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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 91: 142-150, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172962

RESUMO

Filters in residential and office air conditioning (A/C) systems have been used as sampling devices for monitoring different pollutants. However, cabin air filters (CAFs) in the A/C system of passenger cars have not been utilised for this purpose. In this study, we collected 22 used CAFs from passenger cars in Hanoi, Vietnam to analyse for 8 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 10 organophosphate esters (OPEs). All the analytes were detected in more than 50% of samples with the exception of BDE153 and BDE154. The average concentrations of ∑10OPEs and ∑8BDEs in the captured dust were 2600 and 40 ng/g, respectively with Tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and BDE209 as the dominant congener in OPE and BDE groups, respectively. CAFs are a potential tool to qualitatively assess the levels of semi-volatile chemicals in suspended dust in cars as a screening step for exposure assessment of those chemicals.

2.
Environ Pollut ; 262: 114260, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114330

RESUMO

A substantial increase in the usage of organophosphate esters (OPEs) as flame retardants and plasticizers in rubbers, textiles, upholstered furniture, lacquers, plastics, building materials and electronic equipment has resulted in their increasing concentrations in the environment over time. However, little is known about the concentrations and fate of OPEs and their metabolites (mOPEs) in biota, including chicken eggs. The aim of this study was to understand the spatial variation in the concentrations in chicken eggs and the partitioning between yolk and albumin. In total, 153 chicken eggs were purchased across Australia and analysed for 9 OPEs and 11 mOPE. Most of the compounds were found to be deposited in egg yolk, where diphenyl phosphate (DPHP, 3.8 ng/g wet weight, median) and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP, 1.8 ng/g wet weight, median) were predominant mOPE and OPE, respectively. Moreover, no spatial differences in concentrations of OPEs and mOPEs in eggs purchased from different locations were found in this study. Although comparable levels of ∑OPEs were detected in egg yolk and albumin, much higher concentrations of ∑mOPEs were found in yolk than albumin. Meanwhile, a negative correlation (R2 = 0.964, p = 0.018) was found between the molecular mass of analytes and partitioning coefficient of Cyolk/Cyolk+albumin (defined as chemical concentration in egg yolk divided by the sum of chemical concentrations in both yolk and albumin). These results indicate that n-octanol/water partition coefficients (log KOW) may not be a crucial factor in the distribution of OPEs and mOPEs between egg yolk and albumin, which is important in understanding distribution of emerging organic contaminants in biota.

3.
Environ Int ; 137: 105534, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007687

RESUMO

Exposure to phthalates is a public health concern. In this study, we collected both urine and wastewater samples from 2012 to 2017 and analysed for 14 phthalate metabolites to assess human exposure to phthalates in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), and for associations between phthalate metabolites in urine and wastewater samples. Twenty-four pooled urine samples were prepared from 2400 individual specimens every two years (stratified by age, gender and collection year). Wastewater samples were collected from the three major wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) representing locations in the SEQ region including a regional city, part of the state capital city and a third major urban WWTP in the region. Over the period, decreases for most phthalate metabolites, i.e. mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), monocyclohexyl phthalate (MCHP), mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), and monomethyl phthalate (MMP), but an increase in monoethyl phthalate (MEP, particularly in young children) were observed in urine. In general, temporal changes were smaller in urine pools representing older age groups. We also found substantial variation in per capita mass loads of phthalate metabolites between samples from the three WWTPs with generally higher concentrations of most phthalates in the metropolitan areas. Per capita mass loads of most phthalate metabolites in wastewater were higher than would be expected from the per-capita excretion in urine, suggesting there are additional sources contributing to the majority of the observed phthalate metabolites in wastewater. For MEHHP and MEOHP we estimate that the urinary excretion accounts for a substantial fraction (average about 50%) of the mass load observed in the wastewater hence wastewater data may provide useful for monitoring trends in exposure.

