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1.
Mol Cell Probes ; : 101504, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904417

RESUMO

Based on the high self-renewal ability and osteoblastic differentiation capacity, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are suggested to be promising cell source for osteogenesis. Therefore, illustrating the mechanism of osteoblastic differentiation of DPSCs is required. This current study aims to illustrate the role and mechanism of Sp1 in regulating osteoblastic differentiation of DPSCs. In this study, we downregulated Sp1 in DPSCs and evaluated the osteoblastic differentiation by measuring Runx2 and OCN expression with Western blot analysis and by Alizarin red staining. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanism of Sp1 regulating noggin with Firefly luciferase reporter gene assay and ChIP assay, and correspondingly evaluated the function of noggin in Sp1-regulated osteoblastic differentiation of DPSCs. We found that knockdown of Sp1 inhibits the expression of ALP, Runx2, COL1A1 and OCN, and decreases ALP staining, Alizarin red staining. Sp1 binds to noggin promoter and inhibits noggin expression, thus correspondingly regulates DPSCs osteoblastic differentiation. In conclusion, our study revealed that Sp1 regulates DPSCs osteoblastic differentiation through noggin and that Sp1/noggin can provide new perspective for enhancing DPSCs osteogenesis.

2.
Leukemia ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908357

RESUMO

Immunotherapy targeting leukemia-associated antigens has shown promising results. Because of the heterogeneity of leukemia, vaccines with a single peptide have elicited only a limited immune response. Targeting several peptides together elicited peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in leukemia patients, and this was associated with clinical responses. Thus, the discovery of novel antigens is essential. In the current study, we investigated cyclin E as a novel target for immunotherapy. Cyclin E1 and cyclin E2 were found to be highly expressed in hematologic malignancies, according to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. We identified two HLA-A*0201 binding nonameric peptides, CCNE1M from cyclin E1 and CCNE2L from cyclin E2, which both elicited the peptide-specific CTLs. The peptide-specific CTLs specifically kill leukemia cells. Furthermore, CCNE1M and CCNE2L CTLs were increased in leukemia patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and this was associated with desired clinical outcomes. Our findings suggest that cyclin E1 and cyclin E2 are potential targets for immunotherapy in leukemia.

3.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917119

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to determine pooled prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in patients with diabetes and to explore the impacts of research variables on prevalence estimates. METHODS: A systematic search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library and Scopus from onset up to July 2018 to identify articles investigating the prevalence of DPN. Random-effects models were used to calculate the pooled prevalence of DPN. The heterogeneity of the study was estimated with the I2 statistic. The publication bias was described by Egger's test and funnel plot. RESULTS: A total of 29 studies with a total of 50,112 participants were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that the pooled prevalence of DPN was 30% (95% confidence interval, CI 25-34%). The pooled prevalence of DPN among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was higher than patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (31.5%, 95% CI 24.4-38.6% vs 17.5%, 95% CI 4.8-30.2%). The pooled prevalence of DPN of studies involving a mixed type of diabetes mellitus was 24.8% (95% CI 13.1-36.5%, I2=99.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Medical staff should strengthen the evaluation and diagnosis of DPN. Moreover, they need to teach diabetic patients how to prevent this complication.

4.
Cancer Lett ; 472: 8-18, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857154

RESUMO

Immunotherapies have not yielded significant clinical benefits for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) because of the existence of an immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment (TME) characterized by a desmoplastic stroma containing infiltrated immune cells and activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). This study aims to investigate the involvement of PAK1 in anti-tumour immunity. In PDA patients, low PAK1 expression, low activation of PSC and high CD8+ T cell/PAK1 ratios correlated with longer overall survival. In a murine PDA model, PAK1 knockout increased intra-tumoral CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, inhibited PSCs activation and extended survival. Inhibition of PAK1 reduced PSC-stimulated PDA cell proliferation and migration, blocked PSC-mediated protection of PDA cells from killing by cytotoxic lymphocytes and decreased intrinsic and PSC-stimulated PD-L1 expression in PDA cells, which further sensitized PDA cells to cytotoxic lymphocytes. Inhibition of PAK1 stimulates anti-tumour immunity by increasing intra-tumoral CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and by sensitizing PDA cells to killing by cytotoxic lymphocytes via down-regulation of intrinsic and PSC-stimulated PD-L1 expression. PAK1 inhibitors, especially in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors may result in improved efficacy of immunotherapy of PDA.

