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1.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 112019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683259

RESUMO

This study explored the influence of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) SNHG14 on α-synuclein (α-syn) expression and Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. Firstly, we found that the expression level of SNHG14 was elevated in brain tissues of PD mice. In MN9D cells, the rotenone treatment (1µmol/L) enhanced the binding between transcriptional factor SP-1 and SNHG14 promoter, thus promoting SNHG14 expression. Interference of SNHG14 ameliorated the DA neuron injury induced by rotenone. Next, we found an interaction between SNHG14 and miR-133b. Further study showed that miR-133b down-regulated α-syn expression by targeting its 3'-UTR of mRNA and SNHG14 could reverse the negative effect of miR-133b on α-syn expression. Interference of SNHG14 reduced rotenone-induced DA neuron damage through miR-133b in MN9D cells and α-syn was responsible for the protective effect of miR-133b. Similarly, interference of SNHG14 mitigated neuron injury in PD mouse model. All in all, silence of SNHG14 mitigates dopaminergic neuron injury by down-regulating α-syn via targeting miR-133b, which contributes to improving PD.

2.
Int J Surg ; 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Staghorn calculi remain a treatment challenge for urologists. The aim of the study was to compare the treatment outcomes of suctioning minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) and traditional MPCNL for renal staghorn stones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between April 2018 and June 2019, we included patients suffering from renal staghorn stones who were treated with modified MPCNL with a suctioning system. The outcomes of these patients were compared with those of a cohort of patients undergoing traditional MPCNL (between January 2017 and March 2018) using a 1:1 scenario matched-pair analysis. Cases were matched sequentially according to stone burden, stone branches, and stone hardness as well as age and sex. RESULTS: A total of 512 patients were included in this study (256 patients in each group). The baseline characteristics were equally distributed between the two groups. The suctioning MPCNL group achieved a significantly higher stone-free rate (SFR) (78.5% vs 69.1%; P=0.016) after a single procedure and had a significantly shorter operative time (106.2±18.4 vs. 132.1±22.2 min; P<0.001) than the traditional MPCNL group. The traditional MPCNL group experienced a significantly higher rate of overall complications than the suctioning MPCNL group (27.3% vs. 16.8%; P=0.004). Regarding individual complications, a significantly higher rate of fever (13.7% vs. 7.4%; P=0.021) and urosepsis requiring only additional antibiotics (8.2% vs. 3.5%; P=0.024) was observed in the traditional MPCNL group than in the suctioning MPCNL group; there was a trend that the suctioning MPCNL group conferred a decreased risk of urosepsis shock (1.2% vs. 2.3%), but this trend failed to achieve statistical significance (P=0.313). There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the incidence of severe hemorrhage, the mean number of tracts used during a single procedure and the postoperative hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: The use of suctioning MPCNL for staghorn calculi had advantages over the use of traditional MPCNL in terms of a higher SFR after a single procedure and fewer postoperative infectious complications. Further well-designed studies are needed to confirm the results.

3.
J Vis Exp ; (151)2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609349

RESUMO

Cell co-culture assays have been widely used for studying cell-cell interactions between different cell types to better understand the biology of diseases including cancer. However, it is challenging to clarify the complex mechanism of intercellular interactions in highly heterogeneous cell populations using conventional co-culture systems because the heterogeneity of the cell subpopulation is obscured by the average values; the conventional co-culture systems can only be used to describe the population signal, but are incapable of tracking individual cells behavior. Furthermore, conventional single-cell experimental methods have low efficiency in cell manipulation because of the Poisson distribution. Microfabricated devices are an emerging technology for single-cell studies because they can accurately manipulate single cells at high-throughput and can reduce sample and reagent consumption. Here, we describe the concept and application of a microfluidic chip for multiple single-cell co-cultures. The chip can efficiently capture multiple types of single cells in a culture chamber (~46%) and has a sufficient culture space useful to study the cells' behavior (e.g., migration, proliferation, etc.) under cell-cell interaction at the single-cell level. Lymphatic endothelial cells and oral squamous cell carcinoma were used to perform a single-cell co-culture experiment on the microfluidic platform for live multiple single-cell interaction studies.