4.
Chemosphere ; 244: 125574, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050349

RESUMO

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are high production volume chemicals of which some show resistance to environmental degradation, long-rang transport, bioaccumulation and toxicity potential. Information regarding their presence in humans is limited, including their human bioaccumulation potential. The present study aimed to evaluate CP levels in human serum from Australia in order to better understand their exposure and current pollution status as well as trends associated with age and time between 2004 and 2015. For this, we selected a male sub-group of the Australian population under 60 years old (n = 16 pools, total 1600 serum samples). While long-chain CP (C18-20) and most short-chain CP (C10-13, SCCPs) levels were below method detection limits (MDL), medium-chain CPs (C14-17, MCCPs) were found in most serum samples (detection frequency 94%) as well as CPs with a carbon chain length of nine (detection frequency 76%). The levels of ΣSCCPs and ΣMCCPs ranged from

Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/sangue , Parafina/metabolismo , Austrália , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parafina/análise
5.
Cell Commun Signal ; 18(1): 27, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive light exposure is a detrimental environmental factor that plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of retinal degeneration. However, the mechanism of light-induced death of retina/photoreceptor cells remains unclear. The mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) have become the primary targets for treating many neurodegenerative disorders. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying light-induced photoreceptor cell death and whether the neuroprotective effects of mTOR and PARP-1 inhibition against death are mediated through apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). METHODS: Propidium iodide (PI)/Hoechst staining, lentiviral-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA), Western blot analysis, cellular fraction separation, plasmid transient transfection, laser confocal microscopy, a mice model, electroretinography (ERG), and hematoxylin-eosin (H & E) staining were employed to explore the mechanisms by which rapamycin/3-Aminobenzamide (3AB) exert neuroprotective effects of mTOR/PARP-1 inhibition in light-injured retinas. RESULTS: A parthanatos-like death mechanism was evaluated in light-injured 661 W cells that are an immortalized photoreceptor-like cell line that exhibit cellular and biochemical feature characteristics of cone photoreceptor cells. The death process featured over-activation of PARP-1 and AIF nuclear translocation. Either PARP-1 or AIF knockdown played a significantly protective role for light-damaged photoreceptors. More importantly, crosstalk was observed between mTOR and PARP-1 signaling and mTOR could have regulated parthanatos via the intermediate factor sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). The parthanatos-like injury was also verified in vivo, wherein either PARP-1 or mTOR inhibition provided significant neuroprotection against light-induced injury, which is evinced by both structural and functional retinal analysis. Overall, these results elucidate the mTOR-regulated parthanatos death mechanism in light-injured photoreceptors/retinas and may facilitate the development of novel neuroprotective therapies for retinal degeneration diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that inhibition of the mTOR/PARP-1 axis exerts protective effects on photoreceptors against visible-light-induced parthanatos. These protective effects are conducted by regulating the downstream factors of AIF, while mTOR possibly interacts with PARP-1 via SIRT1 to regulate parthanatos. Video Abstract Schematic diagram of mTOR interacting with PARP-1 to regulate visible light-induced parthanatos. Increased ROS caused by light exposure penetrates the nuclear membrane and causes nuclear DNA strand breaks. PARP-1 detects DNA breaks and synthesizes PAR polymers to initiate the DNA repair system that consumes a large amount of cellular NAD+. Over-production of PAR polymers prompts the release of AIF from the mitochondria and translocation to the nucleus, which leads to parthanatos. Activated mTOR may interact with PARP-1 via SIRT1 to regulate visible light-induced parthanatos.

6.
Neurosurg Rev ; 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953781

RESUMO

Atorvastatin therapy in chronic subdural hematoma patients has attracted more and more clinical attention. To evaluate the efficacy of atorvastatin in the treatment of chronic subdural hematoma. A systematic literature search was performed in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases; related controlled trials comparing the efficacy of atorvastatin in the treatment of chronic subdural hematoma published from inception to December 2018 were collected. We used Cochrane risk of bias method to evaluate the quality of the included studies. Meta-analysis was used to analyze the included data by RevMan 5.3 software. Of the 53 retrieved studies, 6 trials were included. Results of meta-analysis showed that compared with chronic subdural hematoma patients without atorvastatin treatment, both in patients who have had surgery and those who have not, atorvastatin were effective in reducing the incidence of recurrence requires surgery (OR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.19-0.48, P < 0.00001). And improve the recovery rate of neurological function of patients (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.08-2.83, P = 0.02). This meta-analysis suggests that patients with chronic subdural hematoma can improve their prognosis after receiving atorvastatin. Additionally, the neurological function recovery appears to be improving by atorvastatin.