5.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 87: 60-70, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791518

RESUMO

The performance of Ce-OMS-2 catalysts was improved by tuning the fill percentage in the hydrothermal synthesis process to increase the oxygen vacancy density. The Ce-OMS-2 samples were prepared with different fill percentages by means of a hydrothermal approach (i.e. 80%, 70%, 50% and 30%). Ce-OMS-2 with 80% fill percentage (Ce-OMS-2-80%) showed ozone conversion of 97%, and a lifetime experiment carried out for more than 20 days showed that the activity of the catalyst still remained satisfactorily high (91%). For Ce-OMS-2-80%, Mn ions in the framework as well as K ions in the tunnel sites were replaced by Ce4+, while for the others only Mn ions were replaced. O2-TPD and H2-TPR measurements proved that the Ce-OMS-2-80% catalyst possessed the greatest number of mobile surface oxygen species. XPS and XAFS showed that increasing the fill percentage can reduce the AOS of Mn and augment the amount of oxygen vacancies. The active sites, which accelerate the elimination of O3, can be enriched by increasing the oxygen vacancies. These findings indicate that increasing ozone removal can be achieved by tuning the fill percentage in the hydrothermal synthesis process.


Assuntos
Modelos Químicos , Ozônio/química , Catálise , Manganês/química , Óxidos/química , Oxigênio
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834839

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder characterized by hypertension-in-pregnancy (HTN-Preg), and inadequate trophoblast invasion of the uterine wall could be initiating events. We hypothesized that HTN-Preg involves decreased uterine vascularization and arterial remodeling by MMPs, and accumulation of collagen. Blood pressure (BP) and fetal parameters were assessed in normal Preg rats and Preg rats with reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP), and uterine vascularity, MMP levels and collagen deposition were measured. BP was higher, and the uterus weight, litter size, and pup weight were reduced in RUPP vs Preg rats. Uterine tissue sections showed reduced number (5.75±0.95 vs 11.50±0.87) and size (0.05±0.01 vs 0.12±0.02mm2) of uterine arterioles, and diminished intima, media and adventitia of the uterine arterial wall in RUPP vs Preg rats. Immunohistochemistry showed localization of endothelial cell marker CD31 and smooth muscle marker a-actin in uterine arterial intima and media, respectively, and confirmed reduction in number and size of uterine arterioles in RUPP vs Preg rats. The cytotrophoblast marker cytokeratin-7 showed less immunostaining and invasion of uterine spiral arterioles of RUPP vs Preg rats. Uterine arterioles showed less expansion in response to increases in intraluminal pressure in RUPP vs Preg rats. Western blots, gelatin zymography and immunohistochemistry showed decreases in MMP-2 and MMP-9 and increases in the MMP substrate collagen-IV in the uterus and uterine spiral arteries of RUPP vs Preg rats. The results decreased uterine vascularization and uterine arteriolar expansive remodeling with decreased MMP-2 and MMP-9 and increased collagen-IV could be underlying mechanisms of uteroplacental ischemia in HTN-Preg.

