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1.
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs ; : 1474515119876778, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a number of clinical studies have investigated the effectiveness and safety of auricular therapy for treating hypertension, the overall evidence remains uncertain. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the evidence for the effect of auricular therapy on blood pressure using meta-analysis methodology. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library databases, Clinicalkey, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Scientific Journal Database and Wanfang Database and Chinese Biomedicine for trials that compared the effects of auricular therapy to that of sham auricular therapy, antihypertensive drugs, or no intervention on blood pressure. Blood pressure values before and after treatment, magnitude of blood pressure change between baseline and post-intervention, and the efficacy rate, as outcomes, were synthesized by RevMan 5.3. Continuous outcomes were expressed as weighted mean differences, and dichotomous data were expressed as relative risks with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: We systematically reviewed 44 randomized controlled trials (involving 5022 patients through June 2018). Auricular acupressure plus antihypertensive drugs might be more effective than antihypertensive drugs alone in both reducing systolic blood pressure value after treatment (n=464 patients; mean difference, -5.06 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, -6.76- -3.36, p<0.00001; I2=32%), decreasing diastolic blood pressure after treatment (n=464 patients; mean difference, -5.30 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, -6.27- -4.33, p<0.00001; I2=0%) and the efficacy rate (relative risk, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-1.26; p<0.00001; I2=0%). CONCLUSION: Auricular therapy could be provided to patients with hypertension as an adjunct to antihypertensive drugs for lowering blood pressure value and achieving blood pressure targets.

2.
Circulation ; 140(15): 1261-1272, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart-lung transplantation (HLTx) is an effective treatment for patients with advanced cardiopulmonary failure. However, no large multicenter study has focused on the relationship between donor and recipient risk factors and post-HLTx outcomes. Thus, we investigated this issue using data from the United Network for Organ Sharing database. METHODS: All adult patients (age ≥18 years) registered in the United Network for Organ Sharing database who underwent HLTx between 1987 and 2017 were included (n=997). We stratified the cohort by patients who were alive without retransplant at 1 year (n=664) and patients who died or underwent retransplant within 1 year of HLTx (n=333). The primary outcome was the influence of donor and recipient characteristics on 1-year post-HLTx recipient death or retransplant. Kaplan-Meier curves were created to assess overall freedom from death or retransplant. To obtain a better effect estimation on hazard and survival time, the parametric Accelerated Failure Time model was chosen to perform time-to-event modeling analyses. RESULTS: Overall graft survival at 1-year post-HLTx was 66.6%. Of donors, 53% were male, and the mean age was 28.2 years. Univariable analysis showed advanced donor age, recipient male sex, recipient creatinine, recipient history of prior cardiac or lung surgery, recipient extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support, transplant year, and transplant center volume were associated with 1-year post-HLTx death or retransplant. On multivariable analysis, advanced donor age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.017; P=0.0007), recipient male sex (HR, 1.701; P=0.0002), recipient extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support (HR, 4.854; P<0.0001), transplant year (HR, 0.962; P<0.0001), and transplantation at low-volume (HR, 1.694) and medium-volume centers (HR, 1.455) in comparison with high-volume centers (P=0.0007) remained as significant predictors of death or retransplant. These predictors were incorporated into an equation capable of estimating the preliminary probability of graft survival at 1-year post-HLTx on the basis of preoperative factors alone. CONCLUSIONS: HLTx outcomes may be improved by considering the strong influence of donor age, recipient sex, recipient hemodynamic status, and transplant center volume. Marginal donors and recipients without significant factors contributing to poor post-HLTx outcomes may still be considered for transplantation, potentially with less impact on the risk of early postoperative death or retransplant.

