/PLT in unbalanced ratios ≥1.5:1, with increased associated mortality. Maintaining focus on balanced ratios during UMT is critical, and consideration of advanced age, poor initial mental status, thrombocytopenia, and resuscitative thoracotomy can aid in prognostication. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic, level III.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/métodos , Hemorragia/terapia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Hemorragia/diagnóstico , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Trombocitopenia/terapia , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
7.
Am Surg ; : 31348211011083, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In situations of increased need, such as mass casualty incidents (MCIs) and COVID-19, donated blood products are in shortage across the United States. Medical students are a potential pool for blood donors. The aim of this study was to determine overall attitudes of medical students at a single academic institution toward blood donation during times of increased need. METHODS: Three anonymous REDCap surveys were administered to all medical students at a rural academic institution. Surveys 1 and 2 were administered preceding and after an institution-wide MCI drill, in September and November 2019, respectively. Survey 3 was administered following a student-organized COVID-19 blood drive in June 2020. Multivariable analysis was performed to determine if factors, ie, experience with MCI drills and emergency medical services (EMS) training, were associated with willingness to donate blood. Furthermore, barriers to donation among those not willing to donate were assessed. RESULTS: Overall response rate for MCI surveys (surveys 1 and 2) was 38% (mean age 25.2 years and 50% women). 91% (n = 210) of respondents were willing to donate blood. Previous participation in MCI drills and EMS training was not associated with higher willingness to donate blood. Response rate for survey 3 was 15.6% (59.4% women), and 30 (31.3%) respondents indicated they did not volunteer to donate blood during the COVID-19 drive. Most common reasons for not donating were "other," medical concerns, and being out-of-town. CONCLUSIONS: Majority of medical students are willing to donate blood during times of increased need and offer a possible solution to increase blood donor pool.

8.
JAMA Surg ; 156(5): 472-478, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688932

RESUMO

Importance: Previous studies comparing emergency surgery outcomes with surgeon experience have been small or used administrative databases without controlling for patient physiology or operative complexity. Objective: To evaluate the association of acute care surgeon experience with patient morbidity and mortality after emergency surgical procedures. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study evaluated the association of surgeon experience with emergency surgery outcomes at 5 US academic level 1 trauma centers where the same surgeons provided emergency general surgical care. A total of 772 patients who presented with a traumatic injury and required an emergency surgical procedure or who presented with or developed a condition requiring an emergency general surgical intervention were operated on by 1 of 56 acute care surgeons. Surgeon groups were divided by experience of less than 6 years (early career), 6 to 10 years (early midcareer), 11 to 30 years (late midcareer), and 30 years or more (late career) from the end of training. Surgeons with less than 3 years of experience were also compared with the entire cohort. Hierarchical logistic regression models were constructed controlling for Emergency Surgery Score, case complexity, preoperative transfusion, and trauma or emergency general surgery. Data were collected from May 2015 to July 2017 and analyzed from February to May 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mortality, complications, length of stay, blood loss, and unplanned return to the operating room. Results: Of 772 included patients, 469 (60.8%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 50.1 (20.0) years. Of 772 operations, 618 were by surgeons with less than 10 years of experience. Early- and late-midcareer surgeons generally operated on older patients and patients with more septic shock, acute kidney failure, and higher Emergency Surgery Scores. Patient mortality, complications, postoperative transfusion, organ-space surgical site infection, and length of stay were similar between surgeon groups. Patients operated on by early-career surgeons had higher rates of unplanned return to the operating room compared with those operated on by early-midcareer surgeons (odds ratio [OR], 0.66; 95% CI, 0.40-1.09), late-midcareer surgeons (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13-0.90), and late-career surgeons (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.45-2.75). Patients operated on by surgeons with less than 3 years of experience had similar mortality compared with the rest of the cohort (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 0.85-4.57) but higher rates of complications (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.05-4.07). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, experienced surgeons generally operated on older patients with more septic shock and kidney failure without affecting risk-adjusted mortality. Increased complications and unplanned return to the operating room may improve with experience. Early-career surgeons' outcomes may be improved if they are supported while experience is garnered.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Cirurgiões/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Injúria Renal Aguda/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Transfusão de Sangue , Emergências , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Choque Séptico/complicações , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Injury ; 52(5): 1204-1209, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455811

