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1.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 2262549, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35498209

RESUMO

In recent years, analysis and optimization algorithm based on image data is a research hotspot. Aircraft detection based on aerial images can provide data support for accurately attacking military targets. Although many efforts have been devoted, it is still challenging due to the poor environment, the vastness of the sky background, and so on. This paper proposes an aircraft detection method named TransEffiDet in aerial images based on the EfficientDet method and Transformer module. We improved the EfficientDet algorithm by combining it with the Transformer which models the long-range dependency for the feature maps. Specifically, we first employ EfficientDet as the backbone network, which can efficiently fuse the different scale feature maps. Then, deformable Transformer is used to analyze the long-range correlation for global feature extraction. Furthermore, we designed a fusion module to fuse the long-range and short-range features extracted by EfficientDet and deformable Transformer, respectively. Finally, object class is produced by feeding the feature map to the class prediction net and the bounding box predictions are generated by feeding these fused features to the box prediction net. The mean Average Precision (mAP) is 86.6%, which outperforms the EfficientDet by 5.8%. The experiment shows that TransEffiDet is more robust than other methods. Additionally, we have established a public aerial dataset for aircraft detection, which will be released along with this paper.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Algoritmos
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(9): 2296-2303, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531675

RESUMO

The continuous cropping obstacle of Gastrodia elata is outstanding, but its mechanism is still unclear. In this study, microbial changes in soils after G. elata planting were investigated to explore the mechanism correlated with continuous cropping obstacle. The changes of species and abundance of fungi and bacteria in soils planted with G. elata after 1, 2, and 3 years were compared. The pathogenic fungi that might cause continuous cropping diseases of G. elata were isolated. Finally, the prevention and control measures of soil-borne fungal diseases of G. elata were investigated with the rotation planting pattern of "G. elata-Phallus impudicus". The results showed that G. elata planting resulted in the decrease in bacterial and fungal community stability and the increase in harmful fungus species and abundance in soils. This change was most obvious in the second year after G. elata planting, and the soil microbial community structure could not return to the normal level even if it was left idle for another two years. After G. elata planting in soils, the most significant change was observed in Ilyonectria cyclaminicola. The richness of the Ilyonectria fungus in soils was significantly positively correlated with the incidence of G. elata diseases. When I. cyclaminicola was inoculated in the sterile soil, the rot rate of G. elata was also significantly increased. After planting one crop of G. elata and one to three crops of P. impudicus, the fungus community structure in soils gradually recovered, and the abundance of I. cyclaminicola decreased year by year. Furthermore, the disease rate of G. elata decreased. The results showed that the cultivation of G. elata made the Ilyonectria fungi the dominant flora in soils, and I. cyclaminicola served as the main pathogen of continuous cropping diseases of G. elata, which could be reduced by rotation planting with P. impudicus.


Assuntos
Gastrodia , Micobioma , Bactérias , Fungos , Gastrodia/microbiologia , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 211: 1-14, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35551949

RESUMO

Herein, functionalization cellulose-based composite aerogels with the addition of carboxyl cellulose nanofibers (CNF), montmorillonite (MMT) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) were fabricated by solution blending and freeze-drying technology. MMT was blended into the cellulose framework as a reinforcing agent. PEI combined with cellulose through amidation reaction, and the synergism of hydrogen bond and chemical bond helped the CNF/MMT/PEI composite aerogels (CMP) with good mechanical properties. The morphology, chemical structure and thermal stability of the CMP were characterized. The adsorption properties and mechanism of the CMP were discussed, using Congo red (CR) dye as an adsorbate. The results showed that the CMP formed a three-dimensional network structure with abundant pores. The addition of PEI regulated the surface charge distribution of cellulose and improved the adsorption performance of CMP for CR with the adsorption capacity of 3114 mg/g calculated by the Langmuir model. The adsorption process of CMP-30 for CR was more in line with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model, indicating chemical adsorption of a single molecular layer. After functionalized by octadecyl trichlorosilane (OTS), the contact angle of the aerogel surface was 151.80°. Meanwhile, the CMP-30 was transformed from hydrophilic and lipophilic properties to hydrophobic and lipophilic properties.

