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1.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 99: 346-353, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183713

RESUMO

The strict control measures and social lockdowns initiated to combat COVID-19 epidemic have had a notable impact on air pollutant concentrations. According to observation data obtained from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center, compared to levels in 2019, the average concentration of NO2 in early 2020 during COVID-19 epidemic has decreased by 53%, 50%, and 30% in Wuhan city, Hubei Province (Wuhan excluded), and China (Hubei excluded), respectively. Simultaneously, PM2.5 concentration has decreased by 35%, 29%, and 19% in Wuhan, Hubei (Wuhan excluded), and China (Hubei excluded), respectively. Less significant declines have also been found for SO2 and CO concentrations. We also analyzed the temporal variation and spatial distribution of air pollutant concentrations in China during COVID-19 epidemic. The decreases in PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations showed relatively consistent temporal variation and spatial distribution. These results support control of NOx to further reduce PM2.5 pollution in China. The concurrent decrease in NOx and PM2.5 concentrations resulted in an increase of O3 concentrations across China during COVID-19 epidemic, indicating that coordinated control of other pollutants is needed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 142207, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207435

RESUMO

Secondary aerosol formation in the aging process of primary emission is the main reason for haze pollution in eastern China. Pollution evolution with photochemical age was studied for the first time at a comprehensive field observation station during winter in Beijing. The photochemical age was used as an estimate of the timescale attributed to the aging process and was estimated from the ratio of toluene to benzene in this study. A low photochemical age indicates a fresh emission. The photochemical age of air masses during new particle formation (NPF) days was lower than that on haze days. In general, the strongest NPF events, along with a peak of the formation rate of 1.5 nm (J1.5) and 3 nm particles (J3), were observed when the photochemical age was between 12 and 24 h while rarely took place with photochemical ages less than 12 h. When photochemical age was larger than 48 h, haze occurred and NPF was suppressed. The sources and sinks of nanoparticles had distinct relation with the photochemical age. Our results show that the condensation sink (CS) showed a valley with photochemical ages ranging from 12 to 24 h, while H2SO4 concentration showed no obvious trend with the photochemical age. The high concentrations of precursor vapours within an air mass lead to persistent nucleation with photochemical age ranging from 12 to 48 h in winter. Coincidently, the fast increase of PM2.5 mass was also observed during this range of photochemical age. Noteworthy, CS increased with the photochemical age on NPF days only, which is the likely reason for the observation that the PM2.5 mass increased faster with photochemical age on NPF days compared with other days. The evolution of particles with the photochemical age provides new insights into understanding how particles originating from NPF transform to haze pollution.

3.
Pathogens ; 9(11)2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158161

RESUMO

Mortality of renal transplant recipients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains high, despite advances in critical care management. There is still a lack of biomarkers for predicting prognosis of these patients. The present study aimed to investigate the association between neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and mortality in renal transplant recipients with severe CAP. A total of 111 renal transplant recipients with severe CAP admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were screened for eligibility between 1 January 2009 and 30 November 2018. Patient characteristics and laboratory test results at ICU admission were retrospectively collected. There were 18 non-survivors (22.2%) among 81 patients with severe CAP who were finally included. Non-survivors had a higher NLR level than survivors (26.8 vs. 12.3, p < 0.001). NLR had the greatest power to predict mortality as suggested by area under the curve (0.88 ± 0.04; p < 0.0001) compared to platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (0.75 ± 0.06; p < 0.01), pneumonia severity index (0.65 ± 0.08; p = 0.05), CURB-65 (0.65 ± 0.08; p = 0.05), and neutrophil count (0.68 ± 0.07; p < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression models revealed that NLR was associated with hospital and ICU mortality in renal transplant recipients with severe CAP. NLR levels were independently associated with mortality and may be a useful biomarker for predicting poor outcome in renal transplant recipients with severe CAP.

