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1.
Clin Immunol ; 211: 108326, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838215

RESUMO

Inflammatory conditions are increasingly described in patients with primary immunodeficiencies; however, little is known about the prevalence of immune defects in patients who present first with autoimmunity. We describe the immunologic features of children with early-onset/polyautoimmunity followed in the Multiple Autoimmunity and Immunodeficiency (MAID) Clinic, where patients are co-managed by rheumatologists and immunologists. The most common autoimmune manifestations were cytopenias, lymphoproliferation, and colitis. Recurrent infections were noted in 65% of patients. Abnormalities in lymphocyte subsets and immunoglobulins were common. A pathogenic variant was identified in 19% of patients, and 2 novel inherited disorders were discovered. Additionally, 42% of patients had treatment changes implemented in the MAID clinic. By evaluating this unique cohort of patients, we report on the immunologic underpinning of early-onset/polyautoimmunity. The high rate of genetic diagnoses and treatment interventions in this population highlights the value of collaboration between rheumatologists and immunologists in the care of these complex patients.

2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1970-1985.e4, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although autoimmunity and hyperinflammation secondary to recombination activating gene (RAG) deficiency have been associated with delayed diagnosis and even death, our current understanding is limited primarily to small case series. OBJECTIVE: Understand the frequency, severity, and treatment responsiveness of autoimmunity and hyperinflammation in RAG deficiency. METHODS: In reviewing the literature and our own database, we identified 85 patients with RAG deficiency, reported between 2001 and 2016, and compiled the largest case series to date of 63 patients with prominent autoimmune and/or hyperinflammatory pathology. RESULTS: Diagnosis of RAG deficiency was delayed a median of 5 years from the first clinical signs of immune dysregulation. Most patients (55.6%) presented with more than 1 autoimmune or hyperinflammatory complication, with the most common etiologies being cytopenias (84.1%), granulomas (23.8%), and inflammatory skin disorders (19.0%). Infections, including live viral vaccinations, closely preceded the onset of autoimmunity in 28.6% of cases. Autoimmune cytopenias had early onset (median, 1.9, 2.1, and 2.6 years for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively) and were refractory to intravenous immunoglobulin, steroids, and rituximab in most cases (64.7%, 73.7%, and 71.4% for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia, respectively). Evans syndrome specifically was associated with lack of response to first-line therapy. Treatment-refractory autoimmunity/hyperinflammation prompted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in 20 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmunity/hyperinflammation can be a presenting sign of RAG deficiency and should prompt further evaluation. Multilineage cytopenias are often refractory to immunosuppressive treatment and may require hematopoietic cell transplantation for definitive management.

3.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 17(1): 7, 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30764840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) were historically thought to be distinct entities, often managed in isolation. In fact, these conditions are closely related. A collaborative approach, which incorporates expertise from subspecialties that previously treated HLH/MAS independently, is needed. We leveraged quality improvement (QI) techniques in the form of an Evidence-Based Guideline (EBG) to build consensus across disciplines on the diagnosis and treatment of HLH/MAS. METHODS: A multidisciplinary work group was convened that met monthly to develop the HLH/MAS EBG. Literature review and expert opinion were used to develop a management strategy for HLH/MAS. The EBG was implemented, and quality metrics were selected to monitor outcomes. RESULTS: An HLH/MAS clinical team was formed with representatives from subspecialties involved in the care of patients with HLH/MAS. Broad entry criteria for the HLH/MAS EBG were established and included fever and ferritin ≥500 ng/mL. The rheumatology team was identified as the "gate-keeper," charged with overseeing the diagnostic evaluation recommended in the EBG. First-line medications were recommended based on the acuity of illness and risk of concurrent infection. Quality metrics to be tracked prospectively based on time to initiation of treatment and clinical response were selected. CONCLUSION: HLH/MAS are increasingly considered to be a spectrum of related conditions, and joint management across subspecialties could improve patient outcomes. Our experience in creating a multidisciplinary approach to HLH/MAS management can serve as a model for care at other institutions.