7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(10): 4637-4646, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854833

RESUMO

The western Chongqing region is the main grain-producing area in Chongqing. This region's soils are characterized by light-to-moderate cadmium (Cd) pollution. Two types of typical paddy soils in this area (acidic and calcareous purple soils) were selected for the development of safe rice production techniques using in situ field remediation experiments. These involved a low-Cd-accumulating rice variety (Changliangyou 772) grown either alone or in combination with heavy metal passivators (silicon-calcium fertilizer, iron powder, biochar, and straw organic fertilizer). The results showed that:① all of the passivators except for the Fe powder increased rice yields from both types of soils. Straw organic fertilizer showed the best results for the acidic purple paddy soil, with a rice-yield increase of 47.43%, while biochar performed best for the calcareous paddy soil, increasing yields by 23.95%; ② The low-accumulation rice variety alone could not meet the requirements of safe rice production in the acid purple paddy soil (pH=4.75); however, combined the with passivators (with the exception of the silicon-calcium fertilizer), Cd content in rice grains was reduced by 14.81%-54.88% to within the national safe food standard for rice (0.2 mg·kg-1, GB 2762-2017). The Cd content of rice grains varied between 0.012 and 0.030 mg·kg-1 in the calcareous purple paddy soil (pH=7.77), under various treatments, which was far lower than the safety standard. The application of passivators (with the exception of biomass charcoal) further reduced the Cd content of rice by 26.67%-59.00% nevertheless; ③ The use of passivators altered Cd transportation and distribution in the rice plant. Taking the acidic soil as an example, silicon-calcium fertilizer inhibited the transport of Cd from the stems to the rice grains, Fe powder and biochar reduced the enrichment of Cd in roots and inhibited the transport of Cd from the stems to the rice grains, and straw organic fertilizer inhibited the transport of Cd from the roots to the stems; ④ The application of passivators promoted the transformation of soil Cd from labile forms into residual form, reduced the bioavailability of Cd in the soil, and, thus, reduced the accumulation of Cd in the rice plants. In the acidic soil, biochar showed the best effect, while straw organic fertilizer performed best in calcareous soils. ⑤ Silicon-calcium fertilizer and straw organic fertilizer significantly increased the pH and organic matter content of acid soils. Consequently, the soil available Cd content decreased by 39.45% and 34.69%, respectively, while no such effects were observed for the calcareous soil.

8.
Dis Markers ; 2019: 1761693, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31871497

RESUMO

Gene-environment interaction is identified as the determinant in anxiety. ABO blood types represent a part of the genetic phenotype. Therefore, we assume ABO blood types correlate with preoperative anxiety. This cross-sectional study enrolled 352 patients with different ABO blood types, scheduled for elective surgery between 2018 and 2019 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Shihezi University. HADS (hospital anxiety and depression scale) scores and VA (visual analogue scales for anxiety) scores were all used to assess the preoperative anxiety in the A, B, AB, and O groups. Bivariate correlation and logistic regression were performed to identify relationships between preoperative anxiety and related variables. A significant difference in VA and HADS-A (anxiety) scores was found between the AB and other groups. The ratio of preoperative anxiety was 3.73 (95% CI [confidence interval]: 2.32-6.00, P < 0.001) times in female than in male; 0.36 (95% CI: 0.21-0.63, P < 0.001) times in ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) grade II than in grade I; 0.41 (95% CI: 0.20-0.86, P < 0.05) times in ASA grade III than in grade I; 1.25 (95% CI: 1.1-1.41, P < 0.001) times in higher VAS (visual analogue scales for pain) scores than in lower VAS scores; and 0.28 (95% CI: 0.16-0.49, P < 0.01) times in non-AB blood type than in AB blood type. Differences in ABO blood types were found in preoperative anxiety, and the AB group displayed a high preoperative anxiety level. ABO blood types, sex, ASA grade, and VAS were associated with preoperative anxiety. This trial is registered with ChiCTR1800019390.