3.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475900

RESUMO

KRAS is the most common oncogene to be mutated in lung cancer, and therapeutics directly targeting KRAS has proven to be challenging. The mutations of KRAS are associated with poor prognosis, resistance to both adjuvant therapy and targeted EGFR TKI. The EGFR TKI provide significant clinical benefit for patients whose tumors bear EGFR mutations. However, tumors with KRAS mutations rarely respond to EGFR TKI therapy. Thus, the combination therapy is essential for the treatment of lung cancers with KRAS mutations. EGFR TKI combined with inhibitors of MAPKs, PI3K/mTOR, HDAC, Wee1, PARP, CDK and Hsp90, even miRNAs and immunotherapy, were reviewed. Although the effects of the combination vary, the combined therapeutics are of the best options at present to treat KRAS mutated lung cancer.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(36): 32887-32894, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429270

RESUMO

Single-atom catalysts (SACs) are of great scientific and technical importance due to their low cost, high site density, and high specificity to enhance chemical reactions. Nevertheless, a major issue that severely limits the practical exploration of SACs is their instability, i.e., the preference of sintering and clustering over a defect-free substrate during operation. Here, we employ first-principles calculations to investigate how substrate engineering can stabilize SACs by strain-tuning the electronic interactions between the metal and the substrate using two Pd adatoms on a defect-free, single-layer MoS2 as a typical example. It is identified that the Pd2 dimer is prone to dissociate and form highly efficient SACs for CO oxidation due to the enhanced charge transfer and orbital hybridization with the MoS2 substrate under a suitable tensile strain. The straining induces a semiconductive-to-metallic phase transition of the substrate. Moreover, low-cost elements, such as Ag, Ni, Cu, and Cr, can also be stabilized into high-performance SACs for CO oxidation with tunable reaction barriers by straining. The present findings offer a new avenue to inhibit the transition metal atoms from clustering into nanoclusters/particles and provide a clear guidance for the development of highly cost-efficient and stable SACs on defect-free substrates.

6.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(2): 1541-1550, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257466

RESUMO

Recovery of the blood supply is the most effective treatment against ischemic heart disease; however, it is also a major cause of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in clinical therapy. Curcumin has been reported to possess beneficial effects against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)­induced cardiomyocyte injury by regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis and antioxidant enzyme activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of curcumin on H/R­injured cardiomyocytes. H9C2 cardiomyocytes were pretreated with curcumin, and then cultured under H/R conditions. The viability of H9C2 cells was measured using a Cell Counting kit­8 assay, and the levels of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured to assess cell injury. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry. The expression levels of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and numerous downstream genes were analyzed via reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The results revealed that curcumin protected H9C2 cells against H/R­induced injury, reversing the H/R­induced increases in LDH and MDA levels, and decreases in SOD levels. ROS levels in H/R­induced cells were also significantly downregulated by curcumin treatment (P<0.01), and the apoptotic rate was significantly decreased from 15.13% in the H/R group to 7.7% in the H/R + curcumin group (P<0.01). The expression levels of NICD, hairy and enhancer of split (Hes)­1, Hes­5 and hairy/enhancer­of­split related with YRPW motif protein 1 (Hey­1) were significantly decreased in H/R­treated cells following curcumin treatment. Treatment with Jagged1 attenuated the effects of curcumin on cell viability, ROS levels and apoptosis; the Notch pathway was also reactivated. The present study indicated that there was a role for the Notch pathway in the protective effects of curcumin against H/R­induced cardiomyocyte injury, suggesting that downregulation of the Notch pathway may alleviate H/R­induced injury in H9C2 cells.

7.
Cytometry A ; 2019 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282093

RESUMO

Gold nanorods (GNRs) can be easily designed and synthesized to respond to photons in the near infrared (NIR) band. The photostimulation by laser irradiation can be mediated and enhanced by GNRs to introduce localized damage to cells for photodynamic/photothermal therapy (PDT or PTT). In this study, we show that cells stained with GNRs can be detected and stimulated simultaneously by short flashes of femtosecond-laser irradiation on a microfluidic system effectively. In the relatively high-throughput cell flow, the two-photon luminescence from GNRs can be excited and detected. The GNRs also mediate and enhance the transient photostimulation of the cells. After photostimulation, cells can remain alive, go to apoptosis, or necrosis, respectively. The stimulation effect is strongly dependent on the photon density and stimulation duration. We found the cells remain alive, go to apoptosis or necrosis, dependent on the GNR staining, the laser illumination pattern and duration. Hence, our system provides a simple and effective method for high-throughput cell stimulation and analysis on chip. © 2019 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

