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1.
Dev Biol ; 481: 64-74, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627795

RESUMO

The Toll-Dorsal signaling pathway controls dorsal-ventral (DV) patterning in early Drosophila embryos, which defines specific cell fates along the DV axis and controls morphogenetic behavior of cells during gastrulation and beyond. The extent by which DV patterning information regulates subcellular organization in pre-gastrulation embryos remains unclear. We find that during Drosophila cleavage, the late endosome marker Rab7 is increasingly recruited to the yolk granules and promotes the formation of dynamic membrane tubules. The biogenesis of yolk granule tubules is positively regulated by active Rab7 and its effector complex HOPS, but negatively regulated by the Rab7 effector retromer. The occurrence of tubules is strongly biased towards the ventral side of the embryo, which we show is controlled by the Toll-Dorsal signaling pathway. Our work provides the first evidence for the formation and regulation of yolk granule tubulation in oviparous embryos and elucidates an unexpected role of Toll-Dorsal signaling in regulating this process.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636240

RESUMO

Spinel oxide materials have been widely used as oxygen evolution catalysts to enhance the photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of photoelectrodes. Herein, we demonstrate that the water splitting efficiency of a photoanode can be further enhanced by introducing its photothermal effect. Under near-infrared radiation, the temperature of the NiCo2O4/BiVO4 photoanode increases moderately, leading to improved water oxidation kinetics and charge transport simultaneously. With the assistance of the photothermal effect, the obtained photoanode reaches a photocurrent density of 6.20 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V vs reversible hydrogen electrode. A series of spinel-type MCo2O4 oxides (M = Mn, Zn, Cu, and Fe) are deposited on the surface of the BiVO4 photoanode to show similar photothermally enhanced PEC performance. The research discovery provides a way for improving the catalytic activity of photoanode materials with a photothermal effect, which may be applied to various fields of energy conversion, including CO2 reduction, N2 fixation, and pollutant degradation.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we developed an IS26-based CRISPR/Cas9 system as a proof-of-concept study to explore the potential of a re-engineered bacterial translocatable unit (TU) for curing and immunizing against the replication genes and antimicrobial resistance genes. METHODS: A series of pIS26-CRISPR/Cas9 suicide plasmids were constructed, and specific guide RNAs were designed to target the replication gene of IncX4, IncI2 and IncHI2 plasmids, and the antibiotic resistance genes mcr-1, blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-5. Through conjugation and induction, the transposition efficiency and plasmid-curing efficiency in each recipient were tested. In addition, we examined the efficiency of the IS26-CRISPR/Cas9 system of cell immunity against the acquisition of the exogenous resistant plasmids by introducing this system into antimicrobial-susceptible hosts. RESULTS: This study aimed to eliminate the replication genes and antimicrobial resistance genes using pIS26-CRISPR/Cas9. Three plasmids with different replicon types, including IncX4, IncI2 and IncHI2 in three isolates, two pUC19-derived plasmids, pUC19-mcr-1 and pUC19-IS26mcr-1, in two lab strains, and two plasmids bearing blaKPC-2 and blaNDM-5 in two isolates were all successfully eliminated. Moreover, the IS26-based CRISPR/Cas9 system that remained in the plasmid-cured strains could efficiently serve as an immune system against the acquisition of the exogenous resistant plasmids. CONCLUSIONS: The IS26-based CRISPR/Cas9 system can be used to efficiently sensitize clinical Escherichia coli isolates to antibiotics in vitro. The single-guide RNAs targeted resistance genes or replication genes of specific incompatible plasmids that harboured resistance genes, providing a novel means to naturally select bacteria that cannot uptake and disseminate such genes.