9.
Chemosphere ; 245: 125554, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874321

RESUMO

A recent quantitative measurement of rates of new particle formation (NPF) in urban Shanghai showed that the high rates of NPF can be largely attributed to the sulfuric acid (SA)-dimethylamine (DMA) nucleation due to relatively high DMA concentration in urban atmosphere (Yao et al., Science. 2018, 361, 278). In certain atmospheric conditions, the release of DMA is accompanied with the emission of high concentration of ammonia. As a result, the ammonia (A) may participate in SA-DMA-based NPF. However, the main sources of DMA and A can be different, thereby leading to different mechanism for the SA-DMA-A-based nucleation under different atmospheric conditions. Near industrial sources with relatively high DMA concentration of 108 molecules cm-3, the contribution of binary SA-DMA nucleation to cluster formation is 61% at 278 K, representing a dominant pathway for NPF. However, in the region not too close to major source of DMA emission, e.g., near agriculture farmland, the routes involving ternary SA-DMA-A nucleation make a 64% contribution at 278 K with DMA concentration of 107 molecules cm-3, showing that A has marked impact on the cluster formation. Under such a condition, we predict that coexisting DMA and A could be detected in the process of NPF. Moreover, at winter temperatures or at higher altitudes, our calculations suggest that the clustering of initial clusters likely involve ternary SA-DMA-A clusters rather than binary SA-DMA clusters. These new insights may be helpful to analyze and predict atmospheric-condition-dependent NFP in either urban or rural regions and/or in different season of the year.

10.
Oral Dis ; 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845484

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study whether specific recommendations aimed at reducing avoidable research waste were included in the author instructions of leading dental journals. METHOD: We identified 109 peer-reviewed and original research-oriented dental journals that were indexed in the MEDLINE and/or SCIE database in 2018. Two authors extracted independently information regarding the endorsement of reporting guidelines (RGs), ICMJE recommendations, trial or systematic review registration, as well as open access (OA) and data sharing policies. RESULT: All 109 journals provided online "instructions to authors", among which 64 journals (58.7%) mentioned RGs. The ICMJE recommendations were endorsed by 74 journals (67.9%), trial and systematic review registration were mentioned by 48 (44.0%) and 6 (5.5%) of the journals, respectively. In terms of open access, most journals stated they were Hybrid OA (82.0 %), Direct OA (15.4%); while data sharing policy was recommended by 32 (29.4%) journals. Statistical analyses suggest that these policies were more frequently mentioned by SCIE-indexed journals, higher-impact journals, and journals that endorsed the ICMJE recommendations. CONCLUSION: Reporting guidelines, OA and data sharing are important tools for enhancing research communication, translation and the reduction of avoidable research waste. However, currently they are not widely endorsed by dental journals.

11.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 105: 103582, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874194

RESUMO

Laccases (Lacs) are copper-containing oxidase enzymes that are found in various plants, fungi, and microorganisms. For invertebrates, particularly insects and crustaceans, Lacs have been shown to be involved in immune responses. In shrimp, a Lac gene has been cloned and functionally characterized, which revealed that it is involved in shrimp anti-pathogen infection. In the present study, a novel Lac gene (LvLac2) was cloned from Litopenaeus vannamei. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that LvLac2 is induced by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)- or Vibrio alginolyticus infection. In addition, the downregulated expression of LvLac2 decreased the cumulative mortality of WSSV- or V. alginolyticus infected shrimps. Moreover, LvLac2 is also induced by oxidative stress. Knocking down the expression of LvLac2 decreased the severity of hepatopancreatic injury caused by oxidative stress, as well as reduced the cumulative shrimp mortality during oxidative stress. Furthermore, gene reporter assays showed that the expression of LvLac2 is regulated by NF-E2-related factor 2, which is the key transcription factor of the oxidative stress response signaling pathway. Our study revealed that LvLac2 not only participates in immune responses against infections in L. vannamei but is also involved in oxidative stress responses.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880483