4.
Arch Toxicol ; 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612242

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a food contaminant derived from Aspergillus fungi, has been reported to cause hepatic immunotoxicity via inflammatory infiltration and cytokines release. As a pro-inflammatory factor, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is widely involved in liver inflammation induced by xenobiotics. However, the mechanism by which AFB1-induced COX-2 regulates liver inflammatory injury via hepatocytes-Kupffer cells (KCs) crosstalk remains unclear and requires further elucidation. Here, we established a COX-2 upregulated model with AFB1 treatment in vivo (C57BL/6 mice, 1 mg/kg body weight, i.g, 4 weeks) and in vitro (human liver HepaRG cells, 1 µM for 24 h). In vivo, AFB1-treated mice exhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation, inflammatory infiltration, and increased recruitment of KCs. In vitro, dephosphorylated COX-2 by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-B55δ promoted NLRP3 inflammasome activation, including mitochondrial translocation of NLRP3, caspase 1 cleavage, and IL-1ß release. Moreover, phosphorylated COX-2 at serine 601 (p-COX-2Ser601) underwent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention for proteasome degradation. Furthermore, pyroptosis and inflammatory response induced by AFB1 were relieved with COX-2 genetic (siPTGS2) intervention or pharmaceutic (celecoxib, 30 mg/kg body weight, i.g, 4 weeks) inhibition of COX-2 via NLRP3 inflammasome suppression in vivo and in vitro. Ex vivo, in a co-culture system with murine primary hepatocytes and KCs, activated KCs induced by damaged signals from pyroptotic hepatocytes, formed a feedback loop to amplify NLRP3-dependent pyroptosis of hepatocytes via pro-inflammatory signaling, leading to liver inflammatory injury. Taken together, our data suggest a novel mechanism that protein quality control of COX-2 determines the intracellular distribution and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, which promotes liver inflammatory injury via hepatocytes-KCs crosstalk.

5.
Radiat Oncol ; 14(1): 178, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 94-05 has demonstrated that higher dose radiation didn't improve outcome of patients with esophageal cancer (EC). However, several retrospective studies showed that a higher dose radiation based on modern radiotherapy techniques could improve overall survival (OS) and local control rate (LCR) of patients with EC, especially esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). As trials have provided updated and controversial data, we performed this updated meta-analysis to investigate whether high-dose (> = 60 Gy) radiotherapy in definitive concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) could yield benefit compared to standard dose radiotherapy. METHODS: A systematic literature search was carried out in the database of MEDLINE, PubMed and Embase. All studies published between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2018 on the association between radiation dose and curative efficiency in EC were included in this meta-analysis. The hazard ratio (HR) was used to evaluate the time-to-event data employing RevMan version 5.3. RESULTS: Eight articles with a total of 3736 patients were finally included. Results indicated that there was a significant benefit in favor of high dose radiotherapy (HD-RT) regarding OS (HR = 0.78, 95%CI: 0.72-0.84, p < 0.001; 2-year OS risk ratio (RR) = 1.25, 95%CI: 1.14-1.37, p < 0.001), progression-free survival (PFS) (P = 0.001, HR = 0.7, 95%CI: 0.57-0.87) and LRFS (P < 0.001, HR = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.36-0.74) . CONCLUSIONS: HD-RT (> = 60 Gy) based on modern radiotherapy techniques in definitive CCRT appears to improve OS, PFS amd LRFS compared to the SD-RT in patients with ESCC.