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We sought to determine the impact of the indication for shunt placement on shunt-related outcomes after major arterial injuries. We hypothesized that a shunt placed for damage control indications would be associated with an increase in shunt-related complications including shunt dislodgement, thrombosis, or distal ischemia. PATIENTS & METHODS: A prospective, multicenter study (eleven level one US trauma centers) of all adult trauma patients undergoing temporary intravascular shunts (TIVS) after arterial injury was undertaken (January 2017-May 2019). Exclusion criteria included age <15years, shunt placement distal to popliteal/brachial arteries, isolated venous shunts, and death before shunt removal. Clinical variables were compared by indication and shunt-related complications. The primary endpoint was TIVS complications (thrombosis, migration, distal ischemia). RESULTS: The 66 patients who underwent TIVS were primarily young (30years [IQR 22-36]) men (85%), severely injured (ISS 17 [10-25]) by penetrating mechanisms (59%), and had their shunts placed for damage control (41%). After a median SDT of 198min [89-622], 9% experienced shunt-related complications. Compared by shunt placement indication (damage control shunts [n=27] compared to non-damage control shunts [n=39]), there were no differences in gender, mechanism, extremity AIS, MESS score, fractures, or surgeon specialty between the two groups (all p>0.05). Patients with shunts placed for damage control indications had more severe injuries (ISS 23.5 compared to 13; SBP 100 compared to 129; GCS 11 compared to 15; lactate 11.5 compared to 3.6; all p<0.05), and had more frequent shunt complication predictors, but damage control shunts did not have significantly more TIVS complications (11.1% compared to 7.7%, p=0.658). Shunt complication patients were discharged home less often (33% vs 65%; p<0.05) but all survived. CONCLUSION: Shunts placed for damage control indications were not associated with shunt complications in this prospective, multicenter study.


Assuntos
Lesões do Sistema Vascular , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Artéria Poplítea , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/cirurgia
10.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 37(8): 403-406, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30335690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Vascular injury in pediatric trauma patients is uncommon but associated with a reported mortality greater than 19% in some series. The purpose of this study was to characterize pediatric major vascular injuries (MVIs) and analyze mortality at a high-volume combined adult and pediatric trauma center. METHODS: A retrospective review (January 2000 to May 2016) was conducted of all pediatric (<18 years old) trauma patients who presented with a vascular injury. A total of 177 patients were identified, with 60 (34%) having an MVI, defined as injury in the neck, torso, or proximal extremity. Patients were then further analyzed based on location of injury, mechanism, age, and race. P ≤ 0.05 was deemed significant. RESULTS: Of the 60 patients with MVI, the mean age was 14.3 years (range, 4-17 years). Mean intensive care unit length of stay (LOS) was 5.4 days, and mean hospital LOS was 12.5 days. Blunt mechanism was more common in patients 14 years or younger; penetrating trauma was more common amongst patients older than 14 years. Overall, blunt injuries had a longer intensive care unit LOS compared with penetrating trauma (7.8 vs 3.1 days; P = 0.016). A total of 33% (n = 20) of MVIs occurred in the torso, with 50% (n = 10) of these from blunt trauma. Location of injury did correlate with mortality; 45% (n = 9) of torso MVIs resulted in death (penetrating n = 7, blunt n = 2). Overall mortality from an MVI was 15.3% (n = 9); all were torso MVIs. Higher Injury Severity Score and Glasgow Coma Scale score were found to be independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience demonstrates that MVIs are associated with a significant mortality (15.3%), with a majority of those resulting from gunshot wounds, more than 9-fold greater than the overall mortality of pediatric trauma patients at our institution (1.6%). Further research should be aimed at improving management strategies specific for MVIs in the pediatric trauma patient as gun violence continues to afflict youth in the United States.