RESUMO

Background: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a major proinflammatory cytokine that has been posited to be involved in the development of chronic pancreatitis (CP). Several studies have been carried out that explored the association between the TNF-α -308A/G polymorphism and CP; however, conflicting results have emerged. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to provide a more precise assessment of the relationship between the TNF-α -308A/G polymorphism and CP risk. Methods: Case-control studies were identified using PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure through January 2019 from which seven were identified that met all inclusion criteria. Results: This meta-analysis included 695 CP cases and 742 controls. A positive association was found between the A allele and the risk of CP using the additive model (OR [odds ratio] = 1.83, 95% CI [confidence interval] = 1.08-3.10). We also found, after excluding the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium-violating studies, that the AA genotype was significantly associated with CP in both the additive and recessive models (OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.27-4.07; OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.26-3.81). Conclusion: This meta-analysis indicates that the A allele of the TNF-α -308A/G polymorphism increases the risk of CP.

13.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705307

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To achieve in vitro remineralization of enamel white spot lesions (WSLs) via a mesoporous delivery system of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) precursors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Amine-functionalized expanded pore mesoporous silica (aMSN) was loaded with polyacrylic acid-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate (PAA-ACP) to develop a carrier-based delivery system (PAA-ACP@aMSN). Thirty-six artificial WSLs samples were created and randomly assigned to three treatments: artificial saliva solution (negative control, n = 12), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) slurry (n = 12), and PAA-ACP@aMSN slurry (n = 12). Surface microhardness, Raman intensity, and color were measured before/after artificial demineralization and after remineralization treatments to evaluate the remineralization level of each sample. SEM images were taken on the surface and cross-section of samples to observe microstructure changes. RESULTS: The surface microhardness recovery ratio (%SMHRR), Raman intensity change ratio (%ICR), and color recovery ratio (%CRR) were not significantly different between CPP-ACP and PAA-ACP@aMSN groups (P > 0.05), but both of them had significantly higher %SMHRR, %ICR, and %CRR values than negative control (P < 0.01). SEM images showed that apparent enamel prism imprints and inter-prism gaps in negative control were masked by mineral deposition in the PAA-ACP@aMSN and CPP-ACP groups. CONCLUSIONS: PAA-ACP@aMSN has an ability to remineralize enamel WSLs. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The carrier-based amorphous calcium phosphate delivery system has great potential to serve as a remineralizing agent for the treatment of WSLs.

14.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(47): 10323-10332, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692346

RESUMO

Although there was significant advancement on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation, current mechanisms are still limited in providing an integrated and accurate scheme of PAH yield in combustion conditions; thus, a more detailed and comprehensive understanding is necessary. This work provides a systematic investigation of PAH growth by phenylacetylene addition. A combination of the density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p)) and the complete basis set method (CBS-QB3) is utilized to calculate the potential energy surfaces. The reaction system is initiated by the H elimination reaction of phenylacetylene + H → o-ethynylphenyl + H2, and then, the addition reaction of phenylacetylene and o-ethynylphenyl can produce PAHs with one, two, three, and four rings. The temperature- and pressure-dependent reaction rate coefficients are calculated via a combination of conventional transition state theory (TST) and Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory with solving the master equation in the temperature range of 500-2500 K and at the pressure range of 0.01-10 atm. There are 263 species and 65 reactions in this reaction system. It shows that the rate constants of this reaction system are highly temperature-dependent and slightly sensitive to the pressure at temperatures lower than 1300 K. To evaluate the yield distributions of various PAH products in the whole reaction network, a closed 0-D batch reactor model in Chemkin is used to calculate the C6H5C2H-C2H2-H-Ar reaction system. The results showed that the prevailing products of this system are three-ring PAHs with side chain structures. Compared with the traditional HACA pathways, the investigated reaction system presents higher efficiency in large PAH formations, which could subsequently promote the formation of soot particles. The phenylacetylene and o-ethynylphenyl reaction network emphasizes the importance of species with side chains, and it enriches current PAH growth pathways aside from the addition of small species such as C2H2.