6.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650215

RESUMO

Although isolated congenital ventricular septal defects (VSD) can be repaired with a high degree of success, residual shunts (RS) are commonplace postoperatively. Small RS are relatively innocuous and tend to spontaneously close with time, despite the emotional burden it poses for the patient and family. A large RS, however, needs ongoing surveillance and may necessitate reintervention. Factors influencing the incidence of RS as well as the likelihood and expected timing of its spontaneous closure are discussed in this study. The patient records and relevant data of 362 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac operation with isolated congenital VSD closure as primary procedure between January 2017 and December 2017 were included in the study. Postoperative transthoracic echocardiograms were performed at hospital discharge, and during follow-up, at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year postoperatively. Residual defects were measured under echocardiogram at every follow-up. Factors expected to be associated with RS occurrence and spontaneous closure were included for logistic and Cox regression statistical analysis. There were 113 cases where RS occurred according to the first postoperative echocardiograms that were performed at discharge, of which 80 were confirmed closed during subsequent follow-up, with a median follow-up of 96 days. A cutoff of 1.25 mm for the initial RS was found to be the best predictor of spontaneous closure at 6-month follow-up. Small shunts had higher closure rate than larger ones by a follow-up duration of 300 days, at which the two groups tended to reach a similar spontaneous closure rate. Longer surgical bypass time distinguished small from larger residual shunts measured upon discharge. Following repair of isolated congenital VSDs, the incidence of a residual shunt is high. The majority spontaneously close within 300 days following surgery. Longer bypass time predicted a larger residual shunt upon discharge. Larger than 1.25 mm shunts had lower short-term closure rate but seemed not to differ from smaller shunts beyond 300 days postoperatively.

7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109712, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654867

RESUMO

Mycotoxicosis is the second most important problem faced by the Pakistan poultry industry, after high feed prices. The present experimental study was designed to investigate the toxicopathological effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in commercial broiler chicks and its amelioration with locally produced mycotoxin binder. Total of 125 broiler chicks was divided into five equal groups (A-E). Group A served as negative control, group B (300 µg AFB1/kg feed) as positive control, group C (300 µg AFB1/kg + Local Mycotoxin Binder (LMB), 1 g/kg feed), group D (300 µg AFB1/kg + 2 g LMB/kg feed), and group E (300 µg AFB1/kg + Commercial Mycotoxin Binder (CMB), 2 g/kg of feed). Parameters studied included mortality, feed intake, bodyweights, absolute and relative organ weights, and gross and microscopic lesions in visceral organs. Clinical signs including alertness, fecal consistency, and feather shine were significantly lower in group B compared with control group A. The feed intake of 2 g/kg LMB treated group was significantly higher than that of the positive control group B. Also mean bodyweights of group D birds was higher than that of group B birds indicating an ameliorative effect of LMB. Histopathological results showed that moldy feed produced necrotic changes in the liver and kidneys in group B birds. However, in group D and E birds, the hepatic and renal parenchyma was normal, showing a protective effect of LMB. In the present study, a higher dose of LMB (2 g/kg) in group D showed higher bodyweights and feed intake. In group D, birds hepatic and renal parenchyma was also normal. The results suggested that local mycotoxin binder ameliorated the toxicopathological effects of AFB1 in mortality, feed intake, bodyweights, organ weights and, gross and microscopic lesions in visceral organs. These ameliorative effects of LMB were dose-dependent. The results of the present study concluded that AFB1 intoxication leads to decrease in bodyweights, feed intake in dose-related manner. The mortality was also dose-dependent. Gross and microscopic changes in the aflatoxin groups were more pronounced, however, all these deleterious effects were ameliorated in higher dose of LMB (group D) and CMB (group E). In group C, these deleterious effects were partially ameliorated. Local mycotoxin binder is an economical solution for aflatoxicosis problem, making poultry production more cost-effective.

8.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(9): 646, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501413

RESUMO

Direct conversion of readily available non-neural cells from patients into induced neurons holds great promise for neurological disease modeling and cell-based therapy. Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) is a unique population of glia in olfactory nervous system. Based on the regeneration-promoting properties and the relative clinical accessibility, OECs are attracting increasing attention from neuroscientists as potential therapeutic agents for use in neural repair. Here, we report that OECs can be directly, rapidly and efficiently reprogrammed into neuronal cells by the single transcription factor Neurogenin 2 (NGN2). These induced cells exhibit typical neuronal morphologies, express multiple neuron-specific markers, produce action potentials, and form functional synapses. Genome-wide RNA-sequencing analysis shows that the transcriptome profile of OECs is effectively reprogrammed towards that of neuronal lineage. Importantly, these OEC-derived induced neurons survive and mature after transplantation into adult mouse spinal cords. Taken together, our study provides a direct and efficient strategy to quickly obtain neuronal cells from adult OECs, suggestive of promising potential for personalized disease modeling and cell replacement-mediated therapeutic approaches to neurological disorders.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(34): 30858-30864, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373484