Assuntos
Lesões do Sistema Vascular , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Tempo de Internação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia , Estados Unidos , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/epidemiologia , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/terapia
11.
Am Surg ; 87(4): 658-663, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) is typically associated with poor prognosis. Although prophylactic antibiotics are sometimes given with the intent of limiting bacterial luminal load and translocation in patients with MVT, this approach has not been universally adopted. The aim of this study is to analyze whether utilizing antibiotics empirically in those with MVT improves patient outcomes and survival when compared to those who do not receive empiric antibiotics. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients admitted with MVT between 2002 and 2019 at a single academic institution was performed. Demographics and rates of mortality need for bowel resection, readmission, and Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection were compared between patients treated with empiric antibiotics and patients not treated with antibiotics. RESULTS: Eighty-three patients (mean age 64.5 years and 55.4% male) who were admitted for MVT were included. Empiric antibiotics were utilized in 53% (n = 44) of MVT patients while 47% (n = 39) received supportive treatment without empiric antibiotics. Death occurred in 4 patients treated with antibiotics and 6 patients treated without antibiotics (9.1% vs. 15.3%, P = .50). Readmissions occurred in 12 patients (27.3%) treated with antibiotics and 10 patients (25.6%) not treated with antibiotics (27.3% vs. 25.6%, P = .87). C. diff infection occurred in 6 patients treated with antibiotics and in no patients not treated with antibiotics (13.6% vs. 0%, P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Empiric antibiotic usage may not improve rates of mortality or hospital readmission in patients with MVT and may unnecessarily expose patients to an increased risk of C. diff infection.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Clostridium/etiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/prevenção & controle , Veias Mesentéricas , Trombose Venosa/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções Bacterianas/mortalidade , Infecções por Clostridium/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(1): 37-43, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196508

RESUMO

To determine if there is a significant association between administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) in severely bleeding, injured patients, and venous thromboembolism (VTE), myocardial infarction (MI), or cerebrovascular accident (CVA). A multicenter, retrospective study was performed. Inclusion criteria were: age 18-80 years old and need for 5 units or more of blood in the first 24 h after injury. Exclusion criteria included: death within 24 h, pregnancy, administration of TXA more than 3 h following injury, and routine ultrasound surveillance for deep venous thrombosis. Incidence of VTE was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included MI, CVA, and death. A power analysis found that a total of 830 patients were needed to detect a true difference in VTE risk. 1333 patients (TXA = 887, No-TXA = 446 patients) from 17 centers were enrolled. There were no differences in age, shock index, Glasgow coma score, pelvis/extremity abbreviated injury score, or paralysis. Injury severity score was higher in the No-TXA group. Incidence of VTE, MI, or CVA was similar between the groups. The TXA group required significantly less transfusion (P < 0.001 for all products) and had a lower mortality [adjusted odds ratio 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.45-0.98)]. Despite having a higher extremity/pelvis abbreviated injury score, results did not change when evaluating only patients with blunt injury. Use of TXA in bleeding, injured patients is not associated with VTE, MI, or CVA but is associated with a lower transfusion need and mortality.