4.
Int J Gynecol Pathol ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483300

RESUMO

Low-grade, low-stage endometrioid carcinomas (LGLS EC) demonstrate 5-yr survival rates up to 95%. However, a small subset of these tumors recur, and little is known about prognostic markers or established mutation profiles associated with recurrence. The goal of the current study was to identify the molecular profiles of the primary carcinomas and the genomic differences between primary tumors and subsequent recurrences. Four cases of LGLS EC with recurrence and 8 cases without recurrence were evaluated via whole-exome sequencing. Three of the 4 recurrent tumors were evaluated via Oncomine Comprehensive Assay. The resulting molecular profiles of the primary and recurrent tumors were compared. Two of the 3 recurrent cases showed additional mutations in the recurrence. One recurrent tumor included an additional TP53 mutation and the other recurrent tumor showed POLE and DDR2 kinase gene mutation. The POLE mutation occurred outside the exonuclease domain. PIK3CA mutations were detected in 4 of 4 primary LGLS EC with recurrence and in 3 of 8 disease-free cases. LGLS EC with recurrence showed higher MSIsensor scores compared with LGLS without recurrence. The level of copy number gains in LGLS EC with recurrence was larger than LGLS EC without recurrence. This pilot study showed 1 of 3 recurrent cases gained a mutation associated with genetic instability (TP53) and 1 of them also acquired a mutation in the DDR2 kinase, a potential therapeutic target. We also noted a higher level of copy number gains, MSIsensor scores and PIK3CA mutations in the primary tumors that later recurred.

5.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 12(17): 3148-3156, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465091

RESUMO

Artemisinin (ART), a well-known antimalarial medicine originally isolated from the plant Artemisia annua, exerts neuroprotective effects in the nervous system owing to an antioxidant effect. Here, we determined whether ART is capable of inhibiting the oxidative stress to enhance motoneuronal (MN) survival to promote motor function recovery of rats following brachial plexus root avulsion (BPRA) with reimplantation surgery. Rats following BPRA and reimplantation were subcutaneously injected with 500 µL of PBS or 16 mg/mL ART once daily for 7 days after surgery. Terzis grooming test (TGT), histochemical staining, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot were conducted to determine the recovery of motor function of the upper limb, the survival rate of MNs, the oxidative stress levels in the ventral horn of the spinal cord, the morphology of abnormal musculocutaneous nerve fibers, the remyelination of axons in musculocutaneous nerves, and the degree of bicep atrophy. ART significantly increased TGT score, improved the survival of MNs, inhibited the oxidative stress, ameliorated the abnormal morphology of fibers in the musculocutaneous nerve, promoted the remyelination of axons, and alleviated muscle atrophy. Take together, ART can improve the survival of MNs and axonal remyelination to promote the motor function recovery via inhibiting oxidative stress, suggesting that ART may represent a new approach to the therapy of spinal root avulsion.


Assuntos
Artemisininas , Plexo Braquial , Remielinização , Animais , Axônios , Regeneração Nervosa , Ratos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica
6.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 108: 44-57, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465436