15.
World J Clin Cases ; 7(21): 3632-3638, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In children with osteosarcoma around the knee joint without epiphysis involvement, joint-sparing surgery seems to be an ideal way to retain knee joint function. However, there are two points of debate with regard to the technique: How to accurately achieve a safe surgical margin, and how to achieve intercalary reconstruction of the massive bone defect following resection of the tumor. CASE SUMMARY: We present the case of an 8-year-old girl with osteosarcoma of the distal femur without involvement of the epiphysis. Epiphyseal distraction was applied to separate the epiphysis and metaphysis, and this provided a safe surgical margin. The massive bone defect was reconstructed with a custom-made antibiotic-loaded polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) construct combined with a free non-vascularized fibular graft. Six months after surgery, bone union between the autograft and host bone was confirmed in both the proximal and distal femur by computer tomography (CT) examination. Moreover, considerable callus formation was found around the PMMA construct. After 28 mo of follow-up, there was no sign of recurrence or metastasis. The patient could walk without any aid and carry out her daily life activities satisfactorily. CONCLUSION: In cases of osteosarcoma without epiphysis involvement, epiphyseal distraction can be easily applied to obtain a safe margin. Hybrid reconstruction with an antibiotic-loaded PMMA construct combined with a free non-vascularized fibular graft has the advantages of being easy to manufacture, less time-consuming to place, and less likely to get infected, while also ensuring bone union. Our case provides an alternative technique for biological reconstruction after joint-sparing surgery in patients with osteosarcoma around the knee without epiphyseal involvement.

16.
J Mater Chem B ; 7(48): 7756-7770, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750849

RESUMO

Optimal integration between the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) graft and host bone is a prerequisite to obtain a satisfactory outcome after graft implantation for ligament reconstruction. Recent studies indicate that complex biosignals including immunoregulation, cell recruitment, and osteogenic differentiation provided by the extracellular matrix (ECM) are conducive to promoting osseointegration. In the present study, a chondroitin sulfate (CS)/polydopamine-modified PET graft was developed to regulate the local immune microenvironment, guide stem cell behavior, and promote new bone formation. We found that CS-modified PET grafts significantly regulated the macrophage phenotype switching from M1 to M2 and promoted the expression of pro-repair cytokines including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1. Moreover, the immunoregulatory function of CS-modified PET guided stem cell behaviors, including recruitment, adhesion, and proliferation, and enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. In vivo experiments confirmed that CS-modified PET switched the local immune microenvironment status from pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory, up-regulated osteogenic marker expression, and promoted the bone regeneration process, so as to achieve graft-bone osseointegration. These results indicate that an ECM-biomimetic immunoregulatory coating is an effective approach to promote graft integration. This study proposes an effective strategy for an artificial graft to achieve graft-bone osseointegration through immunoregulatory osteogenesis.

17.
J Evid Based Dent Pract ; 19(3): 273-282, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732103

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the characteristics and level of evidence (LOE) of clinical studies recently published in leading orthodontic journals and to explore the association between the LOE and potentially related factors. METHODS: The official online archives of 5 leading orthodontic journals were hand-searched to identify clinical research articles published during the period 2015-2017. The LOE of all included studies was assessed using a modified LOE classification system developed based on the Oxford LOE and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the association between the LOE of each article (high LOE vs. low LOE) and 7 factors. RESULTS: A total of 637 studies were included and assessed. Of these, 8 (1.3%) were of level 1, 160 (25.1%) level 2, 326 (51.2%) level 3, and 143 (22.4%) level 4. According to multivariable logistic regression analyses, journal of publication (P < .001), funding status (P = .003), and the geographic origin of the first author (P = .006) were significantly associated with the LOE. CONCLUSIONS: The number of studies with high LOE in leading orthodontic journals was limited. There is still need for further improvement in the overall LOE of clinical studies in orthodontics.