8.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 71(1): 185-200, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356201

RESUMO

Cognitive control for the coordination of mental operations is essential in normal cognitive functioning of daily life. Although the decline of cognitive control in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been demonstrated, whether this decline is a core deficit in MCI remains unclear. In this study, we employed a perceptual decision-making task to estimate the capacity of cognitive control (CCC) in older adults with MCI (n = 55) and the age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls (HC, n = 55) selected based on a commonly used battery of ten neuropsychological tests in five cognitive domains. We found that the CCC was significantly correlated to the neuropsychological measures of the battery. The mean CCC was significantly lower in the MCI group (3.06 bps) than in the HC group (3.59 bps) and significantly lower in the amnestic MCI subgroup (2.90 bps) than in the nonamnestic MCI subgroup (3.22 bps). In detecting and classifying MCI using machine learning, the classifier with the CCC as the input feature outperformed the overall classification with neuropsychological measures in a single cognitive domain. The classification performance was significantly increased when the CCC was included as a feature in addition to measures in a single domain, and the CCC served as a key feature in optimal classifiers with inputs from multiple domains. These results support the hypothesis that the decline in cognitive control is a core deficit in MCI and suggest that the CCC may serve as a key index in the diagnosis of MCI.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10863, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350445

RESUMO

Differential network analysis investigates how the network of connected genes changes from one condition to another and has become a prevalent tool to provide a deeper and more comprehensive understanding of the molecular etiology of complex diseases. Based on the asymptotically normal estimation of large Gaussian graphical model (GGM) in the high-dimensional setting, we developed a computationally efficient test for differential network analysis through testing the equality of two precision matrices, which summarize the conditional dependence network structures of the genes. Additionally, we applied a multiple testing procedure to infer the differential network structure with false discovery rate (FDR) control. Through extensive simulation studies with different combinations of parameters including sample size, number of vertices, level of heterogeneity and graph structure, we demonstrated that our method performed much better than the current available methods in terms of accuracy and computational time. In real data analysis on lung adenocarcinoma, we revealed a differential network with 3503 nodes and 2550 edges, which consisted of 50 clusters with an FDR threshold at 0.05. Many of the top gene pairs in the differential network have been reported relevant to human cancers. Our method represents a powerful tool of network analysis for high-dimensional biological data.

10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(29): 26185-26193, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257845

RESUMO

Stretchable electronic materials have drawn strong interest due to their important applications in areas such as bioelectronics, wearable devices, and soft robotics. The stretchable electrode is an integral unit of stretchable systems. Intrinsically conductive polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) can have high mechanical flexibility and good biocompatibility. However, their electrical conductivity and mechanical stretchability should be greatly improved for its applications as the stretchable electrode. Here, we report highly conductive and highly stretchable PEDOT:PSS by incorporating biocompatible d-sorbitol. d-Sorbitol can serve as both the secondary dopant and plasticizer for PEDOT:PSS. It can not only significantly improve the conductivity but also the stretchability. d-Sorbitol-PEDOT:PSS (s-PEDOT:PSS) can have a conductivity of >1000 S/cm, and the conductivity could be maintained at a strain up to 60%. The resistance of s-PEDOT:PSS remains almost constant during repeated stretching-releasing cycles. The mechanism for the stretchability improvement by d-sorbitol is ascribed to the softening of PSSH chains. d-Sorbitol can position among the PSSH chains and thus destructs the hydrogen bonds among the PSSH chains. This makes the conformational change of the PSSH chains under stress become easy and thus increases the mechanical flexibility of PEDOT:PSS. This conductivity is the highest for biocompatible intrinsically conductive polymers with high stretchability.