7.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 17(2-3): 73-84, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910147

RESUMO

Firefighters are exposed to a wide range of chemicals whilst on duty, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organophosphate flame-retardants (OPFRs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). These groups of chemicals are related to combustion emissions. PAHs are formed during combustion. OPFRs and PBDEs are flame-retardants and are inadvertently released during combustion. Exposure to these chemicals occurs when attending fire scenes, and firefighters can track these chemicals back into fire stations leading to further exposure. The objective of this study was to understand the concentrations of PAHs, OPFRs, and PBDEs in fire stations, to evaluate factors that affect chemical concentration, and to assess how air and dust could contribute to firefighters' relevant exposure risk. Concentrations of 13 PAHs, 9 OPFRs, and 8 PBDEs were quantified in fire station dust (n = 49) and air (n = 15) samples collected between November 2017 and February 2018. The median ∑13PAH concentration was 15 ng m-3 and 3.1 µg g-1 in air and dust, respectively, while the median ∑9 OPFR concentration was 56 ng m-3 in air and 84 µg g-1 in dust, and ∑8 PBDE had a median concentration of 0.78 ng m-3 in air and 26 µg g-1 in dust. The estimated daily intakes through dust and air for ∑13 PAHs, ∑9 OPFRs, and ∑8 PBDEs in firefighters were 3.6, 17, and 1.6 ng (kg body weight)-1 day-1, respectively. The worst-case estimated daily intakes were only 2% of the reference dose for individual chemicals. Pearson's correlations with chemical concentration for several PAHs, OPFRs, and PBDEs were found between the number of years since fire stations were last renovated, as well as the storage locations of firefighting ensembles. These results suggest chemicals are brought back to fire stations from fire scenes and that they are accumulating in fire stations. They also suggest soiled firefighting ensembles are a source of these chemicals in fire stations and that their proximity to the rest of the station determines the extent to which they contribute to chemical concentrations in fire stations.

8.
Andrologia ; 52(3): e13517, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965584

RESUMO

Primary rhabdomyosarcoma of tunica vaginalis is very rare. We report a case of a 15-year-old man presenting as hydrocele. Pre-operatively, no masses were detected by ultrasonography. Hydrocelectomy was performed. At surgery, a 0.8 cm polypoid nodule and diffusely thickened tunica were found. Pathologic examination finally revealed rhabdomyosarcoma. A PET-CT was then performed and indicated scrotal implantation metastasis. The patient underwent radical inguinal orchiectomy and was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy after surgery. At 12 months of follow-up, he remained disease-free.

9.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 43(1): 102-109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902913

RESUMO

Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) is a natural product with certain antitumor activity. In order to enhance the cytotoxicity, a total of eighteen derivatives of GA were designed and synthesized. Their cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231cells (human breast cancer cells) and HeLa cells (human cervical cancer cells), were evaluated by the MTT method (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide). The results indicated that these target compounds have a wide molar activity range and some of them show better activity than the commercial drugs gefitinib and doxorubicin. Compound 6g induces apoptosis of 7, 10 and 44% of MDA-MB-231 cells at 5, 10, and 20 µM, respectively.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 516, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980613

RESUMO

Anticounterfeiting labels based on physical unclonable functions (PUFs), as one of the powerful tools against counterfeiting, are easy to generate but difficult to duplicate due to inherent randomness. Gap-enhanced Raman tags (GERTs) with embedded Raman reporters show strong intensity enhancement and ultra-high photostability suitable for fast and repeated readout of PUF labels. Herein, we demonstrate a PUF label fabricated by drop-casting aqueous GERTs, high-speed read using a confocal Raman system, digitized through coarse-grained coding methods, and authenticated via pixel-by-pixel comparison. A three-dimensional encoding capacity of over 3 × 1015051 can be achieved for the labels composed of ten types of GERTs with a mapping resolution of 2500 pixels and quaternary encoding of Raman intensity levels at each pixel. Authentication experiments have ensured the robustness and security of the PUF system, and the practical viability is demonstrated. Such PUF labels could provide a potential platform to realize unbreakable anticounterfeiting.