4.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174370

RESUMO

The function of M-Phase Phosphoprotein 9 (MPHOSPH9) has not been investigated in gastric cancer yet. In the present study, the public cancer databases Oncomine and TCGA were analyzed, and MPHOSPH9 was found upregulated in gastric cancer tumor tissues. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was also carried out to further confirm the results, and IHC analysis showed MPHOSPH9 was elevated in tumor tissues compared with the paracancerous tissues. QRT-PCR analysis also revealed that MPHOSPH9 mRNA was upregulated in gastric cancer cell lines. In addition, Kaplan-Meier estimates showed gastric cancer patients with high MPHOSPH9 level predicted a poor prognosis. Then, Western blot and CCK-8 assay showed overexpressed MPHOSPH9 enhanced gastric cancer cell proliferation, but MPHOSPH9 knockdown suppressed gastric cancer cell proliferation. Additionally, Western blot showed that MPHOSPH9 regulated the activation of mTOR, and overexpressed MPHOSPH9 reduced the inhibitory effects of mTOR inhibitors on cell survival in gastric cancer cells. Taken together, our results suggested that MPHOSPH9 .could be an oncogene in gastric cancer by regulating mTOR signaling.

5.
Arch Virol ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226478

RESUMO

Noroviruses have been recognized as the most important causative agents of acute gastroenteritis. The present study was carried out to investigate the molecular epidemiological features of genotype II (GII) norovirus in outpatients with acute gastroenteritis in Shandong province in China from July 2017 to June 2018. In total, 151 (10.30%) samples were positive for NoV GII strains by RT-PCR. Eight genotypes were detected: GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.6, GII.7, GII.12, GII.13 and GII.17. GII.4 (43.71%) was the most prevalent genotype, and the dominant strains belonged to the group of Sydney-2012 strains. GII.17 (27.15%), which has become the main cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in China, also accounted for a high proportion. Meanwhile, three recombinant types (GII.P17-GII.7, GII.P3-GII.4 and GII.P12-GII.4) were observed and authenticated using Simplot software. The results showed that GII norovirus was the main cause of acute gastroenteritis in Shandong province. GII.4 and GII.17 were the dominant genotypes. Continuous observation and identification of emerging genotypes are necessary for understanding the evolution of the virus, control of infection, and development of vaccines.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200925

RESUMO

Cu-SSZ-13 and Cu-SSZ-39, with similar structures, are both highly active and hydrothermally stable in the selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3 (NH3-SCR), attracting great attention for applications on diesel vehicles. In this study, it was interestingly found that NO2 has distinct effects on the NOx conversion over Cu-SSZ-13 and Cu-SSZ-39, with an inhibiting effect for Cu-SSZ-13 but a promoting effect for Cu-SSZ-39. The distinct NO2 effects were found to be associated with the differences in the reactivity of surface NH4NO3, a key intermediate for NH3-SCR, on these two Cu-based small-pore zeolites. Cu-SSZ-13 has excellent standard SCR activity, but the reactivity of surface NH4NO3 with NO is relatively low, which would induce the accumulation of NH4NO3 on the surface and thus inhibit NOx conversion. Surface Brønsted acid sites play key roles in the reduction of surface NH4NO3 by NO, and Cu-SSZ-39 showed much higher surface acidity than Cu-SSZ-13. Compared with Cu-SSZ-13, the intrinsic standard SCR activity of Cu-SSZ-39 was lower but NH4NO3 could be reduced by NO rapidly on Cu-SSZ-39, even faster than the reduction of NO by the adsorbed NH3 on Cu active sites; thus, NOx conversion was promoted by NO2 on Cu-SSZ-39. This work provides an improved understanding of fast SCR on Cu-based small-pore zeolites.