4.
Br Poult Sci ; 2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383522

RESUMO

1. The following study examined the expression profiles of the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) family in the developing feather follicles of Pekin ducks and Nonghua ducks at 6-9 weeks of age. The RTK subfamilies related to feather development were summarised, and other candidate genes related to feather development were enriched.2. To reveal the potential role of all RTK members in feather development, the feather follicles of two duck breeds (Pekin and Nonghua ducks) at 6-9 weeks were isolated and chosen for RNA-Seq determination.3. A total of 53 RTK members were confirmed in the duck genome, and 42 were expressed in duck feather follicles. Among RTK subfamilies, the VEGFR, PDGFR, FGFR, EGFR, and InsR subfamilies, along with and Met and KIT genes, were the main ones regulating feather growth.4. Genes with a similar expression pattern to the RTK were identified, and KEGG and PPI analyses were performed o to explore the new potential feather development genes associated with RTK genes. Results showed that BCAR1, PXN, LAMA2, LAMC1 and LAMC3 are essential candidate genes for regulating feather growth.

5.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 4534080, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35401877

RESUMO

Background: Pyroptosis is a form of programmed cell death, playing a significant role in cancer. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor. The poor prognosis in GBM due to temozolomide (TMZ) resistance has been widely discussed. Such being the case, the correlation between TMZ resistance and pyroptosis is seldom investigated. On this basis, this paper aims to explore the potential prognostic value of genes related to TMZ resistance and pyroptosis as well as their relationship to the immune microenvironment in GBM. Methods: A total of 103 patients from TCGA were assigned to a training cohort; 190 from CGGA were assigned to a validation cohort. The prognostic risk model reflecting pyroptosis and TMZ resistance was built from the training cohort using multivariate Cox regression and performed validation. RT-qPCR was used to examine the expression of 4 genes from the risk signature. FOXP3 was selected for overexpression and verified using the western blot. The TMZ IC50 of FOXP3-overexpressed cell lines was determined by CCK8. Results: A four genes-based risk signature was established and validated, separating GBM patients into high- and low-risk groups. Compared with the low-risk group, the high-risk group presented worse clinical survival outcomes. Its differential expressed genes were enriched in immune-related pathways and closely related to the immune microenvironment. Moreover, RT-qPCR results suggested that FOXP3, IRF3, and CD274 were significantly upregulated in TMZ-resistant strains, while TP63 was downregulated. FOXP3-overexpressed GBM cell lines had higher TMZ IC50, implying an increased resistance of TMZ. Conclusion: A novel gene signature relevant to pyroptosis and TMZ resistance was constructed and could be used for the prognosis of GBM. The four genes from the risk model might play a potential role in antitumor immunity and serve as therapeutic targets for GBM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead , Glioblastoma , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/genética , Humanos , Prognóstico , Piroptose , Temozolomida/farmacologia , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
6.
Dev Cell ; 57(7): 901-913.e4, 2022 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413238

RESUMO

The switch from mitosis to meiosis ensures the successive formation of gametes. However, it remains unclear how meiotic initiation occurs within the context of chromatin. Recent studies have shown that zinc finger HIT-type containing 1 (Znhit1), a subunit of the SRCAP chromatin remodeling complex, plays essential roles in modulating the chromatin structure. Herein, we report that the germline-conditional deletion of Znhit1 in male mice specifically blocks meiotic initiation. We show that Znhit1 is required for meiotic prophase events, including synapsis, DNA double-strand break formation, and meiotic DNA replication. Mechanistically, Znhit1 controls the histone variant H2A.Z deposition, which facilitates the expression of meiotic genes, such as Meiosin, but not the expression of Stra8. Interestingly, Znhit1 deficiency disrupts the transcription bubbles of meiotic genes. Thus, our findings identify the essential role of Znhit1-dependent H2A.Z deposition in allowing activation of meiotic gene expression, thereby controlling the initiation of meiosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Proteínas de Transporte , Células Germinativas , Meiose , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Cromatina , Expressão Gênica , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Masculino , Meiose/genética , Camundongos
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e227503, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35426923