11.
Mol Carcinog ; 59(2): 141-153, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749230

RESUMO

Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) plays a critical role in the development, progression, and metastasis of a variety of cancers, including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The objective of the current study is to unravel the upstream signaling of AEG-1. A cohort of 28 NSCLC tissues and 30 normal tissues were collected. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to examine AEG-1, migration, and invasion related markers in NSCLC cells. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay coupled with colony formation assay were conducted to monitor cell growth. Transwell assay was performed to determine cell migration and invasion. Apoptotic cells were detected by costaining with Annexin-V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide. Immunofluorescent staining was used to observe the levels of migration and invasion related markers. Xenograft models were used to investigate tumor formation in vivo. Dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation were carried out to determine the interaction between circMTDH.4 and miR-630, as well as the associated between miR-630 and AEG-1. AEG-1 was highly expressed in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Silencing of AEG-1 inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and chemoresistance/radioresistance in NCI-H1650 and A549 cells. circMTDH.4 regulated AEG-1 expression via sponging miR-630. Knockdown of circMTDH.4 and/or overexpression of miR-630 inhibited chemoresistance and radioresistance in NSCLC cells, whereas overexpression of AEG-1 or knockdown of miR-630 exerted rescue effects. circMTDH.4/miR-630/AEG-1 axis is responsible for chemoresistance and radioresistance in NSCLC cells.

12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5505, 2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796737

RESUMO

In materials chiral fermions such as Weyl fermions are characterized by nonzero chiral charges, which are singular points of Berry curvature in momentum space. Recently, new types of chiral fermions beyond Weyl fermions have been discovered in structurally chiral crystals CoSi, RhSi and PtAl. Here, we have synthesized RhSn single crystals, which have opposite structural chirality to the CoSi crystals we previously studied. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we show that the bulk electronic structures of RhSn are consistent with the band calculations and observe evident surface Fermi arcs and helical surface bands, confirming the existence of chiral fermions in RhSn. It is noteworthy that the helical surface bands of the RhSn and CoSi crystals have opposite handedness, meaning that the chiral fermions are reversed in the crystals of opposite structural chirality. Our discovery establishes a direct connection between chiral fermions in momentum space and chiral lattices in real space.

13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1185: 353-358, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884637

RESUMO

Neurotrophic factors can promote the survival of degenerating retinal cells through the activation of STAT3 pathway. Thus, augmenting STAT3 activation in the retina has been proposed as potential therapy for retinal dystrophies. On the other hand, aberrant activation of STAT3 pathway is oncogenic and implicated in diverse human diseases. Furthermore, the STAT3/SOCS3 axis has been shown to induce the degradation of rhodopsin during retinal inflammation. In this study, we generated and used mice with constitutive activation of STAT3 pathway in the retina to evaluate the safety and consequences of enhancing STAT3 activities in the retina as a potential treatment for retinal degenerative diseases. We show that long-term activation of the STAT3 pathway can induce retinal degenerative changes and also exacerbate uveitis and other intraocular inflammatory diseases. Mechanisms underlying the development of vision impairment in the STAT3c-Tg mice derived in part from STAT3-mediated inhibition of rhodopsin and overexpression of SOCS3 in the retina. These results suggest that much caution should be exercised in the use of STAT3 augmentation therapy for retinal dystrophies.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Retina/patologia , Degeneração Retiniana/patologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína 3 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras da Sinalização de Citocina , Uveíte/patologia
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(11): e1916008, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755949