11.
J Vis Exp ; (149)2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329179

RESUMO

Direct control of cellular defined molecular events is important to life science. Recently, studies have demonstrated that femtosecond laser stimulation can simultaneously activate multiple cellular molecular signaling pathways. In this protocol, we show that through coupling femtosecond laser into a confocal microscope, cells can be stimulated precisely by the tightly-focused laser. Some molecular processes that can be simultaneously observed are subsequently activated. We present detailed protocols of the photostimulation to activate extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway in Hela cells. Mitochondrial flashes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other mitochondrial events can be also stimulated if focusing the femtosecond laser pulse on a certain mitochondrial tubular structure. This protocol includes pretreating cells before photostimulation, delivering the photostimulation by a femtosecond laser flash onto the target, and observing/identifying molecular changes afterwards. This protocol represents an all-optical tool for related biological researches.

12.
Future Med Chem ; 11(15): 1859-1869, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240947

RESUMO

Aim: To overcome the existing difficulty in distinguishing Fe(III) from Fe(II), rhodamine-containing Fe3+ probes, giving off different fluorescence responses to ferric and ferrous ions, were synthesized. Materials & methods: Color change in Fe3+ recognition, accompanying spirolactam opening-closing, could be used for 'naked-eye' detection. Theoretical calculations revealed the possible Fe3+-probe combination mechanism. Results: Apart from the probes' specific response toward Fe3+, the Fe3+-probe demonstrated highly quantitative relationships in fluorescence titration, instant labeling and dynamic tracking of intracellular Fe3+ in bioimaging. Conclusion: Cytotoxity and bioimaging in living L929 suggested the probes' future applications as real-time detection methods for Fe3+ in clinical diagnosis. Instant and time-lapse imagings, based on fluorescence-time stability of Fe3+-probe, enables the dynamic labeling and tracking of Fe3+ in living systems.

13.
Anal Chem ; 91(11): 7070-7077, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063356

RESUMO

Raman imaging is a promising technique that allows the spatial distribution of different components in the sample to be obtained using the molecular fingerprint information on individual species. However, the imaging speed is the bottleneck for the current Raman imaging methods to monitor the dynamic process of living cells. In this paper, we developed an artificial intelligence assisted fast Raman imaging method over the already fast line scan Raman imaging method. The reduced imaging time is realized by widening the slit and laser beam, and scanning the sample with a large scan step. The imaging quality is improved by a data-driven approach to train a deep convolutional neural network, which statistically learns to transform low-resolution images acquired at a high speed into high-resolution ones that previously were only possible with a low imaging speed. Accompanied with the improvement of the image resolution, the deteriorated spectral resolution as a consequence of a wide slit is also restored, thereby the fidelity of the spectral information is retained. The imaging time can be reduced to within 1 min, which is about five times faster than the state-of-the-art line scan Raman imaging techniques without sacrificing spectral and spatial resolution. We then demonstrated the reliability of the current method using fixed cells. We finally used the method to monitor the dynamic evolution process of living cells. Such an imaging speed opens a door to the label-free observation of cellular events with conventional Raman microscopy.

14.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144160

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cardioprotective effect of Danqi Tablet (DQT, ) on ischemic heart model rats and the regulative effect on energy metabolism through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). METHODS: Rat ischemic heart model was induced by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery. Totally 40 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham group, model group, DQT group (1.5 mg/kg daily) and trimetazidine (TMZ) group (6.3 mg/kg daily) according to a random number table, 10 rats in each group. Twenty-eight days after continuous administration, cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and the structures of myocardial cells were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The level of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in myocardial cells was measured by ATP assay kit. Expressions level of key transcriptional regulators, including PGC-1α, Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and downstream targets of PGC-1α, such as mitofusin 1 (MFN1), mitofusin 2 (MFN2) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) were measured by Western blot. Expression level of PGC-1α was examined by immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: The rat ischemic heart model was successfully induced and the heart function in model group was compromised. Compared with the model group, DQT exerted cardioprotective effects, up-regulated the ATP production in myocardial cells and inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the margin area of infarction of the myocardial tissues (P<0.01). The expressions of PGC-1α, SIRT1 and AMPK were increased in the DQT group (all P<0.05). Furthermore, the downstream targets, including MFN1, MFN2 and SOD2 were up-regulated (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with the TMZ group, the expression levels of PGC-1α, MFN1 and SOD2 were increased by DQT treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). CONCLUSION: DQT regulated energy metabolism in rats with ischemic heart model through AMPK/SIRT1 -PGC-1α pathway. PGC-1α might serve as a promising target in the treatment of ischemic heart disease.