RESUMO

Zhengzhou is one of the most haze-polluted cities in Central China with high organic carbon emission, which accounts for 15%-20% of particulate matter (PM2.5) in winter and causes significantly adverse health effects. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the precursors of secondary PM2.5 and O3 formation. An investigation of characteristics, sources and health risks assessment of VOCs was carried out at the urban area of Zhengzhou from 1st to 31st December, 2019. The mean concentrations of total detected VOCs were 48.8 ± 23.0 ppbv. Alkanes (22.0 ± 10.4 ppbv), halocarbons (8.1 ± 3.9 ppbv) and aromatics (6.5 ± 3.9 ppbv) were the predominant VOC species, followed by alkenes (5.1 ± 3.3 ppbv), oxygenated VOCs (3.6 ± 1.8 ppbv), alkyne (3.5 ± 1.9, ppbv) and sulfide (0.5 ± 0.9 ppbv). The Positive Matrix Factorization model was used to identify and apportion VOCs sources. Five major sources of VOCs were identified as vehicular exhaust, industrial processes, combustion, fuel evaporation, and solvent use. The carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk values of species were calculated. The carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of almost all air toxics increased during haze days. The total non-carcinogenic risks exceeded the acceptable ranges. Most VOC species posed no non-carcinogenic risk during three haze events. The carcinogenic risks of chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dibromoethane, benzyl chloride, hexachloro-1,3-butadiene, benzene and naphthalene were above the acceptable level (1.0  ×  10-6) but below the tolerable risk level (1.0  ×  10-4). Industrial emission was the major contributor to non-carcinogenic, and solvent use was the major contributor to carcinogenic risks.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ozônio/análise , Estações do Ano , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
7.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 2021 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Salivary gland acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) has recognizable cytomorphologic features that can overlap with benign and malignant entities, creating a diagnostic challenge. AciCC harbors a t(4;9) translocation increasing nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3 (NR4A3) expression, detectable by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on surgical resection (SR). NR4A3 IHC cytology data are limited. Here, we examine NR4A3 IHC on smears, cell blocks (CBs), and SRs of AciCC and its mimickers. METHODS: Our cohort comprised AciCC (including high-grade transformation), secretory carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), Warthin tumor, pleomorphic adenoma (PA), cellular PA, carcinoma ex-PA, oncocytic carcinoma, oncocytoma, and nodular oncocytosis. NR4A3 IHC (Santa Cruz Biotechnology and Origene antibodies) was positive if more than 5% tumor cells showed nuclear staining. RESULTS: Among CBs, 90% of AciCC cases and none of the mimickers expressed NR4A3. Among SRs, 100% of AciCC cases showed diffuse NR4A3, whereas one high-grade MEC expressed focal NR4A3. Concordance was 95% with two antibody clones. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 90%, 100%, 100%, and 94.7% for CBs and 100%, 98.8%, 92.3%, and 100% for SRs, respectively. NR4A3 immunostaining was demonstrable on smears from an AciCC case. CONCLUSIONS: NR4A3 IHC can be a robust diagnostic tool to identify AciCC, especially for cytology specimens.

8.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 214: 105992, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478829

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the efficacy and underlying mechanisms of metformin and exenatide in reversing reproductive and metabolic disturbances in letrozole combined with high-fat diet-induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rats. METHODS: Rats with PCOS and insulin resistance (IR) were induced by intra-gastric instillation of letrozole combined with a high-fat diet and verified by histological screening of vaginal exfoliated cells. After metformin and exenatide supplementation, body weight, chow intake and ovarian morphology were observed. Serum biochemical profiles were analyzed using ELISA, while the levels of key anabolism-related proteins, including sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF-4α), PI3K, and AKT, were determined using western blotting. RESULTS: The estrus cycle and ovarian morphology of rats with PCOS and IR were significantly recovered following metformin and exenatide treatment, with decreased body weight and chow intake. Furthermore, PCOS-induced changes in metabolic disorders including IR and hepatic triglyceride (TG) deposition, and hyperandrogenemia were reversed by treatment with both drugs. Specifically, the levels of HNF-4α and SHBG in liver tissue of rats with PCOS and IR were upregulated significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Both metformin and exenatide could recover the estrous cycle and ovarian morphology, reduce body weight and high-fat chow intake, and improve glycolipid metabolism disorders and hyperandrogenemia in PCOS with IR rat models. Interestingly, our findings also highlight the potential of both therapeutic agents for improving IR by regulating the liver PI3K/AKT pathway, reducing the deposition of hepatic TG, as well as upregulating the levels of SHBG and HNF-4α in PCOS with IR rat liver tissue.

9.
J Lipid Res ; 62: 100118, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547287

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. However, it is not well understood what lipids are involved in the development of this condition, and even less is known how these lipids mediate its formation. To reveal the relationship between lipids and preeclampsia, we conducted lipidomic profiling of maternal sera of 44 severe preeclamptic and 20 healthy pregnant women from a multiethnic cohort in Hawaii. Correlation network analysis showed that oxidized phospholipids have increased intercorrelations and connections in preeclampsia, whereas other lipids, including triacylglycerols, have reduced network correlations and connections. A total of 10 lipid species demonstrate significant changes uniquely associated with preeclampsia but not any other clinical confounders. These species are from the lipid classes of lysophosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylcholines (PCs), cholesteryl esters, phosphatidylethanolamines, lysophosphatidylethanolamines, and ceramides. A random forest classifier built on these lipids shows highly accurate and specific prediction (F1 statistic = 0.94; balanced accuracy = 0.88) of severe preeclampsia, demonstrating their potential as biomarkers for this condition. These lipid species are enriched in dysregulated biological pathways, including insulin signaling, immune response, and phospholipid metabolism. Moreover, causality inference shows that various PCs and lysophosphatidylcholines mediate severe preeclampsia through PC 35:1e. Our results suggest that the lipidome may play a role in the pathogenesis and serve as biomarkers of severe preeclampsia.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339842