RESUMO

Importance: Maternal immune activation during pregnancy is associated with increased risks of several mental disorders in offspring during childhood, but little is known about how maternal autoimmune diseases during pregnancy are associated with mental health in offspring during and after childhood. Objective: To investigate the association between maternal autoimmune diseases before childbirth and risk of mental disorders among offspring up to early adulthood. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based nationwide cohort study used data from Danish national registers on singletons born in Denmark from 1978 to 2015 with up to 38 years of follow-up. Data analyses were conducted from March 1, 2020, through September 30, 2021. Exposures: Maternal autoimmune disease diagnosed before or during pregnancy according to the Danish National Patient Register. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was mental disorders, defined by hospital diagnoses, in offspring. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for mental disorders. Results: Of the 2 254 234 singleton infants included in the study (median age, 16.7 years [IQR, 10.5-21.7 years]; 51.28% male), 2.26% were born to mothers with autoimmune diseases before childbirth. Exposed participants had an increased risk of overall mental disorders compared with their unexposed counterparts (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.13-1.19; incidence, 9.38 vs 7.91 per 1000 person-years). Increased risks of overall mental disorders in offspring were seen in different age groups for type 1 diabetes (1-5 years: HR, 1.35 [95% CI, 1.17-1.57]; 6-18 years: HR, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.15-1.33]; >18 years: HR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.09-1.30]) and rheumatoid arthritis (1-5 years: HR, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.16-1.74]; 6-18 years: HR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.05-1.36]; >18 years: HR, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.02-1.60]). Regarding specific mental disorders, increased risk after exposure to any maternal autoimmune disorder was observed for organic disorders (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.21-1.94), schizophrenia (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.21-1.51), obsessive-compulsive disorder (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.24-1.63), mood disorders (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.21), and a series of neurodevelopmental disorders (eg, childhood autism [HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08-1.36] and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.12-1.26]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study in Denmark, prenatal exposure to maternal autoimmune diseases was associated with increased risks of overall and type-specific mental disorders in offspring. Maternal type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis during pregnancy were associated with offspring's mental health up to early adulthood. Individuals prenatally exposed to autoimmune disease may benefit from long-term surveillance for mental disorders.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adolescente , Adulto , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(8)2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457256

RESUMO

Nyctinastic leaf movement of Fabaceae is driven by the tiny motor organ pulvinus located at the base of the leaf or leaflet. Despite the increased understanding of the essential role of ELONGATED PETIOLULE1 (ELP1)/PETIOLE LIKE PULVINUS (PLP) orthologs in determining pulvinus identity in legumes, key regulatory components and molecular mechanisms underlying this movement remain largely unclear. Here, we used WT pulvinus and the equivalent tissue in the elp1 mutant to carry out transcriptome and proteome experiments. The omics data indicated that there are multiple cell biological processes altered at the gene expression and protein abundance level during the pulvinus development. In addition, comparative analysis of different leaf tissues provided clues to illuminate the possible common primordium between pulvinus and petiole, as well as the function of ELP1. Furthermore, the auxin pathway, cell wall composition and chloroplast distribution were altered in elp1 mutants, verifying their important roles in pulvinus development. This study provides a comprehensive insight into the motor organ of the model legume Medicago truncatula and further supplies a rich dataset to facilitate the identification of novel players involved in nyctinastic movement.