15.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 105(2): 183-192, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073748

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is a prevalent bone metabolic disease characterized by bone fragility. As a key pathophysiological mechanism, the disease is caused by excessive bone resorption (by osteoclasts) over bone formation (by osteoblasts). Peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs) is a major systemic cell model for bone metabolism by serving as progenitors of osteoclasts and producing cytokines important for osteoclastogenesis. Protein-coding genes for osteoporosis have been widely studied by mRNA analyses of PBMs in high versus low hip bone mineral density (BMD) subjects. However, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which account for a large proportion of human transcriptome, have seldom been studied. METHODS: In this study, microarray analyses of monocytes were performed using Affymetrix exon 1.0 ST arrays in 73 Caucasian females (age: 47-56). LncRNA profile was generated by re-annotating exon array for lncRNAs detection, which yielded 12,007 lncRNAs mapped to the human genome. RESULTS: 575 lncRNAs were differentially expressed between the two groups. In the high BMD subjects, 309 lncRNAs were upregulated and 266 lncRNAs were downregulated (nominally significant, raw p-value < 0.05). To investigate the relationship between mRNAs and lncRNAs, we used two approaches to predict the target genes of lncRNAs and found that 26 candidate lncRNAs might regulate mRNA expression. The majority of these lncRNAs were further validated to be potentially correlated with BMD by GWAS analysis. CONCLUSION: Overall, our findings for the first time reported the lncRNAs profiles for osteoporosis and suggested the potential regulatory mechanism of lncRNAs on protein-coding genes in bone metabolism.

16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(6)2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871157

RESUMO

The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor is an important tool widely used for studying binding kinetics between biomolecular species. The SPR approach offers unique advantages in light of its real-time and label-free sensing capabilities. Until now, nearly all established SPR instrumentation schemes are based on single- or several-channel configurations. With the emergence of drug screening and investigation of biomolecular interactions on a massive scale these days for finding more effective treatments of diseases, there is a growing demand for the development of high-throughput 2-D SPR sensor arrays based on imaging. The so-called SPR imaging (SPRi) approach has been explored intensively in recent years. This review aims to provide an up-to-date and concise summary of recent advances in SPRi. The specific focuses are on practical instrumentation designs and their respective biosensing applications in relation to molecular sensing, healthcare testing, and environmental screening.

17.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 95: 101-107, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776419

RESUMO

Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is regulated during the innate immune response. However, its translational regulation under innate immune suppression remains largely unexplored. Microplitis bicoloratus bracovirus (MbBV), a symbiotic virus harbored by the parasitoid wasp, Microplitis bicoloratus, suppresses innate immunity in parasitized Spodoptera litura. Here, we generated eIF4E dsRNA and used it to silence the eIF4E gene of S. litura, resulting in a hallmark immunosuppressive phenotype characterized by increased apoptosis of hemocytes and retardation of head capsule width development. In response to natural parasitism, loss of eIF4E function was associated with similar immunosuppression, and we detected no significant differences between the response to parasitism and treatment with eIF4E RNAi. Under MbBV infection, eIF4E overexpression significantly suppressed MbBV-induced increase in apoptosis and suppressed apoptosis to the same extent as co-expression of both eIF4E and eIF4A. There were no significant differences between MbBV-infected and uninfected larvae in which eIF4E was overexpressed. More importantly, in the eIF4E RNAi strain, eIF4A RNAi did not increase apoptosis. Collectively, our results indicate that eIF4E plays a nodal role in the MbBV-suppressed innate immune response via the eIF4E-eIF4A axis.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Polydnaviridae/imunologia , Spodoptera/imunologia , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Apoptose/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Fator de Iniciação 4A em Eucariotos/genética , Fator de Iniciação 4A em Eucariotos/imunologia , Fator de Iniciação 4A em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos/genética , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos/imunologia , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Feminino , Imunidade Inata , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Spodoptera/parasitologia , Simbiose/imunologia , Vespas/imunologia , Vespas/microbiologia
18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(2): 761-767, 2019 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628341