RESUMO

Wild castor grows in the high-altitude tropical desert of the African Plateau, a region known for high ultraviolet radiation, strong light, and extremely dry condition. To investigate the potential genetic basis of adaptation to both highland and tropical deserts, we generated a chromosome-level genome sequence assembly of the wild castor accession WT05, with a genome size of 316 Mb, a scaffold N50 of 31.93 Mb, and a contig N50 of 8.96 Mb, respectively. Compared with cultivated castor and other Euphorbiaceae species, the wild castor exhibits positive selection and gene family expansion for genes involved in DNA repair, photosynthesis, and abiotic stress responses. Genetic variations associated with positive selection were identified in several key genes, such as LIG1, DDB2, and RECG1, involved in nucleotide excision repair. Moreover, a study of genomic diversity among wild and cultivated accessions revealed genomic regions containing selection signatures associated with the adaptation to extreme environments. The identification of the genes and alleles with selection signatures provides insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying the adaptation of wild castor to the high-altitude tropical desert and would facilitate direct improvement of modern castor varieties.

11.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 171, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple oral insulin-sensitizing agents, such as metformin, thiazolidinediones, inositols, and berberine, have been proven safe and efficacious in improving the endocrine, metabolic, and reproductive abnormalities seen in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), providing more options for healthcare providers and patients. These oral insulin sensitizers are more convenient, practical, and economic than agents that need to be injected. A comparison of the clinical effectiveness of the four different classes of oral insulin sensitizers in PCOS has not been explored, leading to clinical uncertainty about the optimal treatment pathway. The present study aims to compare the effects of oral insulin sensitizers on endocrine and metabolic profiles in women with PCOS. METHODS: We identified randomized controlled trials for PCOS from a variety of databases, published from January 2005 to October 2020. Outcomes included changes in menstrual frequency, improvements in hyperandrogenism and glucolipid metabolism and adverse side effects. A random-effects network meta-analysis was performed. RESULTS: Twenty-two trials comprising 1079 patients with PCOS were included in this study. Compared with metformin, treatment with myo-inositol + D-chiro-inositol was associated with a greater improvement in menstrual frequency (odds ratio 14.70 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.31-93.58]). Myo-inositol + D-chiro-inositol and metformin + thiazolidinediones combination therapies were superior to respective monotherapies in reducing total testosterone levels. Thiazolidinediones, metformin + thiazolidinediones, and myo-inositol + D-chiro-inositol were associated with a lower insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) compared with that in metformin alone (mean differences: - 0.72 [95% CI (- 1.11)-(- 0.34)] to - 0.89 [95% CI (- 1.460)-(- 0.32)]). Metformin + thiazolidinediones treatment was associated with lower triglyceride levels compared with that in metformin and thiazolidinediones monotherapy, while thiazolidinediones was superior to metformin in increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreasing fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and gastrointestinal adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Ours is the first study to report that for women with PCOS, myo-inositol combined with D-chiro-inositol and metformin combined with thiazolidinediones appear superior to metformin alone in improving insulin resistance and decreasing total testosterone. Myo-inositol combined with D-chiro-inositol is particularly efficacious in menstrual recovery. Thiazolidinediones and metformin combined with thiazolidinediones improve lipid metabolism better than metformin alone. Trial registration PROSPERO CRD42020211524.