RESUMO

Importance: The Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) is a Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services policy that levies hospital reimbursement penalties based on excess readmissions of patients with 4 medical conditions and 3 surgical procedures. A greater understanding of factors associated with the 3 surgical reimbursement penalties is needed for clinicians in surgical practice. Objective: To investigate the first year of HRRP readmission penalties applied to 2 surgical procedures-elective total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA)-in the context of hospital and patient characteristics. Design, Setting, and Participants: Fiscal year 2015 HRRP penalization data from Hospital Compare were linked with the American Hospital Association Annual Survey and with the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Database for hospitals in the state of Florida. By using a case-control framework, those hospitals were separated based on HRRP penalty severity, as measured with the HRRP THA and TKA excess readmission ratio, and compared according to orthopedic volume as well as hospital-level and patient-level characteristics. The first year of HRRP readmission penalties applied to surgery in Florida Medicare subsection (d) hospitals was examined, identifying 60 663 Medicare patients who underwent elective THA or TKA in 143 Florida hospitals. The data analysis was conducted from February 2016 to January 2017. Exposures: Annual hospital THA and TKA volume, other hospital-level characteristics, and patient factors used in HRRP risk adjustment. Main Outcomes and Measures: The HRRP penalties with HRRP excess readmission ratios were measured, and their association with annual THA and TKA volume, a common measure of surgical quality, was evaluated. The HRRP penalties for surgical care according to hospital and readmitted patient characteristics were then examined. Results: Among 143 Florida hospitals, 2991 of 60 663 Medicare patients (4.9%) who underwent THA or TKA were readmitted within 30 days. Annual hospital arthroplasty volume seemed to follow an inverse association with both unadjusted readmission rates (r = -0.16, P = .06) and HRRP risk-adjusted readmission penalties (r = -0.12, P = .14), but these associations were not statistically significant. Other hospital characteristics and readmitted patient characteristics were similar across HRRP orthopedic penalty severity. Conclusions and Relevance: This study's findings suggest that higher-volume hospitals had less severe, but not significantly different, rates of readmission and HRRP penalties, without systematic differences across readmitted patients.

15.
J Hematol Oncol ; 12(1): 117, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747962

RESUMO

The original article [1] contains an error in authorship whereby author, Robert Weinkove's name is mistakenly inverted. The configuration noted in this Correction article should be considered instead along with author's updated affiliation.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659702

RESUMO

PM2.5 samples were collected at the Wangsheren primary school site in Licheng District of Jinan, China, during 2016. Eleven metals and metalloids including Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se in PM2.5 were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. The annual average mass concentration of PM2.5 was found to be 88.7 µg m-3. The highest PM2.5 concentrations were obtained during the heating seasons of winter and spring. The concentrations of metals and metalloids in PM2.5 were in a descending order of Al, Pb, Mn, As, Se, Cr, Sb, Ni, Cd, Hg and Be. The enrichment factors showed that Pb, Mn, As, Se, Cr, Sb, Ni, Cd, Hg originated from anthropogenic sources. Factor analysis indicated that the main sources of the metals were coal combustion dust, soil dust, metallurgical industry, brake abrasion of vehicles and other mixed sources. Coal combustion dust was the primary source of metal pollution in PM2.5. Non-carcinogenic risks associated with exposure through the respiratory system were between 6.30 × 10-4 and 7.62 × 10-1, which were lower than the safe limit (1). The carcinogenic risks of Cr, As and Cd were 3.17 × 10-5, 1.52 × 10-5, 2.22 × 10-6, respectively, which were higher than the precautionary criterion (10-6/year). This study indicates that the air pollution of PM2.5 is of public health concern in Licheng District of Jinan, particularly related to potential carcinogenic metals of As, Cr and Cd. Intervention action is needed to reduce the emission sources of these elements, especially coal combustion in winter heating season.

17.
Nat Methods ; 16(11): 1169-1175, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591580

RESUMO

Human cortical organoids (hCOs), derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), provide a platform to study human brain development and diseases in complex three-dimensional tissue. However, current hCOs lack microvasculature, resulting in limited oxygen and nutrient delivery to the inner-most parts of hCOs. We engineered hESCs to ectopically express human ETS variant 2 (ETV2). ETV2-expressing cells in hCOs contributed to forming a complex vascular-like network in hCOs. Importantly, the presence of vasculature-like structures resulted in enhanced functional maturation of organoids. We found that vascularized hCOs (vhCOs) acquired several blood-brain barrier characteristics, including an increase in the expression of tight junctions, nutrient transporters and trans-endothelial electrical resistance. Finally, ETV2-induced endothelium supported the formation of perfused blood vessels in vivo. These vhCOs form vasculature-like structures that resemble the vasculature in early prenatal brain, and they present a robust model to study brain disease in vitro.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Humanas/citologia , Organoides/irrigação sanguínea , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Camundongos , Análise de Célula Única , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia
18.
Molecules ; 24(20)2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600890