Assuntos
Medicago truncatula , Pulvínulo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Medicago truncatula/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pulvínulo/metabolismo
9.
Am J Emerg Med ; 56: 151-157, 2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Emergency department (ED) hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening programs are proliferating, and it is unknown whether EDs are more effective than traditional community screening at promoting HCV follow-up care. The objective of this study was to investigate whether patients screened HCV seropositive (HCV+) in the ED are linked to care and retained in treatment more successfully than patients screened HCV+ in the community. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed including patients screened HCV+ at twelve screening facilities in New Orleans, LA from March 1, 2015 to July 31, 2017. Treatment outcomes, including retention and time to follow-up care, were assessed using the HCV continuum of care model. RESULTS: ED patients (n = 3008) were significantly more likely to achieve RNA confirmation (aRR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.54-2.37), initiate HCV therapy (aRR = 2.23 [1.76-2.83]), complete HCV therapy (aRR = 1.77 [1.40-2.24]), and achieve HCV functional cure (aRR = 2.80 [1.09-7.23]) compared to community-screened patients (n = 322). ED screening was associated with decreased likelihood of fibrosis staging (aRR = 0.65 [0.51-0.82]) and no difference in linkage to specialty care (aRR = 1.03 [0.69-1.53]). In time to follow up, RNA confirmation occurred at faster rates in the ED (aHR = 2.26 [1.86-2.72]), although these patients completed fibrosis staging at slower rates (aHR = 0.49 [0.38-0.63]) than community patients. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to community screening, HCV screening in the ED was associated with higher rates of disease confirmation, treatment initiation/completion, and cure. Our findings provide new evidence that EDs may be the most effective setting to screen patients for HCV to promote follow-up care.

10.
Neurosci Bull ; 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429324

RESUMO

Crossmodal information processing in sensory cortices has been reported in sparsely distributed neurons under normal conditions and can undergo experience- or activity-induced plasticity. Given the potential role in brain function as indicated by previous reports, crossmodal connectivity in the sensory cortex needs to be further explored. Using perforated whole-cell recording in anesthetized adult rats, we found that almost all neurons recorded in the primary somatosensory, auditory, and visual cortices exhibited significant membrane-potential responses to crossmodal stimulation, as recorded when brain activity states were pharmacologically down-regulated in light anesthesia. These crossmodal cortical responses were excitatory and subthreshold, and further seemed to be relayed primarily by the sensory thalamus, but not the sensory cortex, of the stimulated modality. Our experiments indicate a sensory cortical presence of widespread excitatory crossmodal inputs, which might play roles in brain functions involving crossmodal information processing or plasticity.

11.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 281, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Egg production is one of the most important economic traits in the poultry industry. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis plays an essential role in regulating reproductive activities. However, the key genes and regulatory pathways within the HPG axis dominating egg production performance remain largely unknown in ducks. RESULTS: In this study, we compared the transcriptomic profiles of the HPG-related tissues between ducks with high egg production (HEP) and low egg production (LEP) to reveal candidate genes and regulatory pathways dominating egg production. We identified 543, 759, 670, and 181 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary stroma, and F5 follicle membrane, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed that DEGs from four HPG axis-related tissues were enriched in the "cellular component" category. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis indicated that the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway was significantly enriched based on DEGs commonly identified in all four HPG axis-related tissues. Gene expression profiles and Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network were performed to show the regulatory relationships of the DEGs identified. Five DEGs encoding secreted proteins in the hypothalamus and pituitary have interaction with DEGs encoding targeted proteins in the ovary stroma and F5 follicle membrane, implying that they were these DEGs might play similar roles in the regulation of egg production. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway and five key genes(VEGFC, SPARC, BMP2, THBS1, and ADAMTS15) were identified as the key signaling pathways and candidate genes within the HPG axis responsible for different egg production performance between HEP and LEP. This is the first study comparing the transcriptomic profiles of all HPG axis-related tissues in HEP and LEP using RNA-seq in ducks to the best of our knowledge. These data are helpful to enrich our understanding of the classical HPG axis regulating the egg production performance and identify candidate genes that can be used for genetic selection in ducks.