RESUMO

Red phosphorus (P) has recently gained wide attention because of the high theoretical capacity of 2596 mA h/g, which has been regarded as promising anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, the actual application of red P in LIBs is hampered by the huge expansion of volume and low electronic conductivity. Herein, we design a kind of red phosphorus/crumpled nitrogen-doped graphene (P/CNG) nanocomposites with high capacity density and great rate performance as anode material for LIBs. This anode material was rationally fabricated through the scalable ball-milling method. The nanocomposite structure of P/CNG improves the electron conductivity and alleviates volume change of raw red P because of the three-dimension (3D) framework, massive defects and active sites of CNG sheets. As expected, the P/CNG composite shows excellent electrochemical performances, including high capacity (2522.6 mA h/g at 130 mA/g), remarkable rate capability (1340.5 mA h/g at 3900 mA/g), and great cyclability (1470.1 mA h/g at 1300 mA/g for 300 cycles). This work may provide a broad prospect for a great rate performance of P-based anode material for LIBs.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465758

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review was to systematically assess the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) intervention on gait in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). DATA SOURCES: We searched online electronic databases up to March 28, 2019, including MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library and so on. STUDY SELECTION: The inclusion criteria for this review were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), exploring the effect of rTMS in patients diagnosed as idiopathic PD. DATA EXTRACTION: Data extraction was performed independently by two reviewers based on predefined criteria and the methodological quality of included studies was quantified by the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The outcome measure was walking performance, including walking time (short-term and long-term), Timed up and go test (TUG) and so on. DATA SYNTHESIS: Among fourteen eligible studies, including 298 participants (mean [SD] age, 63.24 [9.71] years; 191[64%] men) were analyzed in this meta-analysis. Walking time was improved with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation compared with sham rTMS (standardized mean difference -0.30, 95% CI -0.57 to -0.03; P=0.03). The score for the freezing of gait questionnaire did not differ significantly between rTMS and no intervention. Four studies compared Timed up and go test (TUG) between the two treatment groups and no significant differences were found between the rTMS and control group (SMD=-0.45, 95% CI -1.32 to 0.41; P=0.30). During the off-state, there were no significant difference in estimated effect sizes (SMD=-0.29, 95% CI -0.79 to 0.21; P=0.25), which is significantly different in on-state (SMD=-0.98, 95% CI -1.78 to -0.18; P=0.02) evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the meta-analysis propose the favorable effect of rTMS on walking performance in the short-term but not in the long term in individuals with PD.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 58(16): 11110-11117, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365244

RESUMO

NiCo2O4 nanomaterials with exceptional electrochemical performances are synthesized via a simple and low-cost method. The synthesized nanostructures exhibit a high specific surface area of 121.52 m2 g-1 and excellent specific capacitance of 2498.49 F g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1, an energy density of 79 Wh kg-1, and power density of 3570 W kg-1. The remarkable cycling stability of 92.61% retention after 5000 cycles demonstrates that NiCo2O4 nanomaterials have a potential for practical application in energy storage devices. The Na+ ion diffusion (by VASP) affirms a low activation energy barrier for Na ion intercalations onto the electrode material, illuminating excellent electrochemical performances.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(32): 12707-12716, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319035

RESUMO

Switchable selective hydrogenation among the groups in multifunctional compounds is challenging because selective hydrogenation is of great interest in the synthesis of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals as a result of the importance of key intermediates. Herein, we report a new approach to highly selectively (>99%) reducing C═X (X = O, N) over the thermodynamically more favorable nitro groups locating the substrate in a metal-organic capsule containing NADH active sites. Within the capsule, the NADH active sites reduce the double bonds via a typical 2e- hydride transfer hydrogenation, and the formed excited-state NAD+ mimics oxidize the reductant via two consecutive 1e- processes to regenerate the NADH active sites under illumination. Outside the capsule, nitro groups are highly selectively reduced through a typical 1e- hydrogenation. By combining photoinduced 1e- transfer regeneration outside the cage, both 1e- and 2e- hydrogenation can be switched controllably by varying the concentrations of the substrates and the redox potential of electron donors. This promising alternative approach, which could proceed under mild reaction conditions and use easy-to-handle hydrogen donors with enhanced high selectivity toward different groups, is based on the localization and differentiation of the 2e- and 1e- hydrogenation pathways inside and outside the capsules, provides a deep comprehension of photocatalytic microscopic reaction processes, and will allow the design and optimization of catalysts. We demonstrate the advantage of this method over typical hydrogenation that involves specific activation via well-modified catalytic sites and present results on the high, well-controlled, and switchable selectivity for the hydrogenation of a variety of substituted and bifunctional aldehydes, ketones, and imines.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(14)2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336919

