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1.
Bioorg Med Chem ; : 115353, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061485

RESUMO

A series of sirtuin inhibitor candidates were assembled based on an intermediate ester (1a) our accidently discovered. After screening and evaluation, several SIRT2 selective inhibitors were identified, which can inhibit all the deacetylation, defatty-acylation and debenzoylation of SIRT2. Among these inhibitors, compound 1e was the best SIRT2 selective inhibitors. The primary study on the inhibitory mechanism indicated that compound 1e may be a suicide inhibitor acting as an irreversible way. Given almost all reported sirtuin inhibitors are non-covalent, sirtuin covalent inhibitors are still need to be developed. These findings will facilitate for further development of SIRT2 selective and suicide inhibitors.

2.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 23, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chondrocyte apoptosis activated by the mitochondrial dependent pathway serves a crucial role in cartilage degeneration of osteoarthritis (OA). In the present study, the protective effects of CMCS against sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced chondrocyte apoptosis were evaluated and the underlying molecular mechanisms were elucidated. METHODS: Chondrocytes were isolated from articular cartilage of SD rats and identified by type II collagen immunohistochemistry. The chondrocytes stimulated with or without SNP to induce apoptosis, were treated by CMCS for various concentrations. The cell viability were determined by MTT and LDH assays. Cell apoptotic ratio was determined by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was detected by using Rhodamine123 (Rho123) staining. To understand the mechanism, the mRNA expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome c (Cyt c) and cleaved caspase-3 were detected by real-time PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. RESULTS: It was shown using the MTT and LDH assays that CMCS protected the viability of chondrocyte against SNP damage. Annexin V-FITC/PI and Rho123 staining showed that CMCS not only inhibited the cell apoptosis but also restored the reduction of the ΔΨm in chondrocytes. In SNP-induced chondrocytes, CMCS down-regulated the expression of Bax, Cyt c and cleaved caspase-3 but upregulated the expression of Bcl-2, as shown by real-time PCR and western blot. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results indicated that CMCS has the protective effect on chondrocytes against SNP-induced apoptosis, at least partly, via inhibiting the mitochondrial dependent apoptotic pathway. Thus, CMCS may be potentially used as a biological agent for prevention and treatment of OA.

3.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022069

RESUMO

9-Nitro-20(S)-camptothecin (9-NC) is a broad-spectrum antitumor drug used in tumor treatments, but its clinical applications and antitumor efficacy are limited by its structural instability, poor solubility, and extremely low drug utilization in tumor tissues. In this study, enzyme-sensitive nuclear-targeted dual-functional polymeric micelles were developed for 9-NC delivery with a high drug loading content (12.93 ± 0.88%), steady-state circulation, and a rapid attack at the "heart" of tumor cells. Briefly, chrysin (CHR) as a π-conjugated moiety was immobilized on the PCL terminal in the TAT-PCL amphiphiles and combined with the ALAL peptide as a linker on HA chains to yield the ultimate CHR-PCL-TAT-ALAL-HA (HATPC) amphiphiles. Spherical 9-NC-loaded micelles were obtained from the self-assembly of the dual-functional amphiphiles comprising HATPC and 9-NC with uniform nanosize (121.6 ± 5.79 nm), well-distributed morphology (PDI: 0.256), and negative surface charge (-23.2 ± 0.5 mV), yielding high stability during blood circulation. In this drug delivery system, HA acts as an active tumor-targeting instrument via CD44-receptor-mediated endocytosis; further, the ALAL peptide could be cutoff in the lysosomes of the tumor cells due to the high expression of cathepsin B, leading to lysosomal escape, while the secondary polymeric micelles targeted the tumor cell nucleus via the exposed TAT peptide. The enzyme sensitivity and nuclei targetability of the 9-NC/HATPC micelles were confirmed by dynamic light scattering and confocal laser scanning microscopy analyses. As compared to free 9-NC and traditional mPEG2k-PCL2k polymeric micelles, 9-NC/HATPC micelles were the most concentrated in the tumor cell nucleus; therefore, they exhibited the highest cytotoxicity against SKOV3 tumor cells both in vitro (IC50 = 0.03 µg mL-1) and in vivo. This enzyme-sensitive nuclear-targeted dual-functional drug delivery system involving HATPC provided a new and promising strategy for enhanced 9-NC delivery and antitumor efficacy.