Assuntos
Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ácido Tranexâmico , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Surg Res ; 245: 373-376, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, there has been an increase in the usage of dirt bikes and all-terrain vehicles in urban environments. Previously, it has been shown that crashes involving these urban off-road vehicles (UORVs) resulted in different injury patterns from crashes that occurred in rural environments. The aim of this study was to compare injury patterns of patients involved in crashes while riding UORVs versus motorcycles (MCs). METHODS: A retrospective review (2005-2016) of patients who presented to our urban level I trauma center as a result of any MC or UORV crash was performed. Patients who presented after 48 h from the time of accident were excluded. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: We identified 1556 patients who were involved in an MC or UORV crash resulting in injury (MC: n = 1324 [85%]; UORVs: n = 232 [15%]). Patients in UORV crashes were younger (26.2 y versus 39.6 y), less likely to be helmeted (39.6% versus 90.2%), required fewer emergent trauma bay procedures (28.4% versus 36.7%), and needed fewer operative interventions (45.9% versus 54.2%) (all P < 0.05). Both groups had a similar Injury Severity Score (12.2 versus 12.6; P = 0.54) and Glasgow Coma Score (13.8 versus 13.5; P = 0.46). UORV patients had a lower mortality (0.9% versus 4.7%; P < 0.05) compared to MC crash patients despite similar injury patterns. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that patients sustaining UORV injuries were younger and less likely to be helmeted but have a lower mortality rate after a crash, despite sustaining similar injuries as motorcyclists. This study provides an overview of how crashes involving UORV usage is a unique phenomenon and not entirely comparable to MC crashes.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Motocicletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Veículos Off-Road/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , New Jersey/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(8): 1588-1593, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It is unclear if additional computerized tomography (CT) imaging is warranted after injuries are identified on CT in blunt trauma patients. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and significance of injuries identified on secondary CT imaging after identification of injuries on initial CTs in blunt trauma patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study at an academic Level 1 trauma center with a two-tiered trauma system. INCLUSION CRITERIA: age ≥ 18, level 2 trauma activation, injury identified on initial CT, and secondary CTs ordered. Secondary injuries were categorized as resulting in: no changes, minor changes, or major changes in management. RESULTS: 537 patients underwent 1179 initial CT scans which identified 744 injuries. There were 1094 secondary CTs which identified 143 additional injuries in 94 (18%) patients. 9 (1.7%) patients had at least one major management change and 64 (12%) had at least one minor management change. Rib fracture(s) was the most common injury on secondary scans [45/143 (32%)]. The major management changes were: tube thoracostomy for pneumothorax (4 patients), blood transfusion for hemoperitoneum (1 patient), surgery for acetabular fracture (1 patient), thoracolumbar brace for spine fracture (2 patients) and angiography for splenic injury (1 patient). CONCLUSION: While a significant proportion of patients (18%) had injuries on secondary CT, only 1.7% of patients had a resultant major management change. Future research is warranted to determine the need for additional CT imaging after an initial selective imaging strategy in blunt trauma patients.


Assuntos
Retratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia
16.
Prev Med Rep ; 16: 100995, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763160

RESUMO

The objective was to investigate the effects of novel policing techniques on hospital-observed incidence, healthcare utilization, mortality and costs associated with gun violence, from the perspective of a level-1 trauma center. An eight-year retrospective review evaluating the clinical and financial effects of gunshot wound (GSW) encounters between January 1st, 2010 and December 31st, 2017. Individuals who presented to the emergency department (Level-1 trauma center in Camden, NJ) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2017 with GSW (995 encounters) were included; however, patients with incomplete financial or medical record data were excluded (55 encounters). Patients were subdivided into two cohorts: before and after changes in policing tactics (May 1st, 2013). 940 total firearm-related encounters were included in the study. Following the policing changes, the hospital-observed quarterly incidence of GSW encounters decreased by 22% post-policing changes, 44.3 to 34.6 (p = 0.038). Average quarterly days spent in-house for GSW treatment decreased 220.7 to 151.3 (31%) days. Hospital observed mortality increased from 13.5% of presentations to 17.3% of presentations (p = 0.106). Total cost savings associated with the policing change was roughly $254,000 per quarter (p = 0.023). In areas susceptible to high rates of gun violence, similar novel policing tactics could significantly decrease hospital-observed incidence, costs and healthcare utilization demanded by firearm-related injury.