RESUMO

Because of limitations in the current understanding of the exact pathogenesis of tendinopathy, and the lack of an optimal experimental model, effective therapy for the disease is currently unavailable. This study aims to prove that repression of oxidative stress modulates the differentiation of tendon-derived cells (TDCs) sustaining excessive tensile strains, and proposes a novel bioreactor capable of applying differential tensile strains to cultured cells simultaneously. TDCs, including tendon-derived stem cells, tenoblasts, tenocytes, and fibroblasts, were isolated from the patellar tendons of Sprague‒Dawley rats. Cyclic uniaxial stretching with 4% or 8% strain at 0.5 Hz for 8 h was applied to TDCs. TDCs subjected to 8% strain were treated with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), piracetam, or no medication. Genes representing non-tenocyte lineage (Pparg, Sox9, and Runx2) and type I and type III collagen were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The 8% strain group showed increased expression of non-tenocyte lineage genes and type III/type I collagen ratios compared with the control and 4% strain groups, and the increased expression was ameliorated with addition of EGCG and piracetam. The model developed in this work could be applied to future research on the pathophysiology of tendinopathy and development of treatment options for the disease. Repression of oxidative stress diminishes the expression of genes indicating aberrant differentiation in a rat cell model, which indicates potential therapeutic intervention of tendinopathy, the often relentlessly degenerate condition.

14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(59): 8524-8527, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257393

RESUMO

By incorporating 1,2-benzenedithiol as a chelator to construct cobalt dithiolene species, two negatively charged redox-active metal-organic hosts were obtained. By taking advantage of electrostatic interactions, cationic Ru-based photosensitizers were constrained to improve photoinduced electron transfer processes for efficient photocatalytic proton reduction.

15.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(35): 12195-12199, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286625

RESUMO

The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is crucial to early cancer diagnosis and the evaluation of cancer metastasis. However, it remains challenging due to the scarcity of CTCs in the blood. Herein, we report an ultrasensitive platform for the direct detection of CTCs using luminescent lanthanide nanoprobes. These were designed to recognize the epithelial cell adhesion molecules on cancer cells, allowing signal amplification through dissolution-enhanced time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) and the elimination of short-lived autofluorescence interference. This enabled the direct detection of blood breast-cancer cells with a limit of detection down to 1 cell/well of a 96-well plate. Moreover, blood CTCs (≥10 cells mL-1 ) can be detected in cancer patients with a detection rate of 93.9 % (14/15 patients). We envision that this ultrasensitive detection platform with excellent practicality may provide an effective strategy for early cancer diagnosis and prognosis evaluation.

16.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(9): 5920-5933, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282064

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure have been recognized as independent risk factors for the occurrence and exacerbation of hepatic steatosis but their combined impacts and the potential mechanisms remain to be further elucidated. Here, we showed that exposure to AFB1 impaired mitochondrial dynamics and increased intracellular lipid droplets (LDs) in the liver of HBV-transgenic mice in vivo and the hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx)-expressing human hepatocytes both ex vivo and in vitro. HBx combined with AFB1 exposure also up-regulated receptor interaction protein 1 (RIP1), receptor interaction protein 3 (RIP3) and activated mixed lineage kinase domain like protein (MLKL), providing evidence of necrosome formation in the hepatocytes. The shift of the mitochondrial dynamics towards imbalance of fission and fusion was rescued when MLKL was inhibited in the HBx and AFB1 co-treated hepatocytes. Most importantly, based on siRNA or CRISPR/Cas9 system, we found that the combination of HBx and AFB1 exposure increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) to mediate up-regulation of RIP3 and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), which in turn promoted location of RIP3-MLKL necrosome on mitochondria, subsequently exacerbated steatosis in hepatocytes. Taken together, these findings advance the understanding of mechanism associated with HBx and AFB1-induced hepatic necrosome formation, mitochondrial dysfunction and steatosis and make COX-2 a good candidate for treatment.