4.
J Mater Chem B ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022097

RESUMO

Polymer microspheres are attracting wide attention in localized cancer therapy owing to the excellent biocompatibility and drug loading capacity, controllable biodegradation speeds, and minimized systemic toxicity. Herein, we presented poly(ester-thioether) microspheres, porous and nonporous, as drug depots for localized therapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Specifically, erlotinib and α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS), which are respectively an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor and mitochondria destabilizer, were efficiently loaded into porous and nonporous poly(ester-thioether) microspheres for the treatment of EGFR-overexpressing NSCLC (A549 cells). The poly(ester-thioether) microspheres significantly improved the bioavailability of both erlotinib and α-TOS in comparison to the free drug combination, realizing synergistic inhibition of A549 cells both in vitro and in vivo. The porous microspheres displayed faster degradation and drug release than the nonporous counterpart, thereby showing better anticancer efficacy. Overall, our study reported a new anticancer strategy of erlotinib and α-TOS combination for therapy of NSCLC, and established that poly(ester-thioether) microspheres could be a robust and biodegradable reservoir for drug delivery and localized cancer therapy.

5.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fever is the most common chief complaint of emergency patients. Early identification of patients at an increasing risk of death may avert adverse outcomes. The aim of this study was to establish an early prediction model of fatal adverse prognosis of fever patients by extracting key indicators using big data technology. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients' data was conducted using the Emergency Rescue Database of Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital. Patients were divided into the fatal adverse prognosis group and the good prognosis group. The commonly used clinical indicators were compared. Recursive feature elimination method was used to determine the optimal number of the included variables. In the training model, logistic regression, random forest, adaboost, and bagging were selected. We also collected the emergency room data from December 2018 to December 2019 with the same inclusion and exclusion criterion. The performance of the model was evaluated by accuracy, F1-score, precision, sensitivity, and the areas under receiver operator characteristic curves (ROC-AUC). RESULTS: The accuracy of logistic regression, decision tree, adaboost and bagging was 0.951, 0.928, 0.924, and 0.924, F1-scores were 0.938, 0.933, 0.930, and 0.930, the precision was 0.943, 0.938, 0.937, and 0.937, ROC-AUC were 0.808, 0.738, 0.736, and 0.885, respectively. ROC-AUC of ten-fold cross-validation in logistic and bagging models were 0.80 and 0.87, respectively. The top six coefficients and odds ratio (OR) values of the variables in the logistic regression were cardiac troponin T (CTnT) (coefficient = 0.346, OR = 1.413), temperature (T) (coefficient = 0.235, OR = 1.265), respiratory rate (RR) (coefficient= -0.206, OR = 0.814), serum kalium (K) (coefficient = 0.137, OR = 1.146), pulse oxygen saturation (SPO2) (coefficient = -0.101, OR = 0.904), and albumin (ALB) (coefficient = -0.043, OR = 0.958). The weights of the top six variables in the bagging model were: CTnT, RR, lactate dehydrogenase, serum amylase, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The main clinical indicators of concern included CTnT, RR, SPO2, T, ALB, and K. The bagging model and logistic regression model had better diagnostic performance comprehesively. Those may be conducive to the early identification of critical patients with fever by physicians.

6.
Reproduction ; 159(2): 133-144, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917674

RESUMO

Menstruation is a specific physiological phenomenon that occurs in women. However, molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are still unclear. According to the classical theory, tissue hypoxia resulting from vasoconstriction of the spiral arteries after progesterone (P4) withdrawal initiates the breakdown of the endometrium at the earliest stage of menstruation. However, this theory has been challenged by previous studies that have questioned the function and even the existence of hypoxia during menstruation. In this study, we not only provide convincing evidence that hypoxia exists during endometrial breakdown, but also further explore the role of hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) in this process. Based on mouse menstrual-like model and experiments with human decidual stromal cells, we observed that P4 withdrawal induced both hypoxia and HIF1 activation; however, endometrial breakdown was triggered only by P4 withdrawal. Hypoxia significantly enhanced the mRNA expression of specific matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) under the conditions of P4 withdrawal. In conclusion, hypoxia is involved but not an essential component of endometrial breakdown during menstruation.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 707: 136092, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972911