Assuntos
Patos , Transcriptoma , Animais , Patos/genética , Patos/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Ligantes , Ovário/metabolismo
12.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 10(4): e33628, 2022 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reducing the treatment gap for mental health in low- and middle-income countries is a high priority. Even with treatment, adherence to antipsychotics is rather low. Our integrated intervention package significantly improved medication adherence within 6 months for villagers with schizophrenia in resource-poor communities in rural China. However, considering the resource constraint, we need to test whether the effect of those behavior-shaping interventions may be maintained even after the suspension of the intervention. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore the primary outcome of adherence and other outcomes at an 18-month follow-up after the intervention had been suspended. METHODS: In a 6-month randomized trial, 277 villagers with schizophrenia were randomized to receive either a government community mental health program (686 Program) or the 686 Program plus Lay health supporters, e-platform, award, and integration (LEAN), which included health supporters for medication or care supervision, e-platform access for sending mobile SMS text messaging reminders and education message, a token gift for positive behavior changes (eg, continuing taking medicine), and integrating the e-platform with the existing 686 Program. After the 6-month intervention, both groups received only the 686 Program for 18 months (phase 2). Outcomes at both phases included antipsychotic medication adherence, functioning, symptoms, number of rehospitalization, suicide, and violent behaviors. The adherence and functioning were assessed at the home visit by trained assessors. We calculated the adherence in the past 30 days by counting the percentage of dosages taken from November to December 2018 by unannounced home-based pill counts. The functioning was assessed using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. The symptoms were evaluated using the Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia during their visits to the 686 Program psychiatrists. Other outcomes were routinely collected in the 686 Program system. We used intention-to-treat analysis, and missing data were dealt with using multiple imputation. The generalized estimating equation model was used to assess program effects on adherence, functioning, and symptoms. RESULTS: In phase 1, antipsychotic adherence and rehospitalization incidence improved significantly. However, in phase 2, the difference of the mean of antipsychotic adherence (adjusted mean difference 0.05, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.16; P=.41; Cohen d effect size=0.11) and rehospitalization incidence (relative risk 0.65, 95% CI 0.32-1.33; P=.24; number needed to treat 21.83, 95% CI 8.30-34.69) was no longer statistically significant, and there was no improvement in other outcomes in either phase (P≥.05). CONCLUSIONS: The simple community-based LEAN intervention could not continually improve adherence and reduce the rehospitalization of people with schizophrenia. Our study inclined to suggest that prompts for medication may be necessary to maintain medication adherence for people with schizophrenia, although we cannot definitively exclude other alternative interpretations.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , China , Seguimentos , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico
13.
N Engl J Med ; 386(16): 1495-1504, 2022 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term efficacy and safety of time-restricted eating for weight loss are not clear. METHODS: We randomly assigned 139 patients with obesity to time-restricted eating (eating only between 8:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m.) with calorie restriction or daily calorie restriction alone. For 12 months, all the participants were instructed to follow a calorie-restricted diet that consisted of 1500 to 1800 kcal per day for men and 1200 to 1500 kcal per day for women. The primary outcome was the difference between the two groups in the change from baseline in body weight; secondary outcomes included changes in waist circumference, body-mass index (BMI), amount of body fat, and measures of metabolic risk factors. RESULTS: Of the total 139 participants who underwent randomization, 118 (84.9%) completed the 12-month follow-up visit. The mean weight loss from baseline at 12 months was -8.0 kg (95% confidence interval [CI], -9.6 to -6.4) in the time-restriction group and -6.3 kg (95% CI, -7.8 to -4.7) in the daily-calorie-restriction group. Changes in weight were not significantly different in the two groups at the 12-month assessment (net difference, -1.8 kg; 95% CI, -4.0 to 0.4; P = 0.11). Results of analyses of waist circumferences, BMI, body fat, body lean mass, blood pressure, and metabolic risk factors were consistent with the results of the primary outcome. In addition, there were no substantial differences between the groups in the numbers of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with obesity, a regimen of time-restricted eating was not more beneficial with regard to reduction in body weight, body fat, or metabolic risk factors than daily calorie restriction. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Project [No. 2018YFA0800404] and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03745612.).


