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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126787, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399219

RESUMO

Epoxiconazole is an effective pesticide to control Fusarium head blight (FHB), and the application will increase. To investigate the ecotoxicity of epoxiconazole to soil microbiome, we carried out an indoor experiment in which soils from two main regions of wheat production in China (Nanjing and Anyang) were treated with epoxiconazole (0, 0.0625, 0.625, or 6.25 mg kg-1) and incubated for 90 days. Under epoxiconazole stress, for bacteria and fungi, the abundance was increased and the diversity and community were impacted. In Anyang soil, the half-life of epoxiconazole was short with more increased species (linear discriminant analysis effect size biomarkers) and more increased xenobiotics biodegradation pathways in epoxiconazole treatments. The increased species mostly due to high abundance in initial state and more positive connections of the species. Co-occurrences revealed that epoxiconazole tightened bacterial connection, and increased positive correlations in Anyang soil. The N transformation was influenced with increased nifH and amoA; and the contents of NH4+-N and NO3--N were also increased. The functions of C, S, and manganese metabolisms were also impacted by epoxiconazole. This work expands our understanding about epoxiconazole degradation and help us to properly assess the risk of epoxiconazole in soil.


Assuntos
Solo , Triazóis , Biodegradação Ambiental , Compostos de Epóxi/toxicidade , Triazóis/análise , Triazóis/toxicidade
2.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 704145, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336959

RESUMO

Background: Patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, controversy exists about the impact of MetS on the prognosis of patients with CVD. Methods: Pubmed, Cochrane library, and EMBASE databases were searched. Cohort Studies and randomized controlled trials post hoc analyses that evaluated the impact of MetS on prognosis in patients (≥18 years) with CVD were included. Relative risk (RR), hazard rate (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each individual study by random-effect model. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression analysis was performed to explore the heterogeneity. Results: 55 studies with 16,2450 patients were included. Compared to patients without MetS, the MetS was associated with higher all-cause death [RR, 1.220, 95% CI (1.103 to 1.349), P, 0.000], CV death [RR, 1.360, 95% CI (1.152 to 1.606), P, 0.000], Myocardial Infarction [RR, 1.460, 95% CI (1.242 to 1.716), P, 0.000], stroke [RR, 1.435, 95% CI (1.131 to 1.820), P, 0.000]. Lower high-density lipoproteins (40/50) significantly increased the risk of all-cause death and CV death. Elevated fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (>100 mg/dl) was associated with an increased risk of all-cause death, while a higher body mass index (BMI>25 kg/m2) was related to a reduced risk of all-cause death. Conclusions: MetS increased the risk of cardiovascular-related adverse events among patients with CVD. For MetS components, there was an increased risk in people with low HDL-C and FPG>100 mg/dl. Positive measures should be implemented timely for patients with CVD after the diagnosis of MetS, strengthen the prevention and treatment of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Overweight or obesity, as an independent risk factor for chronic diseases, has been on the rise globally. Adopting a healthy lifestyle is positive to weight control. Mobile-based lifestyle interventions have shown potential benefits in weight loss, but most studies were carried out among non-elderly population, so it is necessary to perform well-designed randomized controlled trials among the elderly with overweight or obesity. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of mobile-based lifestyle intervention on weight loss among the overweight and obese elderly population in China. METHODS: This is a prospective, open-labeled, three-month, multicenter, randomized controlled trial involving 750 participants from five cities who were randomly assigned to dietary and physical activity interventions group (DPG; mobile phone with the App and bracelet), physical activity interventions group (PG; mobile phone with the App and bracelet) and control group (CG; no interventions and kept their lifestyle as before). The outcomes evaluated were changes in weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC). RESULTS: In total, 642 (85.6%) participants completed the study, 237 (94.8%), 203 (81.2%), and 202 (80.8%) for DPG, PG, and CG respectively. Comparing with PG and CG, the DPG showed a significant decrease in all outcomes after three months, including body weight (-4.1 kg vs. -1.0 kg; -4.1 kg vs. -0.8 kg; p < 0.05), BMI (-1.6 kg/m2 vs. -0.4 kg/m2; -1.6 kg/m2 vs. -0.3 kg/m2; p < 0.05), WC (-2.8 cm vs. -0.1 cm; -2.8 cm vs. -0.5 cm; p < 0.05), and HC (-3.8 cm vs. -1.3 cm; -3.8 cm vs. -1.3 cm; p < 0.05). Similar effects were seen across sex and BMI subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Mobile-based lifestyle intervention obtained beneficial effect in weight loss among the elderly with overweight or obesity. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness and its sustainability.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Perda de Peso , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
World J Surg Oncol ; 19(1): 221, 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to determine the incidence trends of urothelial cancer of the bladder (UCB) and to develop a nomogram for predicting the cancer-specific survival (CSS) of postsurgery UCB at a population-based level based on the SEER database. METHODS: The age-adjusted incidence of UCB diagnosed from 1975 to 2016 was extracted, and its annual percentage change was calculated and joinpoint regression analysis was performed. A nomogram was constructed for predicting the CSS in individual cases based on independent predictors. The predictive performance of the nomogram was evaluated using the consistency index (C-index), net reclassification index (NRI), integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), a calibration plot and the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve. RESULTS: The incidence of UCB showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing from 1975 to 2016. However, the overall incidence increased over that time period. The age at diagnosis, ethnic group, insurance status, marital status, differentiated grade, AJCC stage, regional lymph nodes removed status, chemotherapy status, and tumor size were independent prognostic factors for postsurgery UCB. The nomogram constructed based on these independent factors performed well, with a C-index of 0.823 and a close fit to the calibration curve. Its prediction ability for CSS of postsurgery UCB is better than that of the existing AJCC system, with NRI and IDI values greater than 0 and ROC curves exhibiting good performance for 3, 5, and 8 years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The nomogram constructed in this study might be suitable for clinical use in improving the clinical predictive accuracy of the long-term survival for postsurgery UCB.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/cirurgia , Humanos , Incidência , Nomogramas , Prognóstico , Programa de SEER , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia
5.
Opt Lett ; 46(15): 3741-3744, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329270