RESUMO

Accurate assessment of soil salinization is considered as one of the most important steps in combating global climate change, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Multi-spectral remote sensing (RS) data including Landsat series provides the potential for frequent surveys for soil salinization at various scales and resolutions. Additionally, the recently launched Sentinel-2 satellite constellation has temporal revisiting frequency of 5 days, which has been proven to be an ideal approach to assess soil salinity. Yet, studies on detailed comparison in soil salinity tracking between Landsat-8 OLI and Sentinel-2 MSI remain limited. For this purpose, we collected a total of 64 topsoil samples in an arid desert region, the Ebinur Lake Wetland National Nature Reserve (ELWNNR) to compare the monitoring accuracy between Landsat-8 OLI and Sentinel-2 MSI. In this study, the Cubist model was trained using RS-derived covariates (spectral bands, Tasseled Cap transformation-derived wetness (TCW), and satellite salinity indices) and laboratory measured electrical conductivity of 1:5 soil:water extract (EC). The results showed that the measured soil salinity had a significant correlation with surface soil moisture (Pearson's r = 0.75). The introduction of TCW generated satisfactory estimating performance. Compared with OLI dataset, the combination of MSI dataset and Cubist model yielded overall better model performance and accuracy measures (R2 = 0.912, RMSE = 6.462 dS m-1, NRMSE = 9.226%, RPD = 3.400 and RPIQ = 6.824, respectively). The differences between Landsat-8 OLI and Sentinel-2 MSI were distinguishable. In conclusion, MSI image with finer spatial resolution performed better than OLI. Combining RS data sets and their derived TCW within a Cubist framework yielded accurate regional salinity map. The increased temporal revisiting frequency and spectral resolution of MSI data are expected to be positive enhancements to the acquisition of high-quality soil salinity information of desert soils.

8.
Brain Res ; : 146680, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987731

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To explore the underlying mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) treatment on central post-stroke pain (CPSP), and provide basic evidence for the EA treatment on CPSP. METHODS: Firstly, 40 male SD rats were successfully established with a model of CPSP, under the intervention of different EA frequencies (2 Hz and 15 Hz) and fluoxetine (5 ml/kg and 0.4 mg/ml), whose brain tissue was then removed for paraffin-embedded sectioning; secondly, LPS induced the primary brain cells in the hippocampus to cause inflammation model which were added NS398 (inhibitor of COX-2) and DKK-1 (inhibitor of ß-catenin) later. The lesion sites of brain tissue were observed by Nissl staining and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and autophagy-related proteins (LC3B, p62, LAMP-1), COX-2 and ß-catenin were detected by Western Blot and immunohistochemical staining. Finally, the correlation between LC3B, COX-2, and ß-catenin was calculated by multispectral quantification. RESULTS: (1) In the EA group (15 Hz), the number of Nissl bodies increased, autophagy-related protein LC3B-Ⅱ/Ⅰ, LAMP-1, COX-2, and ß-catenin was lowly expressed, p62 was highly expressed; (2) COX-2, ß-catenin and LC3B are positively correlated with each other (COX-2 & ß-catenin: r=0.923; COX-2 & LC3B: r=0.818; ß-catenin & LC3B: r=0.801); (3) Nissl bodies of primary brain cells of the hippocampus under LPS were like animal experiments; after addition of DKK-1, high expression of ß-catenin and COX-2 induced by LPS was significantly down-regulated, and LC3B-II/I was significantly down-regulated, and p62 protein only had up-regulation trend; after addition of NS398, COX-2 and LC3B-II/I was significantly down-regulated. CONCLUSION: EA may inhibit autophagy in the hippocampus by reducing ß-catenin/COX-2 protein expression and effectively alleviating CPSP. SIGNIFICANCE: Statement Previous studies have found that EA can reduce the expression of NK-1R in damaged rats by inhibition of COX-2 and ß-catenin loops, which controls the activation of glial cells in the damaged area and the apoptosis of neuronal cells, and alleviated pain. In the male SD rat model, we evaluated this effect that EA inhibits autophagy in the hippocampus by reducing ß-catenin/COX-2 protein expression in the brain tissue. In addition, we assessed expression levels of autophagy-related proteins and genes on the inflammatory primary brain cells model. From the experiment, we found EA may inhibit autophagy in the hippocampus by reducing ß-catenin/COX-2 protein expression. These findings provide a foundation for the interpretation of the mechanism of EA on relieving CPSP in clinical practice.