RESUMO

In this study, an acidic polysaccharide from Codonopsis pilosula Nannf. var. modesta (Nannf.) L. T. Shen (WCP-I) and its main fragment, WCP-Ia, obtained after pectinase digestion, were structurally elucidated and found to consist of a rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) region containing both arabinogalactan type I (AG-I) and type II (AG-II) as sidechains. They both expressed immunomodulating activity against Peyer's patch cells. Endo-1,4-ß-galactanase degradation gave a decrease of interleukine 6 (IL-6) production compared with native WCP-I and WCP-Ia, but exo-α-l-arabinofuranosidase digestion showed no changes in activity. This demonstrated that the stimulation activity partly disappeared with removal of ß-d-(1→4)-galactan chains, proving that the AG-I side chain plays an important role in immunoregulation activity. WCP-Ia had a better promotion effect than WCP-I in vivo, shown through an increased spleen index, higher concentrations of IL-6, transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum, and a slight increment in the secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio. These results suggest that ß-d-(1→4)-galactan-containing chains in WCP-I play an essential role in the expression of immunomodulating activity. Combining all the results in this and previous studies, the intestinal immune system might be the target site of WCP-Ia.


Assuntos
Codonopsis/química , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrólise , Imunidade nas Mucosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Monossacarídeos/química , Nódulos Linfáticos Agregados/efeitos dos fármacos , Nódulos Linfáticos Agregados/imunologia , Nódulos Linfáticos Agregados/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Análise Espectral
19.
Nanoscale ; 11(37): 17444-17459, 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531431

RESUMO

Collective oscillation of quasi-free electrons on the surface of metallic plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) in the ultraviolet to near-infrared (NIR) region induces a strong electromagnetic enhancement around the NPs, which leads to numerous important applications. These interesting far- and near-field optical characteristics of the plasmonic NPs can be typically obtained from numerical simulations for theoretical guidance of NP design. However, traditional numerical simulations encounter irreconcilable conflicts between the accuracy and speed due to the high demand of computing power. In this work, we utilized the machine learning method, specifically the deep neural network (DNN), to establish mapping between the far-field spectra/near-field distribution and dimensional parameters of three types of plasmonic NPs including nanospheres, nanorods, and dimers. After the training process, both the forward prediction of far-field optical properties and the inverse prediction of on-demand dimensional parameters of NPs can be accomplished accurately and efficiently with the DNN. More importantly, we have achieved for the first time ultrafast and accurate prediction of two-dimensional on-resonance electromagnetic enhancement distributions around NPs by greatly reducing the amount of electromagnetic data via screening and resampling methods. These near-field predictions can be realized typically in less than 10-2 seconds on a laptop, which is 6 orders faster than typical numerical simulations implemented on a server. Therefore, we demonstrate that the DNN is an ultrafast, highly efficient, and computing resource-saving tool to investigate the far- and near-field optical properties of plasmonic NPs, especially for a number of important nano-optical applications such as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, photocatalysis, solar cells, and metamaterials.

20.
Math Biosci Eng ; 16(5): 5307-5323, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499714

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive primary brain cancer with a grim prog-nosis. Its morphology is heterogeneous, but prototypically consists of an inner, largely necrotic core surrounded by an outer, contrast-enhancing rim, and often extensive tumor-associated edema beyond. This structure is usually demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To help relate the three highly idealized components of GBMs (i.e., necrotic core, enhancing rim, and maximum edema ex-tent) to the underlying growth "laws," a mathematical model of GBM growth with explicit motility, birth, and death processes is proposed. This model generates a traveling-wave solution that mimics tumor progression. We develop several novel methods to approximate key characteristics of the wave profile, which can be compared with MRI data. Several simplified forms of growth and death terms and their parameter identifiability are studied. We use several test cases of MRI data of GBM patients to yield personalized parameterizations of the model, and the biological and clinical implications are discussed.

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