18.
Bioresour Technol ; : 122387, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735696

RESUMO

This work developed a novel two-stage bioprocess for electricity generation from bakery waste (BW). In the first stage, commercial glucoamylase was utilized to hydrolyze the BW to produce soluble BW hydrolysate. It was found that 100 g BW could be converted to 32 g hydrolysis solid and 760 mL BW hydrolysate. The highest glucose production of 21.9 g/L could be achieved within 5 h. In the second stage, the soluble BW hydrolysate was utilized as feedstock for electricity generation in microbial fuel cell (MFC). The maximum voltage of 0.386 V was obtained. The power density reached a peak value of 29.96 mW/m2 when the external resistance was 1090 Ω. It could be potentially utilized to transform high-starch containing raw materials into biofuels production which could reduce the cost of biofuels production effectively for industrial application.

19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(49): 24463-24469, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740599

RESUMO

From 2013 to 2017, with the implementation of the toughest-ever clean air policy in China, significant declines in fine particle (PM2.5) concentrations occurred nationwide. Here we estimate the drivers of the improved PM2.5 air quality and the associated health benefits in China from 2013 to 2017 based on a measure-specific integrated evaluation approach, which combines a bottom-up emission inventory, a chemical transport model, and epidemiological exposure-response functions. The estimated national population-weighted annual mean PM2.5 concentrations decreased from 61.8 (95%CI: 53.3-70.0) to 42.0 µg/m3 (95% CI: 35.7-48.6) in 5 y, with dominant contributions from anthropogenic emission abatements. Although interannual meteorological variations could significantly alter PM2.5 concentrations, the corresponding effects on the 5-y trends were relatively small. The measure-by-measure evaluation indicated that strengthening industrial emission standards (power plants and emission-intensive industrial sectors), upgrades on industrial boilers, phasing out outdated industrial capacities, and promoting clean fuels in the residential sector were major effective measures in reducing PM2.5 pollution and health burdens. These measures were estimated to contribute to 6.6- (95% CI: 5.9-7.1), 4.4- (95% CI: 3.8-4.9), 2.8- (95% CI: 2.5-3.0), and 2.2- (95% CI: 2.0-2.5) µg/m3 declines in the national PM2.5 concentration in 2017, respectively, and further reduced PM2.5-attributable excess deaths by 0.37 million (95% CI: 0.35-0.39), or 92% of the total avoided deaths. Our study confirms the effectiveness of China's recent clean air actions, and the measure-by-measure evaluation provides insights into future clean air policy making in China and in other developing and polluting countries.

20.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study assessed to investigate the antifibrotic activities and potential mechanisms of costunolide (COS), a natural sesquiterpene compound. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Rats subjected bile duct ligation (BDL) and mice challenged with CCl4 were established to study the antifibrotic effects of COS in vivo. Mouse primary hepatic stellate cells (pHSCs) and human HSC line LX-2 served as in vitro liver fibrosis models. The expression of fibrogenic genes and signaling proteins in the neurogenic locus notch homolog protein 3 (Notch3)-hairy/enhancer of split1 (HES1) pathway was examined using western blot and/or real-time PCR. Notch3 degradation was analyzed using immunofluorescence and coimmunoprecipitation. KEY RESULTS: In animals, COS administration attenuated hepatic histopathological injury and collagen accumulation and reduced the expression of fibrogenic genes. COS time- and dose-dependently suppressed the levels of fibrotic markers in LX-2 cells and mouse pHSCs. Mechanistic studies showed COS destabilized Notch3 and subsequently inhibited the Notch3-HES1 pathway, thus inhibiting HSC activation. Furthermore, COS blocked the WW domain-containing protein 2 (WWP2)/protein phosphatase 1G (PPM1G) interaction and enhanced the effect of WWP2 on Notch3 degradation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: COS exerted potent antifibrotic effects in vitro and in vivo by disrupting the WWP2/PPM1G complex, promoting Notch3 degradation and inhibiting the Notch3/HES1 pathway indicating that COS may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

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