Assuntos
Berberina , Resistência à Insulina , Metformina , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Tiazolidinedionas , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Inositol/uso terapêutico , Insulina , Metaboloma , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Metanálise em Rede , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Tiazolidinedionas/uso terapêutico , Incerteza
12.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(10): e0105421, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339270

RESUMO

The global spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria has been one of the most severe threats to public health. The emergence of the mcr-1 gene has posed a considerable threat to antimicrobial medication since it deactivates one last-resort antibiotic, colistin. There have been reports regarding the mobilization of the mcr-1 gene facilitated by ISApl1-formed transposon Tn6330 and mediated rapid dispersion among Enterobacteriaceae species. Here, we developed a CRISPR/Cas9 system flanked by ISApl1 in a suicide plasmid capable of exerting sequence-specific curing against the mcr-1-bearing plasmid and killing the strain with chromosome-borne mcr-1. The constructed ISApl1-carried CRISPR/Cas9 system either restored sensitivity to colistin in strains with plasmid-borne mcr-1 or directly eradicated the bacteria harboring chromosome-borne mcr-1 by introducing an exogenous CRISPR/Cas9 targeting the mcr-1 gene. This method is highly efficient in removing the mcr-1 gene from Escherichia coli, thereby resensitizing these strains to colistin. The further results demonstrated that it conferred the recipient bacteria with immunity against the acquisition of the exogenous mcr-1 containing the plasmid. The data from the current study highlighted the potential of the transposon-associated CRISPR/Cas9 system to serve as a therapeutic approach to control the dissemination of mcr-1 resistance among clinical pathogens.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Cromossomos , Colistina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Humanos , Plasmídeos/genética
13.
Cancer Gene Ther ; 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321624

RESUMO

During the process of long-term carcinogenesis, cells accumulate many mutations. Deregulated genes expression causes profound changes in cell proliferation, which is one of the hallmarks of HCC. A comprehensive understanding of these changes will contribute to the molecular mechanism of HCC progression. Through clinical sample analysis, we found that TMEM220 is downregulated in tumor and lower levels of TMEM220 is associated with poor prognosis in HCC patients. Through overexpressing TMEM220 in HCC cell lines, we found that the proliferation of cancer cells was significantly slowed down and metastasis was significantly reduced. For further study of its molecular mechanism, we performed a reverse-phase protein array (RPPA). The results suggest that phenotypic changes caused by TMEM220 in HCC cells might be associated with FOXO and PI3K-Akt pathways. Mechanism studies showed that overexpression of TMEM220 could regulate ß-catenin and FOXO3 transcriptional activity by altering their subcellular localization, affecting the expression of downstream gene p21 and SNAIL, and ultimately reducing the progression of HCC. Altogether, our study proposes a working model in which upregulation of TMEM220 expression alters the genes expression involved in cell proliferation, thereby inhibiting HCC progression, which suggests that TMEM220 might serve as a clinical biomarker.

14.
Cell Rep ; 36(3): 109401, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289371

RESUMO

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of serious acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants and the elderly. The lack of a licensed RSV vaccine calls for the development of vaccines with other targets and vaccination strategies. Here, we construct a recombinant protein, designated P-KFD1, comprising RSV phosphoprotein (P) and the E.-coli-K12-strain-derived flagellin variant KFD1. Intranasal immunization with P-KFD1 inhibits RSV replication in the upper and lower respiratory tract and protects mice against lung disease without vaccine-enhanced disease (VED). The P-specific CD4+ T cells provoked by P-KFD1 intranasal (i.n.) immunization either reside in or migrate to the respiratory tract and mediate protection against RSV infection. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-labeled cell transfer further characterize the Th1 and Th17 responses induced by P-KFD1. Finally, we find that anti-viral protection depends on either interferon-γ (IFN-γ) or interleukin-17A (IL-17A). Collectively, P-KFD1 is a promising safe and effective mucosal vaccine candidate for the prevention of RSV infection.