Assuntos
Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Consenso , Citocinas/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Humanos , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/terapia , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Melhoria de Qualidade
4.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 68(7): 1758-68, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26815131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Treg cell-mediated suppression of Teff cells is impaired in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA); however, the basis for this dysfunction is incompletely understood. Animal models of autoimmunity and immunodeficiency demonstrate that a diverse Treg cell repertoire is essential to maintain Treg cell function. The present study was undertaken to investigate the Treg and Teff cell repertoires in JIA. METHODS: Treg cells (CD4+CD25+CD127(low) ) and Teff cells (CD4+CD25-) were isolated from peripheral blood and synovial fluid obtained from JIA patients, healthy controls, and children with Lyme arthritis. Treg cell function was measured in suppressive assays. The T cell receptor ß chain (TRB) was amplified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing was performed, with amplicons sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq platform. Data were analyzed using ImmunoSEQ, International ImMunoGeneTics system, and the Immunoglobulin Analysis Tools. RESULTS: Compared to findings in controls, the JIA peripheral blood Treg cell repertoire was restricted, and clonotypic expansions were found in both blood and synovial fluid Treg cells. Skewed usage and pairing of TRB variable and joining genes, including overuse of gene segments that have been associated with other autoimmune conditions, was observed. JIA patients shared a substantial portion of synovial fluid Treg cell clonotypes that were private to JIA and not identified in Lyme arthritis. CONCLUSION: We identified restriction and clonotypic expansions in the JIA Treg cell repertoire with sharing of Treg cell clonotypes across patients. These findings suggest that abnormalities in the Treg cell repertoire, possibly engendered by shared antigenic triggers, may contribute to disease pathogenesis in JIA.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/fisiologia , Adolescente , Artrite Juvenil/sangue , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Líquido Sinovial/citologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/fisiologia
6.
Pediatr Emerg Care ; 29(7): 842-8; quiz 849-51, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23823268

RESUMO

Periodic fevers are acquired or inherited disorders of innate immunity, which were first described in the 1940s. The patients are typically young at onset and have regularly recurring fevers for a few days to a few weeks with systemic inflammatory symptoms that are interrupted by symptom-free periods. There is a variety of clinical manifestations including gastrointestinal complaints, myalgias, arthralgias, and rash. A differential diagnosis in these patients may include recurrent infections, other inflammatory disorders, and neoplastic disease. This clinical review focuses on a sample of autoinflammatory disorders including familial Mediterranean fever, tumor necrosis factor receptor 1-associated periodic syndrome, hyperimmunoglobulinemia D syndrome, the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome, and periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis syndrome. We review the basics, pertinent clinical and laboratory features, and management of each entity.


Assuntos
Febre/diagnóstico , Periodicidade , Amiloidose/etiologia , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Colchicina/uso terapêutico , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/sangue , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/diagnóstico , Síndromes Periódicas Associadas à Criopirina/genética , Emergências , Etanercepte , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/sangue , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/diagnóstico , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/genética , Febre/classificação , Febre/genética , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/sangue , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/diagnóstico , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/genética , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/uso terapêutico , Linfadenite/etiologia , Deficiência de Mevalonato Quinase/sangue , Deficiência de Mevalonato Quinase/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Mevalonato Quinase/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Faringite/etiologia , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Estomatite Aftosa/etiologia
7.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 65(5): 745-52, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23139240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is characterized by fevers, rash, and arthritis, for which interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 inhibitors appear to be effective treatments. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), interstitial lung disease (ILD), and alveolar proteinosis (AP) have recently been reported with increased frequency in systemic JIA patients. Our aim was to characterize and compare systemic JIA patients with these complications to a larger cohort of systemic JIA patients. METHODS: Systemic JIA patients who developed PAH, ILD, and/or AP were identified through an electronic Listserv and their demographic, systemic JIA, and pulmonary disease characteristics as well as their medication exposure information were collected. Patients with these features were compared to a cohort of systemic JIA patients enrolled in the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) registry. RESULTS: The patients (n = 25) were significantly (P < 0.05) more likely than the CARRA registry cohort (n = 389) to be female; have more systemic features; and have been exposed to an IL-1 inhibitor, tocilizumab, corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, cyclosporine, and cyclophosphamide. Twenty patients (80%) were diagnosed with pulmonary disease after 2004. Twenty patients (80%) had macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) during their disease course and 15 patients (60%) had MAS at pulmonary diagnosis. Sixteen patients had PAH, 5 had AP, and 7 had ILD. Seventeen patients (68%) were taking or recently discontinued (<1 month) a biologic agent at pulmonary symptom onset; 12 patients (48%) were taking anti-IL-1 therapy (primarily anakinra). Seventeen patients (68%) died at a mean of 10.2 months from the diagnosis of pulmonary complications. CONCLUSION: PAH, AP, and ILD are underrecognized complications of systemic JIA that are frequently fatal. These complications may be the result of severe uncontrolled systemic disease activity and may be influenced by medication exposure.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/diagnóstico , Artrite Juvenil/mortalidade , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Adolescente , Artrite Juvenil/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 14(2): R43, 2012 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22390545