RESUMO

Edge-enhanced imaging and bright-field imaging extract different morphological information from an object, and hence a system capable of switching dynamically between them is of vital importance for various applications. By incorporating an elaborately designed meta-device with a 4f imaging system, we demonstrate dynamic switching between 2D edge-enhanced imaging and bright-field imaging. The dynamically switchable characteristic results from the composed phase-change material meta-atoms, which are optimized to provide two independent phase profiles in amorphous and crystalline states. For dynamically switchable imaging, the meta-device functions as either a high-pass or a low-pass filter in the Fourier frequency spectrum, relying on its phase state. In addition, the dynamically switchable imaging is polarization independent. The proposed meta-device owns ultra-thin architecture and polarization-insensitive dynamically switchable functionality, holding potential applications in integrated biomedical imaging and defect detection.

6.
Am J Mens Health ; 15(3): 15579883211026515, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the nonlinear relationship between age and the likelihood of undergoing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, and the difference of factors influencing the test likelihood among subjects aged 40-54, 55-69, and ≥70 years. METHODS: Data were extracted from the 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, with the primary outcome defined as receipt of a PSA test within the previous 12 months. Restricted cubic splines were used to assess the relationship between age and the likelihood of undergoing PSA testing. Backward conditional logistic regression analyses were used to identify the predictors of undergoing PSA testing among subjects aged 40-54, 55-69, and ≥70 years. RESULTS: Finally, 92,177 people were identified. The likelihood of PSA testing increased up to around 71 years old and then decreased rapidly for higher ages, showing a clear nonlinear inverted U-shaped relationship with age (p < .001). Insurance status, shared decision-making, whether a recommendation for PSA testing had been accepted, income level, smoking status, and age were the common predictors of testing in the three age groups. However, the predictors differed somewhat among the three groups: being overweight or obese was only positively associated with increased testing among people aged 40-54 and ≥70 years, being retired only greatly impacted the test likelihood among those aged 40-54 years, and the general health status, marital status, and race affected people aged ≥55 years. CONCLUSION: The factors influencing PSA screening differ with age, which should be fully considered when screening different target age groups.