7.
Neuropsychologia ; : 107674, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186573

RESUMO

Mind wandering (MW) refers to a drift of attention away from the ongoing events to internal concerns and activates brain regions in the default mode network (DMN) and the frontoparietal control network (FPCN). Although a number of studies using rest-fMRI data have shown that static and dynamic functional connectivity within the DMN were related to individual variations in self-reported MW, whether the brain functional connectivity could predict MW remained unclear. Here, we carried out longitudinal data collection from 122 participants that underwent three times of MRI scans and simultaneously completed self-reported MW scales over the course of two years to clarify whether a direct relationship existed between brain functional connectivity and MW. We identified 16 functional connectivity involving the DMN and FPCN that were consistently and stably associated with MW across the three time points. However, there were only significant cross-lagged effects between DMN-involved connections and MW frequency rather than FPCN-involved connections. In addition, the results indicated that the mean value of functional connectivity involving the DMN (FC-DMN) in the low stable (LS) group was the weakest, followed by mean connectivity in the moderate increasing (MI) group and mean connectivity in the high stable (HS) group. These results support previous research linking MW with connections between partial areas involving the DMN and FPCN. Importantly, our findings indicated that brain functional connectivity involving DMN predicted the subsequent MW and provided further support for the trait-based nature of MW.

8.
Environ Pollut ; : 115931, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187848

RESUMO

Exposure to elevated particulate matter (PM) pollution is of great concern to both the general public and air quality management agencies. At urban traffic intersections, for example, pedestrians are often at a higher risk of exposure to near-source PM pollution from traffic while waiting on the roadside or while walking in the crosswalk. This study offers an in-depth investigation of pedestrian exposure to PM pollution at an urban traffic intersection. Fixed-site measurements near an urban intersection were conducted to examine the variations in particles of various sizes through traffic signal cycles. This process aids in the identification of major PM dispersion patterns on the roadside. In addition, mobile measurements of pedestrian exposure to PM were conducted across six time intervals that correspond to different segments of a pedestrian's journey when passing through the intersection. Measurement results are used to estimate and compare the cumulative deposited doses of PM by size categories and journey segments for pedestrians at an intersection. Furthermore, comparisons of pedestrian exposure to PM on a sunny day and a cloudy day were analyzed. The results indicate the importance of reducing PM pollution at intersections and provide policymakers with a foundation for possible measures to reduce pedestrian PM exposure at urban traffic intersections.

9.
Drug Test Anal ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142047

RESUMO

Performing fast qualitative identification of seized illegal drugs by Raman spectroscopy is challenging due to fluorescence interference as well as chemical complexity. Spectrometers with 785-nm excitation, 1,064-nm excitation, and sequentially shifted excitation (SSE) were compared for their effect on fluorescence reduction. The characteristic peaks method, which is independent of cutting agents, was tested as a new strategy to broaden the application of the Raman technique. The suitability of the characteristic peaks method was fully examined by analyzing a large amount of seized illegal drugs, including 72 methamphetamine hydrochloride (concentration range of 13.9%-99.4%), 68 ketamine hydrochloride (17.7%-99.8%), 176 heroin hydrochloride (5.2%-79.5%), 51 cocaine hydrochloride (21.1%-94.5%), and 33 cocaine base (30.9%-92.5%) samples. The results showed that seized methamphetamine, ketamine, and cocaine samples had no or little fluorescence. Hence, in regard to detection of these samples, the advantage of using 1,064-nm excitation and SSE compared with 785-nm excitation was quite limited. Regarding the heroin samples, a significant improvement of the "high" confident positive detected rate was evident for 1,064 nm excitation (60.8%) and SSE (61.4%), compared with 785-nm excitation (13.1%). However, it was also seen that even if 1,064-nm excitation and SSE were applied, the fluorescence of heroin samples was still unable to be fully overcome. By using the characteristic peaks method, low LOD results of 5%-20% were acquired for 40 types of drug mixtures, and lower LODs were obtained for the 60% of the drug mixtures compared with library searching method. Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with the characteristic peaks method was shown to be fast, simple, accurate, and sensitive in the qualitative analysis of seized drug samples.