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with hypogalactosylation of immunoglobulin G (IgG). We examined whether a proxy measure for galactosylation of IgG N-glycans could predict response to therapy or was differentially affected by methotrexate (MTX) or TNF blockade. METHODS: Using a previously defined normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography approach, we ascertained the galactosylation status of whole serum N-glycans in two well-defined RA clinical cohorts: the Autoimmune Biomarkers Collaborative Network (n = 98) and Nested I (n = 64). The ratio of agalactosylated to monogalactosylated N-glycans in serum (sG0/G1) was determined before and during therapy with MTX or TNF inhibition and correlated with anticitrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) status and clinical response as assessed by 28-joint Disease Activity Score utilizing C-reactive peptide and European League Against Rheumatism response criteria. RESULTS: RA patients from both cohorts exhibited elevation of sG0/G1 at baseline. Improvement in clinical scores correlated with a reduction in sG0/G1 (Spearman's ρ = 0.31 to 0.37; P < 0.05 for each cohort). However, pretreatment sG0/G1 was not predictive of clinical response. Changes in sG0/G1 were similar in the MTX and TNF inhibitor groups. Corrected for disease activity, ACPA positivity correlated with higher sG0/G1. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline serum N-glycan hypogalactosylation, an index previously correlated with hypogalactosylation of IgG N-glycans, did not distinguish patients with rheumatoid arthritis who were likely to experience a favorable clinical response to MTX or TNF blockade. Clinical improvement was associated with partial glycan normalization. ACPA-positive patients demonstrated enhanced N-glycan aberrancy compared with ACPA-negative patients.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Galactose/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Metotrexato/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
9.
Arthritis Rheum ; 62(8): 2239-48, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20506563

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between aberrant IgG galactosylation and disease parameters in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Analysis of N-glycan in serum samples from multiple cohorts was performed. The IgG N-glycan content and the timing of N-glycan aberrancy relative to disease onset were compared in healthy subjects and in patients with RA. Correlations between aberrant galactosylation and disease activity were assessed in the RA cohorts. The impact of disease activity, sex, age, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody titer, disease duration, and C-reactive protein level on aberrant galactosylation was determined using multivariate analysis. The N-glycan content was also compared between epitope affinity-purified autoantibodies and the remaining IgG repertoire in RA patients. RESULTS: Our results confirm the aberrant galactosylation of IgG in RA patients as compared with healthy controls (mean +/- SD 1.36 +/- 0.43 versus 1.01 +/- 0.23; P < 0.0001). We observed a significant correlation between levels of aberrant IgG galactosylation and disease activity (Spearman's rho = 0.37, P < 0.0001). This correlation was higher in women (Spearman's rho = 0.60, P < 0.0001) than in men (Spearman's rho = 0.16, P = 0.10). Further, aberrant IgG galactosylation substantially predated the onset of arthritis and the diagnosis of RA (3.5 years) and resided selectively in the anticitrullinated antigen fraction. CONCLUSION: Our findings identify aberrant IgG galactosylation as a dysregulated component of the humoral immune response in RA that begins prior to disease onset, associates with disease activity in a sex-specific manner, and resides preferentially in autoantibodies.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Autoanticorpos/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissacarídeos/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais
10.
Arthritis Rheum ; 58(2): 567-70, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18240215

RESUMO

The clinical syndromes of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) are both characterized by dysregulated inflammation with prolonged fever, hepatosplenomegaly, coagulopathy, hematologic cytopenias, and evidence of hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow or liver. While HLH is either inherited or acquired, children with severe rheumatic diseases, most notably systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, are at risk for MAS. The phenotypic similarity between HLH and MAS raises the possibility that they share common pathogenetic mechanisms. Familial forms of HLH have been attributed to mutations in the genes encoding perforin (PRF1) and Munc13-4 (UNC13D), among others, and are characterized by defective cytotoxic lymphocyte function. While some patients with systemic JIA have decreased levels of perforin protein expression and natural killer (NK) cell function, mutations of HLH-associated genes in patients with systemic JIA have not been reported. We report the case of an 8-year-old girl with systemic JIA without MAS who was found to have compound heterozygous mutations of UNC13D and reduced NK cell cytotoxic function. This case broadens the range of clinical phenotypes attributable to UNC13D mutations and offers new insights into the etiology and pathogenesis of systemic JIA.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/genética , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Artrite Juvenil/imunologia , Criança , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/imunologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/imunologia , Mutação
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