18.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 87(6): 1253-1259, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shorter prehospital time in patients sustaining penetrating trauma has been shown to be associated with improved survival. Literature has also demonstrated that police transport (vs. Emergency Medical Services [EMS]) shortens transport times to a trauma center. The purpose of this study was to determine if ShotSpotter, which triangulates the location of gunshots and alerts police, expedited dispatch and transport of injured victims to the trauma center. METHODS: All shootings which occurred in Camden, NJ, from 2010 to 2018 were reviewed. Demographic, geographic, response time, transport time, and field intervention data were collected from medical and police records. We compared shootings where the ShotSpotter was activated versus shootings where ShotSpotter was not activated. Incidents, which did not occur in Camden or where complete data were not available, were excluded as were patients not transported by police or EMS. RESULTS: There were 627 shootings during the study period which met inclusion criteria with 190 (30%) activating the ShotSpotter system. Victims involved in shootings with ShotSpotter activation were more severely injured, more likely to be transported by police, less likely to undergo trauma bay resuscitative measures, and more likely to receive blood products. Mortality, when adjusted for distance, Trauma, and Injury Severity Score, Injury Severity Score, and shock index, was not significantly different between ShotSpotter and non-ShotSpotter incidents. ShotSpotter activation significantly reduced both the response time as well as transport time for both police and EMS (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The activation of the ShotSpotter technology increased the likelihood of police transport of gunshot victims. Furthermore, the use of this technology resulted in shorter response times as well as transport times for both police and EMS. This technology may be beneficial in enhancing the care of victims of penetrating trauma. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic/Care management, level III.


Assuntos
Violência com Arma de Fogo , Transporte de Pacientes , Tecnologia sem Fio , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/terapia , Adulto , Ambulâncias , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , New Jersey , Polícia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Surg Res ; 240: 201-205, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The practice of marking gunshot wounds and obtaining X-rays (XRs) has been performed to determine the trajectory of missiles to help identify internal injuries. We hypothesized that surgeons would have poor accuracy in predicting injuries and that X-rays do not alter the clinical decision. METHODS: We developed a 50-patient (89 injury sites) PowerPoint survey based on cases seen at our level 1 trauma center from 2012 to 2014. Images of a silhouetted BodyMan (BM) with wounds marked, XRs, and vital signs (VSs) were shown in series for 20 s each. Surgeons were asked to record which organs they thought could be injured and to document their clinical decision. Data were analyzed to determine the inter-rater reliability (agreement, intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) for each mode of clinical information (BM, XR, VS). Predicted versus actual injuries were compared using absolute agreements. RESULTS: Ten surgeons completed the survey. We found that no single piece of information was helpful in allowing the surgeon to accurately predict injuries. Pulmonary injury had the highest agreement among all injuries (ICC = 0.727). VSs had the highest ICC in determining the clinical plan for the patient (ICC = 0.342), whereas both BM and XR had low ICCs (0.162 and 0.183, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We found that marking wounds and obtaining X-rays, other than a chest X-ray, did not result in accuracy in predicting injury nor alter the clinical decision. VSs were the only piece of information found significant in determining clinical management. We conclude that marking wounds for X-rays is an unnecessary step during the initial resuscitation of patients with gunshot wounds.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Lesão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Ressuscitação , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Radiografia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/terapia
20.
Curr Probl Diagn Radiol ; 48(6): 554-557, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209025

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Fractures of the thoracolumbar spine account for up to 90% of spinal fractures, and are associated with significant disability. The advantage of acquiring dedicated spine CT imaging in addition to visceral CT studies of the chest, abdomen and pelvis for detection of spinal fractures has not been definitively established. This retrospective study seeks to determine the contribution of dedicated spine CT in the acute clinical setting. METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed with fractures of the thoracic or lumbar spine at our institution between January 1, 2010 and June 30, 2014 were identified. Additional inclusion criteria included having a CT of the chest and/or abdomen and pelvis followed by a dedicated thoracic or lumbar spine CT within 30 days. Reports were reviewed for accuracy of fracture detection, and missed fractures were retrospectively analyzed on images for detectability. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients met our inclusion criteria for a total of 312 fractures. Of the 312 fractures, 31 (10%) were missed on the initial visceral CT in 18 of the 102 patients. In all but two cases, at least one fracture was identified on the visceral spine CT. There were no cases in which the newly identified fractures changed patient management. CONCLUSION: All fractures requiring surgical intervention were identified on the visceral CT. A dedicated spine CT does detect additional spine fractures but does not clearly alter patient management.


Assuntos
Traumatismo Múltiplo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Pelve/lesões , Radiografia Abdominal , Radiografia Torácica , Estudos Retrospectivos
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