17.
Molecules ; 24(12)2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216754

RESUMO

Since the accumulation of mercury (II) ions in the environment and ecosystem causes serious problems to environment and disease, the recognition of Hg2+ ions and its bio-imaging is of high importance. In sight of the advantages of fluorescence probes, a new probe (PMH) was facilely synthesized by incorporating phenylimidazole fluorophore and 3-methyl-2- benzothiazolinone hydrazone hydrochloride monohydrate. The PMH probe exhibited a ratiometric response for Hg2+ ions with fluorescence intensity increasing at 520 nm and decreasing at 445 nm simultaneously. The PMH probe interacted with Hg2+ ions in seconds with high optical stability and showed good selectivity over other metal ions. In addition, the probe has excellent biocompatibility and imaging performance in cells and zebrafish.

18.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 20(5): e541-e547, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230892

RESUMO

Adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) has been proven to yield an approximately 5% improvement in 5-year survival for patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer. With such small gains in survival, the optimal treatment regimen remains to be established. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment in combination with AC is frequently used in China. The efficacy and safety of this integrated approach should be scientifically evaluated. We present the rationale and study design of the Combined Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Traditional Chinese Medicine (ACTCM) trial (ChiCTR-IPR-16009062). The ACTCM trial, a prospective multicenter double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study, will recruit 312 patients overall from 5 clinical research centers in China. Within 6 weeks of the thoracic surgery, eligible participants with stages IB-IIIA non-small-cell lung cancer will be randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either the treatment or control group. Patients in the treatment group will receive AC combined with TCM herbal treatment for 4 cycles, then TCM herbal plus injection treatment for 4 cycles. Patients in the control group will receive AC combined with TCM placebo for 4 cycles and then TCM placebo for 4 cycles. Treatment will be discontinued if disease progression or unacceptable toxicity occurs. The primary end point is 2-year disease-free survival. Secondary end points include disease-free survival and quality of life. Other end points are TCM symptoms, performance status, and safety of the regimens. Recruitment started in October 2016 and is ongoing.

19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 92: 64-71, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150764

RESUMO

The black-and-white traits on shells and mantle edges of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, are inheritable and correlated, and black shells (melanin pigmentation) are usually found in the Pacific oysters. Based on differentially expressed genes from RNA-Seq and physiological characteristics, in this study, Black-shelled Pacific oysters (BSO) and White-shelled Pacific oysters (WSO) were selected to determine the molecular differences between oysters with obviously different melanin content. The differences in the process of immune recognition and modulation indicated that BSO may be more sensitive to the immune substances. There might have different modulation mode of apoptosis and phagocytosis between BSO and WSO, and caspase-3 might have played a key role in the apoptotic process of BSO. Different oxidation-related pathways were enriched in both BSO and WSO, suggesting the different response strategies of BSO and WSO to oxidative stress. The physiological evidences showed that, compared with WSO, in BSO, the tyrosinase content, the caspase-3 activity and the suppression of hydroxyl radical increased, and the reactive oxygen species concentration decreased. Therefore, immune-related molecular and physiological differences were found between BSO and WSO.

20.
Cells ; 8(6)2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212628

RESUMO

Direct conversion of non-neural cells into induced neurons holds great promise for brain repair. As the most common malignant tumor in the central nervous system, glioma is currently incurable due to its exponential growth and invasive behavior. Given that neurons are irreversible postmitotic cells, reprogramming glioma cells into terminally differentiated neuron-like cells represents a potential approach to inhibit brain tumor development. We here show that human glioma cells can be directly, rapidly and efficiently reprogrammed into terminally differentiated neuron-like cells by the single transcription factor ASCL1 (Achaete-scute complex-like 1, also known as MASH1). These induced cells exhibit typical neuron-like morphology and express multiple neuron-specific markers. Importantly, ASCL1-mediated neuronal reprogramming drives human glioma cells to exit the cell cycle and results in dramatic inhibition of proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, this proof-of-principle study demonstrates a potential strategy for impeding brain tumor development by ASCL1-induced direct neuronal reprogramming.

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