9.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 51(1): 49-53, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950789

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the effect of different first-trimester screening programmes for Down syndrome in Sichuan Province. Methods: We retrospectively collected the data of singleton pregnancies that were screened by serum biochemistry markers combined with nuchal translucency screening tests in the first trimester in Prenatal Diagnosis Center of West China Second University Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2011 to December 2017. The fetal chromosome results were obtained by amniocentesis or by telephone follow-up. The screening effect of maternal age, nuchal translucency thickness, maternal serum biochemistry markers and combined screening in the first trimester were analyzed. Results: Among the 21 723 singleton pregnancies, 33 cases were diagnosed as Down syndrome, and 19 cases were diagnosed as trisomy 18 sex chromosome abnormalities were found in 4 cases, and other chromosome abnormalities were found in 8 cases. For the combined screening, the detection rate of Down syndrome was 72.73%, and the false positive rate was 2.49%; the detection rate of trisomy 18 syndrome was 73.68% with the false positive rate of 0.39%. With a 5% false positive rate, maternal age, nuchal translucency thickness, serum biochemistry markers and combined screening would respectively detect 15.15%, 57.58%, 60.61% and 87.88% of Down syndrome fetuses. Conclusion: Compared with the other three screening programmes, the combined screening can effectively screen fetuses with Down syndrome and other chromosomal abnormalities.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Amniocentese , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , China , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Síndrome de Down/sangue , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-11, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995442

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for epidemic and sporadic acute hepatitis cases, especially in developing countries. Hepatitis E has become a vaccine-preventable disease in recent years with the development of a licensed vaccine. Most functional and neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are known to be highly sensitive to antigen conformation. In this study, a similar approach was used to characterize the conformational sensitivity of antibodies in human or mouse serum samples. Interestingly, comparative binding analysis using different antigen forms showed that the antibodies in the sera of naturally infected individuals, of human vaccinees and from mice immunized with the HEV p239 vaccine all exhibited a strong preference to particulate antigens over the monomeric form of the truncated capsid protein. The degree of discriminating the two test antigens is similar for serum samples to that for the well-characterized murine mAbs. A functional assay for assessing the inhibition of subviral particle cell entry by antibodies was used to determine the functional titers of anti-HEV antibodies in mouse sera. A good correlation was observed between the functional and binding titers in mouse sera determined using two different methods. This result supports the continued use of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as the primary serological assay assuming that the coating antigen contains conformational and native-like epitopes, as in the case for HEV p239.

11.
J Mater Chem B ; 8(6): 1235-1244, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957757

RESUMO

Herein, we reported a primary amine containing polycationic polymer to load an oppositely charged anticancer drug (doxorubicin, DOX) and a photosensitizer (chlorin e6, Ce6) for combinational chemo-photodynamic therapy. The electrostatic interactions as well as other multiple interactions between the polymer and payloads endowed the drug-loaded nanoparticles with excellent stability. Moreover, the electrostatic attraction between the cationic polymer and anionic Ce6 dictated that Ce6 had higher loading efficiency than DOX. DOX showed pH-responsive drug release owing to the increased solubility of protonated DOX and reduced interaction with the partially protonated polymer under acidic conditions. In contrast, Ce6 showed pH-insensitive release because of the smaller change in solubility and the intense interactions between Ce6 and the polymer. Synergistic chemo/photodynamic therapy of 4T1 cancer cells was achieved by light-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated enhanced cellular uptake and effective endo/lysosomal escape of drug-loaded nanoparticles. Our study demonstrated that the polycationic polymer could act as a robust carrier for differential loading and release of oppositely charged cargos for combinational therapy.

12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(11): 1637-1640, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960844

RESUMO

We report a modularized sample purification system (MSPS) fabricated by 3D printing for rapid and high-throughput MALDI-MS analysis of various small-volume biological samples. The MSPS presents distinct advantages such as customizability, portability, expandability, simple operation and high throughput and also keeps the flexibility of being customized with more functional modules in future applications.


Assuntos
Impressão Tridimensional , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Água/análise , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Humanos , Soro/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/instrumentação
13.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 9(1): e1901203, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814301

RESUMO

Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) increases the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Peptide-based PCSK9 vaccines have shown a promising prospect of reducing LDL-C. In peptide vaccine (pVax) design, the peptide antigens need to conjugate with carrier protein (CP). However, CP incorporation can induce undesirable anti-CP antibodies, which sterically mask peptide epitopes from being recognized by specific B cells and impair subsequent therapeutically antibody production. This epitopic suppression has posed a barrier in clinical translation of conjugate vaccines all along. A model CP (keyhole limpet hemocyanin, KLH) is herein camouflaged with serum albumin (SA) into hybrid nanocarriers (SA@N), with PCSK9 peptide being anchored onto the surface to form nanovaccine (SA@NVax). Such camouflage of KLH via high "self" SA coverage is able to inhibit KLH from extracellular immune recognition and prevent detectable anti-KLH antibody production. Furthermore, the nanovaccine around 70 nm stabilized by intermolecular disulfide network is ideal for internalization and biodegradation by antigen presenting cells as well as better retention in draining lymph nodes and spleen. As expected, the SA@NVax efficiently primes higher anti-PCSK9 IgG antibody titer than PCSK9 pVax.