10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 110937, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compound sophorae decoction (CSD), a Chinese Herbal decoction, is frequently clinically prescribed for patients suffered from ulcerative colitis (UC) characterized by bloody diarrhea. Yet, the underlying mechanism about how this formulae works is remain elusive. METHODS: In the present study, the experimental colitis in C57BL/6 J mice was induced by oral administration of standard diets containing 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), and CSD was given orally for treatment at the same time. The clinical symptoms including stool and body weight were recorded each day, and colon length and its histopathological changes were observed. Apoptosis of colonic epithelium was studied by detecting protein expression of cleaved caspase-3, and cell proliferation by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry. Tight junction complex like ZO-1 and occludin were also determined by transmission electron microscope and immunofluorescence. The concentration of FITC-dextran 4000 was measured to evaluate intestinal barrier permeability and possible signaling pathway was investigated. Mucin2 (MUC2) and notch pathway were tested through western blot. The M1/M2 ratio in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes were detected by flow cytometry. And the mRNA levels of iNOS and Arg1 were examined by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: CSD could significantly alleviate the clinical manifestations and pathological damage. Body weight loss and DAI score of mice with colitis were improved and shortening of colon was inhibited. The administration of CSD was able to reduce apoptotic epithelial cells and facilitate epithelial cell regeneration. Increased intestinal permeability was reduced in DSS-induced colitis mice. In addition, CSD treatment obviously up-regulated the expression of ZO-1 and occludin and the secretion of MUC2, regulated notch signaling, and decreased the ratio of M1/M2. CONCLUSIONS: These data together suggest that CSD can effectively mitigate intestinal inflammation, promote phenotypic change in macrophage phenotype and enhance colonic mucosal barrier function by, at least in part, regulating notch signaling in mice affected by DSS-induced colitis.

11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(12): 787, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241491

RESUMO

The transportation of container trucks in urban areas not only frequently causes traffic jams but also produces severe air pollution. With regard to this consideration, measurements of particle concentrations and traffic volume on different polluted days were carried out to discover the varied characteristics of particles from container truck transportation in the port area. Based on the original data, descriptive statistics were performed firstly to reveal the statistical characteristics of particle number concentrations (PNC). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test as well as the Anderson-Darling test was adopted to identify the "best-fit" distributions on PNC data while the corresponding maximum likelihood estimation was conducted to estimate the parameters of the identified distribution. Additionally, the Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis were performed respectively to reveal the relationships between traffic volume and PNC. The results showed that on a hazy day, PNC levels in the morning were generally higher than those in the afternoon, while on a non-hazy day, the results were opposite. Particles in all sizes on a non-hazy day and larger than 0.5 µm on a hazy day were verified to fit the lognormal distribution. In contrast to the particles below 2 µm, the particles above 2 µm exhibited higher correlations with the traffic flow of a container truck in the morning on a hazy day. These results indicate the importance of reducing air pollution from a container truck and provide policymakers with a foundation for possible measures in a port city.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Veículos Automotores , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
12.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028984

RESUMO

Sustained elevation of corticosterone (CORT) is one of the common causes of aging and major depression disorder. However, the role of elevated CORT in late life depression (LLD) has not been elucidated. In this study, 18-month-old female rats were subjected to bilateral adrenalectomy or sham surgery. Their CORT levels in plasma were adjusted by CORT replacement and the rats were divided into high-level CORT (H-CORT), low-level CORT (L-CORT), and Sham group. We showed that L-CORT rats displayed attenuated depressive symptoms and memory defects in behavioral tests as compared with Sham or H-CORT rats. Furthermore, we showed that glutamatergic transmission was enhanced in L-CORT rats, evidenced by enhanced population spike amplitude (PSA) recorded from the dentate gyrus of hippocampus in vivo and increased glutamate release from hippocampal synaptosomes caused by high frequency stimulation or CORT exposure. Intracerebroventricular injection of an enzymatic glutamate scavenger system, glutamic-pyruvic transmine (GPT, 1 µM), significantly increased the PSA in Sham rats, suggesting that extracelluar accumulation of glutamate might be the culprit of impaired glutamatergic transmission, which was dependent on the uptake by Glt-1 in astrocytes. We revealed that hippocampal Glt-1 expression level in the L-CORT rats was much higher than in Sham and H-CORT rats. In a gradient neuron-astrocyte coculture, we found that the expression of Glt-1 was decreased with the increase of neural percentage, suggesting that impairment of Glt-1 might result from the high level of CORT contributed neural damage. In sham rats, administration of DHK that inhibited Glt-1 activity induced significant LLD symptoms, whereas administration of RIL that promoted glutamate uptake significantly attenuated LLD. All of these results suggest that glutamatergic transmission impairment is one of important pathogenesis in LLD induced by high level of CORT, which provide promising clues for the treatment of LLD.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126623