15.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 191: 113476, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246124

RESUMO

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the fatal brain tumor in which secreted lactate enhances the expression of cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) and the release of exosomes, cell-derived nanovesicles (30-200 nm), and therefore promotes tumor malignant progression. This study found that lactate-driven upregulated CD44 in malignant Glioblastoma cells (GMs) enhanced the release of CD44-enriched exosomes which increased GMs' migration and endothelial cells' tube formation, and CD44 in the secreted exosomes was sensitively detected by "capture and sensing" Titanium Nitride (TiN) - Nanoholes (NH) - discs immunocapture (TIC) - atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultrasensitive TiN-NH-localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) biosensors. The limit of detection for exosomal CD44 with TIC-AFM- and TiN-NH-LSPR-biosensors was 5.29 × 10-1 µg/ml and 3.46 × 10-3 µg/ml in exosome concentration, respectively. Importantly, this work first found that label-free sensitive TiN-NH-LSPR biosensor could detect and quantify enhanced CD44 and CD133 levels in immunocaptured GMs-derived exosomes in the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid of a mouse model of GBM, supporting its potential application in a minimally invasive molecular diagnostic for GBM progression as liquid biopsy.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Exossomos , Glioblastoma , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Células Endoteliais , Biópsia Líquida , Camundongos , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
16.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 81(6): 502-507, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320876

RESUMO

This study aimed to establish age- and sex-specific reference intervals for serum amylase and lipase in children by prospective investigation. A total of 6466 healthy Han children of 1 month ∼ <18 years were recruited in communities and schools in five administrative regions of Jilin Province, China. The serum amylase and lipase concentrations were measured on the VITROS 5600 integrated system. The reference intervals were defined by a nonparametric 95% percentile interval. Reference intervals of amylase were divided into four age-specific partitions. It increased rapidly between the ages of 1 month ∼ <1 year and 1 ∼ <5 years, slightly decreased between the ages of 5 ∼ <12 years, and increased slowly between 12 ∼ <18 years. Lipase concentrations showed sex differences after 1-year-old, with reference intervals in males divided into 2 divisions and 3 divisions in females. The lipase concentrations in both males and females showed an upward trend, and the lipase concentrations in females were higher than those in males. This study established reference intervals for amylase and lipase in healthy Chinese children and provided a more accurate explanation for the diagnosis and prognosis of clinical pediatric diseases.

17.
Thyroid ; 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078123

RESUMO

Background: Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a rare cancer with poor prognosis and few treatment options. The objective of this study was to investigate new immune-associated therapeutic targets by identifying ATC-derived, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II-presenting peptides. One protein that generated multiple peptides in ATC was chondroitin sulfate-proteoglycan-4 (CSPG4), a transmembrane proteoglycan with increased expression in multiple aggressive cancers, but not yet investigated in ATC. Methods: We applied autologous peripheral blood T cells to ATC patient-derived xenografted mice to examine whether ATC induces a tumor-specific T cell response. We then identified peptide antigens eluted from the HLA-DQ complex in ATC patient-derived cells using mass spectrometry, detecting abundant CSPG4-derived peptides specific to the ATC sample. Next, we analyzed the surface expression level of CSPG4 in thyroid cancer cell lines and primary cell culture using flow cytometry. In addition, we used immunohistochemistry to compare the expression level and localization of the CSPG4 protein in ATC, papillary thyroid cancer, and normal thyroid tissue. We then investigated the correlation between CSPG4 expression and clinicopathological features of patients with thyroid cancer. Results: We found that ATC tissue had a high level of HLA-DQ expression and that the patient's CD4+ T cells showed activation when exposed to ATC. By eluting the HLA-DQ complex of ATC tissue, we found that CSPG4 generated one of the most abundant and specific peptides. CSPG4 expression at the cell surface of thyroid cancer was also significantly high when determined by flow cytometry, with the majority of ATC cell lines exhibiting ∼10-fold higher mean fluorescence intensity. Furthermore, most ATC patient cases expressed CSPG4 in the cytoplasm or membrane of the tumor cells. CSPG4 expression was correlated with tumor size, extrathyroidal extension, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) circumferential expression. CSPG4 mRNA overexpression was associated with worse overall survival in patients with ATC and poorly differentiated thyroid cancer. Conclusions: CSPG4 expression is significantly elevated in aggressive thyroid cancers, with a strong correlation with a poor prognosis. The vast number of HLA-DQ eluted CSPG4 peptides was identified in ATC, demonstrating the potential of CSPG4 as a novel immunotherapeutic target for ATC.