Assuntos
Antígeno Prostático Específico , Neoplasias da Próstata , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil , Programas de Rastreamento , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico
7.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 81(5): 343-352, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109899

RESUMO

Many studies have explored how using a pneumatic tube system (PTS) is related to the hemolysis of blood samples, but their conclusions have been inconsistent. This meta-analysis was to clarify whether using a PTS induces the hemolysis of blood samples. The PubMed, Embase, Scopus, CNKI, CqVip, SinoMed and WanFang databases were searched for studies published between January 1970 and August 2019. The primary outcomes were the hemolysis rate and hemolysis index of blood samples after applying a PTS and manual transportation. We estimated the pooled risk ratio (RR) and the standardized mean difference (SMD), using random-effects models. This meta-analysis included 29 studies covering 3121 blood samples. No significant differences were found between the PTS and manual-transportation groups in the hemolysis rate [RR: 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57 to 1.70], hemolysis index (SMD: 0.19, 95% CI: -0.00 to 0.38), or level of potassium (SMD: 0.05, 95% CI: -0.03 to 0.12), alanine aminotransferase (SMD: 0.00, 95% CI: -0.10 to 0.11), or aspartate aminotransferase (SMD: 0.04, 95% CI: -0.08 to 0.17). However, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was significantly higher in the PTS group than in the manual-transportation group (SMD: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.34). Subgroup analysis revealed that the LDH level was clearly higher in the PTS group than in the manual-transportation group only when the PTS speed was ≥6 m/s or when the PTS distance was ≥250 m. According to this meta-analysis, PTSs were associated with alterations in LDH measurements, so it is sensible that each hospital validates and monitors their PTSs.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062901

RESUMO

Background: Promotion of a healthy lifestyle is considered a good strategy for dealing with chronic diseases. Mobile-based lifestyle interventions have shown beneficial effects in the control and treatment of chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome. Current clinical trials for mobile-based lifestyle intervention were mainly conducted among non-elderly populations, thus well-designed trials performed among the elderly who are more susceptible to chronic diseases are needed. The study aims to assess the effect of the mobile-based lifestyle intervention on the improvement of body weight, glucose and lipid metabolism among overweight and obese elderly adults in China. Materials and Methods: Participants aged 60-80 years who are overweight or obese will be randomly assigned to receive mobile-based nutrition and exercise intervention, mobile-based exercise intervention and no intervention for 3 months. Before the intervention, participants will receive the training of the mobile application and sports bracelet. The primary outcome will be the between-group (three groups) difference in body mass index at the end of intervention. The secondary outcomes will include body composition, parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism, blood pressure, dietary data and physical activity data. All these outcomes will be assessed at baseline, day 45 and day 90. Ethics and dissemination: The trial has been approved by the Ethics Committee of Peking University Health Science Center (IRB00001052-18039).


Assuntos
Glucose , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Adulto , Idoso , Peso Corporal , China , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(8): e14285, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037297

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the urination behaviours of senior citizens in China. METHODS: Stratified random sampling was used to recruit senior citizens who met the inclusion criteria from five cities in China. After training by researchers, participants recorded their urination behaviours in real time by using the validated 7-day 24-hour urination behaviour record, which consisted of frequency of urination, time of urination, urinary urgency and urine colour. RESULTS: Of the 551 recruited participants, 524 (233 male and 291 female) completed the survey, yielding a completion rate of 95.1%. The median frequency of urination was 7.4 times per day. The frequency of urination was highest among participants in Guangzhou, at 8.0 times per day (χ2  = 29.356; P < .001), and participants in the first percentile body mass index group, at 8.0 times per day (χ2  = 10.344; P = .016). The percentage of participants who urinated >7 times during the day was 44.3%. The percentage of participants who urinated ≥1 time at night was 77.5%. The number of times participants reported feeling no urge to urinate, a strong urge to urinate and an uncomfortable urge to urinate accounted for 59.7%, 62.8% and 24.8% of all records of urinary urgency, respectively. Instances of patients having no urge to urinate, a strong urgent to urinate and an uncomfortable urge accounted for 16.1%, 13.3% and 2.9% of all instances of urination, respectively. The number of times participants whose urine was yellow and dark yellow accounted for 69.1% and 18.9% of all records of urine colour, respectively. Urine with yellow and dark yellow colour accounted for 13.0% and 1.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Unhealthy urination behaviours, including urinating at night and holding back urine, were common among senior citizens. This result can provide information for the prevention and control of urinary system diseases.