14.
Cell Biol Int ; 44(2): 524-535, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642563

RESUMO

Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a multifactorial disease characterized by the loss of articular cartilage. Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is highly expressed in some cases of OA; however, its role in chondrocyte apoptosis in KOA and the mechanism by which HOTAIR mediates apoptosis in chondrocytes are not completely understood. Here, we evaluated the effects of HOTAIR on chondrocyte apoptosis in KOA. Our results showed that HOTAIR expression was significantly upregulated in cartilage tissues located at the femoral condyles or tibial plateaus of OA resection regions when compared with control regions in patients with normal non-weight-bearing area femoral condyle articular cartilage. Overexpression of HOTAIR caused a sharp increase in apoptosis rates and a reduction in the viability of chondrocytes. These effects were accompanied by the upregulation of Bax expression and the proteolytic cleavage of caspase 3 expression and downregulation of survivin and Bcl-2 expression. The silencing of HOTAIR produced the opposite effects. Moreover, the cartilaginous expression of miR-130a-3p was notably reduced in the OA resection regions of KOA patients. Luciferase assays showed that HOTAIR-adsorbed and reduced the levels of miR-130a-3p in chondrocytes. Further, inhibition of miR-130a-3p remarkably promoted the apoptosis of chondrocytes and repressed cell growth, while the silencing of HOTAIR could rescue the apoptosis mediated by miR-130a-3p inhibition. Chondrocyte autophagy was suppressed in a HOTAIR-dependent, miR-130a-3p inhibitor-mediated manner. Overall, our data revealed that aberrantly high expression of HOTAIR resulted in massive apoptosis events caused by the sponging of miR-130a-3p to suppress autophagy in chondrocytes, which, in turn, might trigger KOA. Therefore, inhibition of HOTAIR-mediated apoptosis might be a potential mechanism that can be targeted by gene therapy of KOA.

16.
J Food Prot ; 83(1): 155-162, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860395

RESUMO

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading seafood-borne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis, septicemia, and serious wound infections due to the actions of virulence-associated proteins. We compared the extracellular proteins of nonvirulent JHY20 and virulent ATCC 33847 V. parahaemolyticus reference strains. Eighteen extracellular proteins were identified from secretory profiles, and 11 (68.75%) of the 16 proteins in ATCC 33847 are associated with virulence and/or protection against adverse conditions: trigger factor, chaperone SurA, aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, 4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl diphosphate synthase, glutamate 5-kinase, alanine dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, outer membrane protein OmpV, ribosome-associated inhibitor A, chaperone protein Skp, and universal stress protein. Two nontoxic-related proteins, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein and an uncharacterized protein, were identified in JHY20. The results provide a theoretical basis for supporting safety risk assessment of aquatic foods, illuminate the pathogenic mechanisms of V. parahaemolyticus, and assist the identification of novel vaccine candidates for foodborne pathogens.

17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109896, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704329

RESUMO

Blood is the transmission medium for metal contaminants to and from bodily organs; as such, it can provide useful and reliable information about their bio-kinetics as they're distributed throughout the body. Metals can interact with endogenous proteins present in the blood, and these metal-protein complexes often dictate the fates of the introduced metals. The aim of this study was to investigate cadmium-binding protein characteristics in normal human plasma. Cadmium-binding plasma proteins in two different groups: normal human plasma (n = 29), and normal paired maternal and fetal umbilical cord plasmas (n = 3), were analyzed. In order to detect cadmium-binding plasma proteins present in low concentrations, blood plasma samples were first depleted of their two most abundant proteins - albumin and immunoglobulin G. Both the crude and depleted plasma samples were analyzed using column gel electrophoresis in conjunction with Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). One cadmium-binding protein was detected in 11 of 29 normal plasma samples and all three paired maternal and cord plasma samples. This protein was further identified as apolipoprotein A-I by high-resolution mass spectrometry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal cadmium-binding proteins in real human blood plasma, which is extremely critical to our understanding of cadmium transportation and accumulation in human blood.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Cádmio/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Sangue Fetal/química , Metalotioneína/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrofotometria Atômica
18.
J Mater Chem B ; 8(3): 492-503, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840727