RESUMO

For the problem that few technologies can be directly used to treat wastewater with middle and low salt, in this study, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were used to enhance the tolerance of wetland plants to salt stress. Ecological floating beds (EFBs) enhanced with AM fungi were constructed to explore a new technology as well as to treat wastewater with low and medium salt content, but also to overcome the low tolerance to salt stress and low salt removal by EFB plants. Results showed that canna plants (Canna indica L.) were well colonized by AM fungi (Glomus etunicatum) and the mycorrhizal colonization rate was not affected by salt stress. Inoculation with AM fungi enhanced the ability of the EFBs to treat saline wastewater. After treatment by EFB with AM for 21 d, removal rates of total dissolved solids (TDS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were 36.1%, 74.4%, 57.6%, and 59.1%, respectively, which were higher by 79.2%, 36.4%, 32.7%, and 37.6% over those with treatment by EFB without AM, respectively. Removal rates of Na, K, Ca, and Mg were 34.4%, 61.3%, 57.4%, and 51.9% after 21 d of treatment by EFB with AM, which were higher by 11.4%, 37.1%, 18.3%, and 24.6%, respectively, than removal rates with treatment by EFB without AM, respectively. Plant sample analysis showed that AM increased the Na uptake of plants and Na transportation from root to shoot, and this may be the reason that AM enhanced the ability of the EFBs to treat saline wastewater. This study indicated that AM fungi can be used to improve the ability of EFB to remedy water pollution and increase salt removal efficiency.


Assuntos
Indústria Química , Carvão Mineral , Micorrizas , Águas Residuárias , Purificação da Água/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Salinidade , Zingiberales/microbiologia
19.
Genome Res ; 29(3): 494-505, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659012

RESUMO

Transgenesis has been a mainstay of mouse genetics for over 30 yr, providing numerous models of human disease and critical genetic tools in widespread use today. Generated through the random integration of DNA fragments into the host genome, transgenesis can lead to insertional mutagenesis if a coding gene or an essential element is disrupted, and there is evidence that larger scale structural variation can accompany the integration. The insertion sites of only a tiny fraction of the thousands of transgenic lines in existence have been discovered and reported, due in part to limitations in the discovery tools. Targeted locus amplification (TLA) provides a robust and efficient means to identify both the insertion site and content of transgenes through deep sequencing of genomic loci linked to specific known transgene cassettes. Here, we report the first large-scale analysis of transgene insertion sites from 40 highly used transgenic mouse lines. We show that the transgenes disrupt the coding sequence of endogenous genes in half of the lines, frequently involving large deletions and/or structural variations at the insertion site. Furthermore, we identify a number of unexpected sequences in some of the transgenes, including undocumented cassettes and contaminating DNA fragments. We demonstrate that these transgene insertions can have phenotypic consequences, which could confound certain experiments, emphasizing the need for careful attention to control strategies. Together, these data show that transgenic alleles display a high rate of potentially confounding genetic events and highlight the need for careful characterization of each line to assure interpretable and reproducible experiments.


Assuntos
Variação Estrutural do Genoma , Recombinação Genética , Transgenes , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutagênese Insercional , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Fenótipo
20.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210699, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645643

RESUMO

Employing message endorser is a popular strategy in encouraging consumers to protect the environment. This research explores how the social status of endorsers and the forms of normative messages can influence the effectiveness of endorsement for pro-environmental behaviors. Drawing on the focus theory of normative conduct and the match-up hypothesis, the authors propose that the effects of endorser social status on consumers' responses to green advertising are contingent on whether the normative messages is framed as injunctive norms or descriptive norms. In three experiments, the results indicate that participants show more positive attitudes toward the advertisement and higher intentions to act environmentally friendly when endorsers with high social status are presented in combination with injunctive norm appeals. In contrast, ordinary consumer endorsers produce stronger impact on attitudes and behavioral intentions when descriptive norm appeals are used. These findings show that marketers using endorsers to promote pro-environmental behaviors should develop normative message accordingly.

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