Assuntos
Micção , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125770, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838509

RESUMO

The wide application of mesosulfuron-methyl (MS) in soil may affect soil microbial community, yet the information is limited. In this work, two distinct soil types from Anyang (AY) and Nanjing (NJ) were spiked with MS (0, 0.006, 0.06, or 0.6 mg kg-1) and incubated for 90 days. MS decreased bacterial and fungal (except the last sampling) abundance and altered their diversity and community. Five biomarkers of bacterial species may help MS degradation and more increased xenobiotics biodegradation pathways were also observed in 0.6 mg kg-1 treatment in AY soil. A co-occurrence network revealed the biomarkers grouped in one module in all AY soils, suggesting these biomarkers act in concert to degrade MS. MS impacted soil N transformation with increasing N2-fixing bacteria in both soils and ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) in NJ and decreasing ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in AY. The contents of NO3--N and NH4+-N were increased by MS. Structural equation models revealed that the abundance of bacteria and fungi was responsible for the NO3--N and NH4+-N contents. In conclusion, this work aids safety assessments and degradation-related research of MS in soil.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Amônia , Archaea , Nitrificação , Oxirredução , Compostos de Sulfonilureia
11.
J Diabetes Res ; 2021: 8861038, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834077

RESUMO

Objective: To study the association between sleep duration and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to provide a theoretical basis for the prevention of T2DM through a meta-analysis. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane Library, ProQuest, CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, and SINOMED were searched from their inception until May 2020. All cohort studies on the relationship between sleep duration and T2DM in adults were included. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, two authors independently assessed the literature and extracted the data. Metaregression and publication bias were evaluated, and sensitivity and meta-analyses were conducted with RevMan 5.3. Results: A total of 17 studies were collected, involving 737002 adults. The incidence of T2DM was 4.73% in short sleep duration (SSD) (t ≤ 6 h), 4.39% in normal sleep duration (NSD) (6 h < t < 9 h), and 4.99% in long sleep duration (LSD) (t ≥ 9 h). The meta-analysis demonstrated that SSD increased the risk of T2DM compared with NSD (RR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.15-1.29, P < 0.001), LSD increased the risk of T2DM compared with NSD (RR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.15-1.39, P < 0.001), and the risk of T2DM has no significant difference between SSD and LSD (RR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.05, P = 0.41). The sensitivity of each study was robust and the publication bias was weak. Conclusion: SSD or LSD can increase the risk of T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Sono , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 18(1): 2, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Water is essential for maintaining the functions of human body properly. Studies have shown that the amounts and contributions of fluids were associated with health and hydration status. The objectives of the study was that to explore the differences of water intake pattern and hydration biomarkers among young males and females in different hydration statuses. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was implemented among 159 young adults aged 18-23 years in Hebei, China. The total drinking fluids and water from food were obtained by 7-day 24-h fluid intake questionnaire and duplicate portion method, respectively. The osmolality and electrolyte concentrations of the 24 h urine and plasma were tested. Differences in optimal hydration (OH), middle hydration (MH) and hypohydration (HH) groups, divided by the osmolality of 24 h urine, were compared. RESULTS: Totally, 156 participants (80 males and 76 females) completed the study. OH group had highest proportions of participants met the recommendations of total water intake (TWI) and total drinking fluids of China (34.5%, 36.2%), while HH group had lowest (7.7%, 0.0%). OH group had higher amounts of TWI, total drinking fluids, water and lower amounts of sugar-sweetened-beverages (SSBs) (P < 0.05). The percentage of total drinking fluids in TWI decreased from 54.1% in OH group to 42.6% in HH group (P < 0.05). OH group had higher and lower contributions of water and SSBs to total drinking fluids (P < 0.05); produced 551-950 mL more, excreted significantly less quantity of solutes of urine (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found in plasma osmolality among the three groups (P > 0.05). Among both males and females, the amounts of TWI and water were higher in OH group than others (P < 0.05). Males had 4.3% lower, 5.4% and 1.1% higher contributions of milk and milk products, SSBs and alcohol to total drinking fluids than females (P < 0.05); males had higher volume of urine than females only in MH group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences of plasma osmolality between males and females in the same group (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Young adults with optimal hydration status had better water intake pattern and less concentrated urine. Females maybe have better water intake pattern than males. Trial registration Chinese clinical trial registry. Name of the registry: Relationship of drinking water and urination. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR-ROC-17010320. Date of registration: 01/04/2017. URL of trial registry record: http://www.chictr.org.cn/edit.aspx?pid=17601&htm=4 .