RESUMO

Mitochondria-targeted nanoparticles, such as liposomes, polymers and inorganic particles, suffer from heterogeneity, low biocompatibility and low drug loading efficiency. Here, we present a novel delivery platform based on tetrahedral DNA nanostructures (TDNs) that enable the mitochondrial transportation of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) for cancer therapy. In our design, DOX was intercalated into TDNs, which executed the cell-killing function inside the tumor cells. Various numbers of d-(KLAKLAK)2 (KLA) were conjugated to TDNs to achieve the mitochondria targeting effect. The mean size of the KLA-modified TDNs was about 15 nm, and the TDNs were stable in FBS. The DOX loading efficiency of the TDNs was up to around 77%. The 3KLA-modified TDNs exhibited the most efficient DOX accumulation in mitochondria, leading to an effective release of cytochrome c, and the upregulated expression levels of caspase-9, caspase-3, p21 and p53. Meanwhile, 3KLA-TDNs/DOX elevated the pro-apoptotic Bax, reduced the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression and increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, which finally activated the mitochondria-mediated, programmed apoptosis pathway to enhance the anticancer efficacy in vitro. This 3KLA-TDN and DOX co-assembling strategy can be further developed to transport other anthracyclines and chemotherapeutic agents for enhanced apoptosis effects.

19.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(1): 480-493, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385301

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and age-related neurological dysfunction. Abundant data have profiled microRNA (miR) patterns in healthy, aging brain, and in the moderate and late-stages of AD. Herein, this study aimed to explore whether miR-326 could influence neuron apoptosis in AD mice and how miR-326 functions in this process. The candidate differentially expressed gene VAV1 was obtained by microarray analysis, and miRNAs that could regulate VAV1 candidate gene were predicted. Luciferase activity determination confirmed VAV1 as a target gene of miR-326. AD mice models were established for investigating the effect of miR-326 on AD mice. The overexpression of miR-326 contributed to decreased time of the mice to find the platform and the escape latency and increased residence time on the target area. Besides, elevation of miR-326 decreased Aß deposition and contents of Aß1-40 and Aß1-42 . Moreover, miR-326 overexpression increased neuron cell ability, mediated cell entry, and inhibited neuron apoptosis via JNK signaling pathway. Of crucial importance, miR-326 negatively regulated the expression of VAV1, inhibited tau phosphorylation, and blocked the activation of the JNK signaling pathway. Taken together these observations, we demonstrate that miR-326 improves cognitive function of AD mice and inhibits neuron apoptosis in AD mice through inactivation of the JNK signaling pathway by targeting VAV1. Based on those findings, miR-326 might exert promise as target for the treatment of AD.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826322

RESUMO

Astrocytes are more resistant to ischemia and hypoxia in the acute phase of brain injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Previous study showed that gap junction alpha 1 (GJA1) phosphorylation can increase the survival of damaged astrocytes. The GJA1-20 k expression in neurons co-culture with astrocytes was positively correlated with exosomes uptake. This study aims to explore the effect of exogenous GJA1-20 k carried by astrocyte-derived exosomes on neurons apoptosis and mitochondrial function after TBI. Astrocytes were co-cultured with the neuron with/without damage from air pressure. Exosomes were isolated, extracted from the culture medium by differential ultra-centrifugation, and verified by electron microscopy. Immunofluorescence staining, tunnel, western blot were employed to detect exosomes marker CD60, apoptosis, and mitochondrial function related protein expression and GJA1-20 k in cell culture. A rat model of hydraulic injury TBI was built, and exosomes was transferred. 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and immunohistochemistry staining of Nissl and microtubule associated protein 2 were used to detect the brain damage. A transwell stereo culture model of astrocytes and TBI-like injured neuron was constructed. The exosomes derived from astrocytes promoted the recovery of damaged neuron by in vitro exosome treatment. Compared with GJA1-20 k knockout exosome control group, GJA1-20 k exosomes were uptaken by neuron and downregulated the apoptosis rate and upregulated mitochondrial function to promote neuronal recovery. Finally, the results were validated by TTC staining and damaged tissue sections of rat TBI model. This study contributes to a better understanding of the astrocyte-neuron protection mechanism in TBI and provides a potential new target for the treatment of TBI.

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