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Jejum , Obesidade , Perda de Peso , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Fatores de Tempo
14.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 76, 2022 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35296244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rearing systems can affect livestock production directly, but whether they have effects on intestinal growth states and ceca microorganisms in ducks is largely unclear. The current study used Nonghua ducks to estimate the effects of rearing systems on the intestines by evaluating differences in intestinal growth indices and cecal microorganisms between ducks in the floor-rearing system (FRS) and net-rearing system (NRS). RESULTS: The values of relative weight (RW), relative length (RL) and RW/RL of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and ceca in the FRS were significantly higher than those in the NRS during weeks 4, 8 and 13 (p < 0.05). A total of 157 genera were identified from ducks under the two systems, and the dominant microorganisms in both treatments were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria at the phylum level. The distribution of microorganisms in the ceca of the two treatments showed significant separation during the three time periods, and the value of the Simpson index in the FRS was significantly higher than that in the NRS at 13 weeks (p < 0.05). Five differential microorganisms and 25 differential metabolic pathways were found in the ceca at week 4, seven differential microorganisms and 25 differential metabolic pathways were found in the ceca at week 8, and four differential microorganisms and two differential metabolic pathways were found in the ceca at week 13. CONCLUSIONS: The rearing system influences duck intestinal development and microorganisms. The FRS group had higher intestinal RL, RW and RW/RL and obviously separated ceca microorganisms compared to those of the NRS group. The differential metabolic pathways of cecal microorganisms decreased with increasing age, and the abundance of translation pathways was higher in the NRS group at week 13, while cofactor and vitamin metabolism were more abundant in the FRS group.


Assuntos
Ceco , Patos , Animais , Bactérias , Ceco/microbiologia , Patos/microbiologia , Íleo/microbiologia , Intestinos
15.
Poult Sci ; 101(5): 101813, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35358925

RESUMO

Fatty acid composition contributes greatly to the nutritional value of meat, and breeds/strains are important factors affecting the composition of fatty acid. Recently, few studies have focused on the fatty acid composition in breast muscle of different duck breeds. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to compare the fatty acid composition and lipid metabolism-related genes expression in breast muscle of Jianchang duck (J), Cherry Verry duck (CV) and 3 crossbred strains (BH1, BH2 and MC♂ × (BGF2♂  × GF2♀)♀ (MBG)). Our results showed that the breast muscle of J had the highest contents of C22:1(n-9) but the lowest ratios of Æ©-omega 6 (Æ©n-6)/Æ©-omega 3 (Æ©n-3), Æ©-mono-unsaturated fatty acid (Æ©MUFA)/Æ©-saturated fatty acid (Æ©SFA) and Æ©-polyunsaturated fatty acid (Æ©PUFA)/Æ©SFA. The Æ©PUFA/Æ©SFA ratio was higher in breast muscle of MBG than in that of BH2 and CV, and the contents of C22:1(n-9), Æ©MUFA and Æ©PUFA were higher in BH1 than in BH2 and CV. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of SCD1, FADS2, ELOVL2, and ELOVL5 were significantly higher in MBG (P < 0.05), while those of FASD1 and ACACA were significantly higher in BH1 than in BH2 and CV (P < 0.05). Principal component analysis showed that fatty acids variation exhibited extensive positive loading on principal components (PCs). Correlation analysis showed that PC1 and PC3 of BH1, as well as PC1 of MBG were correlated with the mRNA levels of ACACA and FABP3, respectively. Thus, it could be concluded that the breast muscles of MBG and BH1 have better fatty acid composition, which was closely related to the increased expression levels of SCD1, FADS2, ELOVL2, and ELOVL5 genes in MBG but FADS1 and ACACA in BH1. Moreover, these results also showed that crossbreeding could optimize the composition of fatty acid in breast muscle of ducks.