13.
J Vasc Access ; 22(2): 273-279, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Based on the concept of total quality management, the practice of managing needle-stick and sharps injuries was analyzed to improve nursing quality. METHODS: Using total quality management, an improvement plan was completed. Standard operating procedures for infusion therapy and monitoring of the circulatory system were made to reduce the utilization of winged metal needles and the frequency of needle-stick injuries. From 2015 to 2018, four cross-sectional surveys were conducted on the use of winged metal needles, peripheral intravenous catheters, central venous catheters, peripherally inserted central catheters, and implantable venous access ports and the status of needle-stick and sharps injuries in our hospital during the 4 years. RESULTS: Four cross-sectional surveys showed that the percentage of winged metal needle utilization decreased significantly from 13% to 0.5%, and that of peripheral intravenous catheters increased from 77% to 87%. Zero tolerance of winged metal needles increased from 33 to 60 nursing units, an improvement rate of 81.82%. The number of needle-stick injuries decreased from 71 to 21, a decrease of 70.42%. Needle-stick injuries occurred mainly during waste disposal (34.71%) and needle withdrawal (18.18%) and when recapping needles (9.92%). CONCLUSION: Based on total quality management, the implementation of zero tolerance of winged metal needles is much better. The use of winged metal needles and the incidence of needle-stick injuries are reduced. Total quality management is of great clinical value in preventing needle-stick injuries.


Assuntos
Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/prevenção & controle , Serviço Hospitalar de Enfermagem/normas , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade/normas , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Gestão da Qualidade Total/normas , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/diagnóstico , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260939

RESUMO

Water is a critical nutrient that is important for the maintenance of the physiological function of the human body. This article aimed to investigate the effects of the amount and frequency of fluid intake on cognitive performance and mood. A double-blinded randomized controlled trial was designed and implemented on college students aged 18-23 years in Baoding, China. Participants were randomly assigned into one of three groups: the recommended behavior group (RB group) who drank 200 mL of water every 2 h, the half amount group (HA group) who drank 100 mL of water every 2 h, and the high frequency group (HF group) who drank 110 mL of water every 1 h. The intervention lasted 2 days. Urine osmolality, cognitive performance, and mood of participants in each group were compared using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A total of 92 participants (46 females, 46 males) completed this study with a completion rate of 95.8%. The urine osmolality of the HA group was higher than that of the RB group and the HF group at two time points (p < 0.05). At time point 1, the scores in the portrait memory test and vigor were statistically different (F = 20.45, p < 0.001; F = 5.46, p = 0.006). It was found that the scores for the portrait memory test in the RB group were lower than those in the HA group and the HF group (p = 0.007; p < 0.001), while the scores of the HF group were higher than those of the HA group (p < 0.001). The scores for vigor in the RB group were significantly higher than those of the HA group (p = 0.006), and they were also significantly higher than those of the HF group (p = 0.004). At time point 2, only the scores for vigor were statistically different (F = 3.80, p = 0.026). It was found that the scores for vigor in the RB group were higher than those in the HA group and HF group (p = 0.018; p = 0.019). Both the amount and frequency of fluid intake may affect urine osmolality and vigor, but these factors have limited impacts on cognitive performance. Rational fluid intake behavior may be beneficial to improve the hydration status and mood of young adults. More research is needed, especially experimental research, to allow causal conclusions to be drawn.


Assuntos
Afeto , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudantes , Água/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Ingestão de Líquidos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1693, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence and mortality of bladder cancer (BCa) using data obtained in the Global Burden of Disease study performed in 2017 (GBD 2017). METHODS: Data on BCa for 2017, including prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), were obtained from GBD 2017 at the global, regional, and national levels. We also analyzed the association of BCa burden with the country development level. RESULTS: There were 2.63 million BCa cases estimated from the GBD 2017 data, with 200,000 persons dying of BCa, resulting in 3.60 million DALYs in 2017. The age-standardized prevalence (ASP) of BCa was 32.91/100,000 persons, and age-standardized death rate (ASDR) was 2.57/100,000 persons. The ASP and ASDR of BCa were higher in males than in females, and higher in people older than 60 years. The ASP and ASDR of BCa were higher in Western Europe and Central Europe than in South Asia, Andean Latin America, and Central Latin America, and higher in countries with a higher sociodemographic index (SDI). Correlation analysis identified that the ASP and ASDR of BCa were positively correlated with the country SDI (P < 0.0001 and ρ = 0.68 for ASP, and P = 0.0048 and ρ = 0.20 for ASDR). In addition, 33.72% deaths and 36.80% DALYs caused by BCa could be attributed to smoking globally. CONCLUSION: The prevalence and mortality of BCa were very high in 2017, especially in high-SDI countries. Smoking-cessation strategies should be strengthened to control the burden associated with BCa.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Ásia , América Central , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092232