RESUMO

The anti-cancer effects of cannabinoids including CBD (Cannabidiol) and THC ((-)-trans-∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol) have been reported in the case of pancreatic cancer (PC). The connection of these cannabinoids to KRas oncogenes that mutate in more than 90% of PC, and their effects on PD-L1, a key target of immune checkpoint blockade, have not been thoroughly investigated. Using cell lines and mouse models of PC, the effects of CBD and THC on cancer growth, the interaction between PC cells and a stromal cell, namely pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), and the mechanism(s) involved were determined by cell-based assays and mouse study in vivo. CBD and THC inhibited the proliferation of PC, PSC, and PSC-stimulated PC cells. They also suppressed pancreatic tumour growth in mice. Furthermore, CBD and/or THC reduced the expression of PD-L1 by either PC or PSC cells. Knockout of p-21 activated kinase 1 (PAK1, activated by KRas) in PC and PSC cells and, in mice, dramatically decreased or blocked these inhibitory effects of CBD and/or THC. These results indicated that CBD and THC exerted their inhibitions on PC and PSC via a p-21 activated kinase 1 (PAK1)-dependent pathway, suggesting that CBD and THC suppress Kras activated pathway by targeting PAK1. The inhibition by CBD and THC of PD-L1 expression will enhance the immune checkpoint blockade of PC.

15.
Chem Soc Rev ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073812

RESUMO

Dramatically increased CO2 concentration from several point sources is perceived to cause severe greenhouse effect towards the serious ongoing global warming with associated climate destabilization, inducing undesirable natural calamities, melting of glaciers, and extreme weather patterns. CO2 capture and utilization (CCU) has received tremendous attention due to its significant role in intensifying global warming. Considering the lack of a timely review on the state-of-the-art progress of promising CCU techniques, developing an appropriate and prompt summary of such advanced techniques with a comprehensive understanding is necessary. Thus, it is imperative to provide a timely review, given the fast growth of sophisticated CO2 capture and utilization materials and their implementation. In this work, we critically summarized and comprehensively reviewed the characteristics and performance of both liquid and solid CO2 adsorbents with possible schemes for the improvement of their CO2 capture ability and advances in CO2 utilization. Their industrial applications in pre- and post-combustion CO2 capture as well as utilization were systematically discussed and compared. With our great effort, this review would be of significant importance for academic researchers for obtaining an overall understanding of the current developments and future trends of CCU. This work is bound to benefit researchers in fields relating to CCU and facilitate the progress of significant breakthroughs in both fundamental research and commercial applications to deliver perspective views for future scientific and industrial advances in CCU.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012100

RESUMO

QF-036 is an HIV-1 maturation inhibitor in pre-clinical development, and its antiviral activity against a laboratory HIV-1 strain and two drug-resistant strains was determined in the C8166 line. QF-036 was also subjected to absorption, distribution and metabolism (ADM) assessment in vitro, and pharmacokinetic profiles were evaluated in rats and monkeys. The 50% effective concentrations (EC50 ) of QF-036 against the three strains were 20.36 nM, 0.39 µM and 2.11 nM, respectively, demonstrating better antiviral potential than the first-generation antiviral maturation inhibitor bevirimat. QF-036 demonstrated moderate cell permeability, high plasma protein binding ability and good metabolic stability in vitro. After oral QF-036 administration to rats and monkeys, both species exhibited moderate bioavailability, and the plasma drug exposure increased in an approximately dose-proportional manner. When administered orally (30 mg/kg) to monkeys, the QF-036 plasma concentration (Cmax ) peaked at 3671 ng/mL (4.82 µM), 12 to 2410 times higher than the EC50 of laboratory or resistant HIV-1 strains. Moreover, the plasma concentration of QF-036 at 12 hours after administration was 263 ng/mL (0.35 µM), which approximately matched the highest EC50 value of the three test strains. The favourable viral inhibitory activity and pharmacokinetic properties provide critical support for QF-036 as a promising anti-HIV therapeutic candidate.