18.
Nat Plants ; 7(6): 748-756, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135482

RESUMO

Gymnosperms are a unique lineage of plants that currently lack a high-quality reference genome due to their large genome size and high repetitive sequence content. Here, we report a nearly complete genome assembly for Ginkgo biloba with a genome size of 9.87 Gb, an N50 contig size of 1.58 Mb and an N50 scaffold size of 775 Mb. We were able to accurately annotate 27,832 protein-coding genes in total, superseding the inaccurate annotation of 41,840 genes in a previous draft genome assembly. We found that expansion of the G. biloba genome, accompanied by the notable extension of introns, was mainly caused by the insertion of long terminal repeats rather than the recent occurrence of whole-genome duplication events, in contrast to the findings of a previous report. We also identified candidate genes in the central pair, intraflagellar transport and dynein protein families that are associated with the formation of the spermatophore flagellum, which has been lost in all seed plants except ginkgo and cycads. The newly obtained Ginkgo genome provides new insights into the evolution of the gymnosperm genome.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Genoma de Planta , Ginkgo biloba/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Cycadopsida/genética , Cycadopsida/fisiologia , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Flores/genética , Íntrons , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Sequências Repetidas Terminais
19.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081038

RESUMO

Approximately 20% of patients with symptomatic syndrome-associated coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have gastrointestinal bleeding and/or diarrhea. Most are managed without endoscopic evaluation because the risk of practitioner infection outweighs the value of biopsy analysis unless symptoms are life-threatening. As a result, much of what is known about the gastrointestinal manifestations of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been gleaned from surgical and autopsy cases that suffer from extensive ischemic injury and/or poor preservation. There are no detailed reports describing any other gastrointestinal effects of SARS-CoV-2 even though >3,000,000 people have died from COVID-19 worldwide. The purpose of this study is to report the intestinal findings related to SARS-CoV-2 infection by way of a small case series including one with evidence of direct viral cytopathic effect and 2 with secondary injury attributed to viral infection. Infection can be confirmed by immunohistochemical stains directed against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, in situ hybridization for spike protein-encoding RNA, and ultrastructural visualization of viruses within the epithelium. It induces cytoplasmic blebs and tufted epithelial cells without inflammation and may not cause symptoms. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause gastrointestinal symptoms after the virus is no longer detected, reflecting systemic activation of cytokine and complement cascades rather than direct viral injury. Reversible mucosal ischemia features microvascular injury with hemorrhage, small vessel thrombosis, and platelet-rich thrombi. Systemic cytokine elaboration and dysbiosis likely explain epithelial cell injury that accompanies diarrheal symptoms. These observations are consistent with clinical and in vitro data and contribute to our understanding of the protean manifestations of COVID-19.

20.
Langmuir ; 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060835

RESUMO

In this paper, the process of a drop rebounding from a hydrophobic and chemically heterogeneous surface is investigated using the multiphase lattice Boltzmann method. The bounce behavior of drops is dependent on the degree of hydrophobicity and heterogeneity of the surface. When the surface is homogeneous, the drop rebounds vertically and the height increases with the enhancement of the surface hydrophobicity. For the heterogeneous surface with two different hydrophobic parts, the drop rebounds laterally toward the lower hydrophobic side. Because the high hydrophobic side exerts the stronger unbalanced Young's force on the contact line compared with the low hydrophobic side, the difference of the forces results in the asymmetrical rebound. A phase diagram displays the rebound numbers of a drop impacting on the various chemically homogeneous and heterogeneous surfaces. A simply quantitative estimation is made to predict the rebound heights and flying times through the contact angles of the surface. This work promotes the understanding of the rebound mechanism of a drop impacting on a chemically heterogeneous surface and provides a guiding strategy for the precise control of the lateral behavior of rebounding drops by hydrophobic and heterogeneous surfaces.

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