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the neighborhood food environment and body mass index (BMI) among Chinese older adults. METHODS: A multi-stage stratified random sampling method was used to recruit participants from 12 communities in Beijing, China, in 2019. Participants (n = 1764, 1034 women) in this study were older adults aged 65 to 80. We collected the participants' basic information, measured their height and weight, and calculated their BMI. Neighborhood food environments were measured by the density of and proximity to different food outlets using the Baidu Map Application Programming Interface. Adjusted multiple linear regression was performed to estimate the association between the food environment and BMI. RESULTS: Participants had a mean age of 69.7 ± 4.32 years old and an average BMI of 26.3 ± 3.50 kg/m2. Among the three types of stores, convenience stores had the easiest access, followed by greengrocers and supermarkets. Sit-down restaurants had the best access among different restaurants, followed by Chinese fast-food restaurants, and western fast-food restaurants had the worst access. Easier access to greengrocers (ß = 0.281, p < 0.001) and sit-down restaurants (ß = 0.304, p < 0.001) was associated with higher BMI in the 250 m buffer zone. More supermarkets were associated with higher BMI in the 500 m buffer zone (ß = 0.593, p < 0.001). Access to convenience stores was positively associated with BMI in the 800 m buffer zone (ß = 0.057, p < 0.001). Better access to Chinese fast-food restaurants was associated with higher BMI (ß = 0.071, p = 0.001), and better access to western fast- food restaurants was associated with lower BMI (ß = -0.400, p < 0.001) in the 1000 m buffer zone. There was a negative association between the nearest distance to greengrocers and BMI (ß = -0.004, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Although we found some significant associations between the neighborhood food environment and obesity, the current results are not strong enough to draw specific conclusions. Policymakers will need to rely on more evidence to derive concrete policy recommendations.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Características de Residência , Restaurantes , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pequim , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fast Foods , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114364

RESUMO

Water is indispensable to keeping the functions of the human body working properly, including that of the brain. The purpose of this research was to explore the impacts of water supplementation on cognitive performance and mood, and to determine the optimum amount of water to alleviate detriments of dehydration after 12 h water restriction. A randomized controlled trial was implemented among 64 young adults from Baoding, China. Fasting overnight for 12 h, and at 8:00 a.m. on day 2, osmolality of first morning urine and blood, cognitive performance, and mood were assessed as the dehydration test. Then, participants were randomly separated into four groups: water supplementation groups (WS groups 1, 2, and 3 with 500, 200, and 100 mL purified water, respectively) and no water supplementation group (NW group). Participants in WS groups were instructed to drink the water within 10 min, while those in NW group drank no water. After 90 min, the same measurements were taken as the rehydration test. There was significant interaction between TIME and VOLUME in thirst when comparing dehydration with rehydration tests (F = 6.172, p = 0.001). Significant thirst reductions were found in WS group 1 and WS group 2 (p = 0.003; p = 0.041), and a significant increase was found in the NW group (p = 0.039). In the rehydration test, significant interactions between TIME and VOLUME were found in scores of anger, fatigue, and TMD (total mood disturbance) (F = 3.815, p = 0.014; F = 10.429, p < 0.001; F = 5.246, p < 0.001), compared to the dehydration test. Scores of anger were only decreased in WS group 2 (p = 0.025), and scores of fatigue and TMD decreased in WS group 1 and WS group 2 (all p < 0.05). Significant interaction between TIME and VOLUME was only found for operation span test scores (F = 2.816, p = 0.047), with scores being only higher in WS group 1 in the rehydration test compared to the dehydration test (p = 0.003). Comparing WS group 1 and WS group 2, scores of thirst, fatigue, and TMD did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). Water supplementation improved working memory and attenuated anger, fatigue, and TMD. A small amount of water (200 mL) was sufficient to attenuate thirst, anger, fatigue, and TMD of young adults, but the larger volume (500 mL) appeared to be necessary to improve working memory. The amount of 500 mL was the optimum volume to improve the cognitive performance and mood among young adults.