17.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(19): 11848-11856, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885975

RESUMO

The NO-NO2 cycle determines the formation of O3 and hence plays a critical role in the oxidizing capacity of troposphere. Traditional view concluded that the heterogeneous oxidation of NO to NO2 was negligible due to the weak reactivity of NO on aerosols, compared to the homogeneous oxidation process. However, the results here reported for the first time that SO2 can greatly promote the heterogeneous transformation of NO into NO2 and HONO on MgO particles under ambient conditions. The uptake coefficients of NO were increased by 2-3 orders of magnitudes on SO2-aged MgO, compared to the fresh sample. Based on spectroscopic characterization and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the active sites for the adsorption and oxidation of NO were determined to be sulfates, where an intermediate [SO4-NO] complex was formed during the adsorption. The decomposition of this species led to the formation of NO2 and the change of sulfate configuration. The formed NO2 could further react with surface sulfite to form HONO and sulfate. The conversion of NO to NO2 and HONO on the SO2-aged MgO surface under ambient conditions contributes a new formation pathway of NO2 and HONO and could be quite helpful for understanding the source of atmospheric oxidizing capacity as well as the formation of air pollution complexes in polluted regions such as the northern China.

18.
Environ Res ; 189: 109949, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980021

RESUMO

Sustainable development calls for a blue sky with quality air. Encouragingly, the current mass reduction-oriented pollution control is making substantial achievements, as the data from Chinese Environmental Monitoring Stations show a significant drop in the annual average concentrations of particulate matters (i.e., PM10 and PM2.5) and SO2. But many challenges and knowledge gaps are still confronted nowadays. On one hand, long-term health impacts of fine air particles have to be closely probed through both epidemiological and laboratory studies, and the toxic effects owing to the interactions between particles and associated chemical pollutants should be differentially teased out. On the other hand, due to sole mass control, there are significant changes of overall pollutant fingerprint, such as the increase of ground-level ozone concentration, which should be taken into account for altered health effects relative to the past. Moreover, the interplays with air pollutants and air-borne pathogens should be scrutinized in more details. In other words, it is worth investigating likely spread of pathogens (even for SARS-CoV-2) with aid of aerosols. Here, we recapitulate the current knowledge gaps between air pollution controls and health impacts including pathogen epidemic, and we also propose future research directions to support policy making in balance mass control and health impacts.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Material Particulado , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
19.
J Forensic Sci ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986857

RESUMO

In this study, the Raman spectra of 21 phenethylamines were obtained using far-red excitation (785 nm). The distinguishing ability of Raman for phenethylamines, especially for phenethylamine regioisomers and structural analogues, was investigated. Here, the evaluation of a cross section of Raman spectra demonstrated that all types of phenethylamines were distinguishable, even for certain structural analogues with high spectrum similarity. Raman exhibited high distinguishing ability for phenethylamine regioisomers that differ in the substitution position of halogen, methoxy, alkyl, or other substituted groups; as well as for structural analogues containing different groups, such as furanyl, 2,3-dihydrofuranyl, halogen, and alkyl substituted at the same position. The Raman spectra for homologues with differences in only a methyl group were found to be highly similar; however, their spectra demonstrated small but detectable differences. Four analogue mixtures and 59 seized samples were also analyzed to study the practical use of the Raman method in forensic field. 95% of the seized samples were correctly identified, which significantly validated the ability of Raman method in identifying the correct isomers. Accordingly, this study provides a non-destructive, high-throughput and minimal sample preparation technique for the discrimination of phenethylamines.

20.
J Mater Chem B ; 8(36): 8476-8477, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902534

RESUMO

Correction for 'Chondroitin sulfate-polydopamine modified polyethylene terephthalate with extracellular matrix-mimetic immunoregulatory functions for osseointegration' by Ya-Min Li et al., J. Mater. Chem. B, 2019, 7, 7756-7770, DOI: .

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