Assuntos
Desidratação , Água , China , Cognição , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21307, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high expression of long noncoding RNA ZEB1 anti-sense1 (ZEB1-AS1) has been reported in several types of cancer. However, most studies investigating this phenomenon were either case reports or used small patient samples. The objective of this meta-analysis was to clarify the potential clinical values of ZEB1-AS1 in various cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PubMed-MEDLINE, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were searched, using systematic search terms, to find relevant research reports on this subject. The combined hazards ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to explore the association between ZEB1-AS1 expression and overall survival (OS). The combined odd ratios (ORs) were calculated to evaluate the association between ZEB1-AS1 expression and pathological parameters. Data analysis was conducted in R software version 3.4.2. and Stata version 12.0 (College Station, TX: Stata Corp LP). RESULTS: Ten studies including 963 cancer patients were selected as suitable for this study. The pooled hazards ratio (HR) indicated that high ZEB1-AS1 expression was strongly associated with poor OS (pooled HR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.80-2.85, P < .0001) in the Chinese cancer patients. Also, a high expression of ZEB1-AS1 was related to metastasis (pooled HR = 3.38, 95% CI: 1.91-6.00, P < .0001), and advanced tumor stage (pooled HR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.29-0.81, P = .005). The up-regulation of ZEB1-AS1 was not significantly associated with histological differentiation (P = .39), sex (P = .001), and age (P = .372) of cancer patients. CONCLUSION: The high expression of ZEB1-AS1 significantly predicted poor OS, poor metastasis, and high tumor stage in cancer patients, demonstrating that high ZEB1-AS1 expression may serve as a biomarker of poor prognosis in the Chinese cancer patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias/mortalidade
19.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eating disorders (ED) have increasingly become a global topic of concern for public health. A better understanding of ED incidence is a basic requirement for improving its management. However, the temporal trend of ED incidence in China is still unknown. METHODS: The incidence rates of ED from 1990 to 2017 were collected from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 database according to the following: subtype, i.e. anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN); sex; and age group. The average annual percent changes and relative risks were calculated using joinpoint regression and the age-period-cohort model, respectively. RESULTS: From 1990 to 2017, age-standardized incidence rates of ED continued to increase in males and females, and this variation trend was observed in AN and BN. Joinpoint regression analysis showed that the incidence rates increased in all age groups. Adolescents had the highest risk of developing ED, followed by young adults. Age effects were the most influential risk factor for ED incidence. Period effects showed that the risk of developing ED continuously increased with increasing time periods in BN, but not in ED and AN. Concerning the cohort effects, people born after the 1990s presented a higher risk of ED, though they presented a lower risk of BN as compared to the whole cohort. CONCLUSIONS: ED incidence rates continue to increase in China, particularly among adolescents and young adults. Further etiological studies are needed to explain these increases and to facilitate the early identification of high-risk individuals.

20.
Synth Syst Biotechnol ; 5(3): 214-221, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32695892

RESUMO

Dramatic decrease of sugar uptake is a general phenomenon in Streptomyces at stationary phase, when antibiotics are extensively produced. Milbemycins produced by Streptomyces bingchenggensis are a group of valuable macrolide biopesticides, while the low yield and titer impede their broad applications in agricultural field. Considering that inadequate sugar uptake generally hinders titer improvement of desired products, we mined the underlying sugar uptake systems and fine-tuned their expression in this work. First, we screened the candidates at both genomic and transcriptomic level in S. bingchenggensis. Then, two ATP-binding cassette transporters named TP2 and TP5 were characterized to improve milbemycin titer and yield significantly. Next, the appropriate native temporal promoters were selected and used to tune the expression of TP2 and TP5, resulting in a maximal milbemycin A3/A4 titer increase by 36.9% to 3321 mg/L. Finally, TP2 and TP5 were broadly fine-tuned in another two macrolide biopesticide producers Streptomyces avermitilis and Streptomyces cyaneogriseus, leading to a maximal titer improvement of 34.1% and 52.6% for avermectin B1a and nemadectin, respectively. This work provides useful transporter tools and corresponding engineering strategy for Streptomyces.

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