Assuntos
Patos , Ácidos Graxos , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Patos/genética , Patos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Músculos Peitorais/química , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
16.
Gene ; 824: 146378, 2022 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276241

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of glucokinase (GCK) gene, glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) gene polymorphisms with the susceptibility to GDM in Chinese population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This case-control study included 835 GDM patients and 870 non-diabetic pregnant women who had their prenatal examinations at 24-28 gestational weeks at the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province from January 15, 2018 to March 31, 2019. The nurses were trained to collect clinical information and blood samples. The candidate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs, GCK rs1799884, rs4607517, rs10278336, rs2268574, rs730497 and GCKR rs780094, rs1260326) were genotyped on Sequenom Massarray platform. Statistical analysis including independent sample t test, chi-square test, logistic regression and one-way ANOVA were performed to evaluate the differences in allele and genotype distributions and their correlations with the odds of GDM. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in age, pre-gestational BMI, education level and family history of diabetes between case and control group (P < 0.05). After adjusting for these confounders, GCK rs1799884 was still significantly associated with GDM (P < 0.05), but there were no significant associations between rs4607517, rs10278336 and rs2268574, rs780094 and rs1260326 polymorphisms and GDM odds (P > 0.05). In addition, the pregnant women with rs4607517 TT genotype had the significantly higher fasting blood glucose level than CC genotype (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: GCK rs1799884 mutation is associated with higher GDM odds in Chinese population. Further larger studies are needed to explore the association between GCK and GCKR polymorphisms and GDM susceptibility.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Glucoquinase , Proteínas de Transporte , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Diabetes Gestacional/genética , Feminino , Glucoquinase/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez
17.
Front Genet ; 13: 836798, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35281805

RESUMO

The new technology of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) can yield valuable insights into gene expression and give critical information about the cellular compositions of complex tissues. In recent years, vast numbers of scRNA-seq datasets have been generated and made publicly available, and this has enabled researchers to train supervised machine learning models for predicting or classifying various cell-level phenotypes. This has led to the development of many new methods for analyzing scRNA-seq data. Despite the popularity of such applications, there has as yet been no systematic investigation of the performance of these supervised algorithms using predictors from various sizes of scRNA-seq datasets. In this study, 13 popular supervised machine learning algorithms for cell phenotype classification were evaluated using published real and simulated datasets with diverse cell sizes. This benchmark comprises two parts. In the first, real datasets were used to assess the computing speed and cell phenotype classification performance of popular supervised algorithms. The classification performances were evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, F1-score, Precision, Recall, and false-positive rate. In the second part, we evaluated gene-selection performance using published simulated datasets with a known list of real genes. The results showed that ElasticNet with interactions performed the best for small and medium-sized datasets. The NaiveBayes classifier was found to be another appropriate method for medium-sized datasets. With large datasets, the performance of the XGBoost algorithm was found to be excellent. Ensemble algorithms were not found to be significantly superior to individual machine learning methods. Including interactions in the ElasticNet algorithm caused a significant performance improvement for small datasets. The linear discriminant analysis algorithm was found to be the best choice when speed is critical; it is the fastest method, it can scale to handle large sample sizes, and its performance is not much worse than the top performers.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(8): 10092-10101, 2022 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35170301

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can eradicate cancer cells under light irradiation, mainly because of reactive singlet oxygen (1O2) being transformed from intratumoral oxygen. Nonetheless, the consumption of oxygen during PDT results in serious hypoxic conditions and an elevated hypoxia-inducing factor-1α (HIF-1α) level that hamper further photodynamic efficacy and induce tumor metastasis. To address this problem, we developed hypoxia-assisted NP-co-encapsulating Ce6 (photosensitizer) and YC-1 (HIF-1α inhibitor) as a self-rectifiable nanoinhibitor for synergistic antitumor treatment. PDT-aggravated intracellular hypoxic stress facilitated NP dissociation to release the drug (YC-1), which achieved tumor killing and HIF-1α inhibition to further enhance the therapeutic effect of PDT and prevent tumor metastasis. Besides, in vivo studies revealed that the HC/PI@YC-1 NPs afforded synergistic anticancer efficacy with minimal toxicity. Therefore, this study provides a prospective approach against PDT drawbacks and combination cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Fotoquimioterapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Oxigênio Singlete
19.
Leukemia ; 36(5): 1261-1273, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35173274

RESUMO

The NOTCH1-MYC-CD44 axis integrates cell-intrinsic and extrinsic signaling to ensure the persistence of leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) but a common pathway to target this circuit is poorly defined. Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) is implicated to have a role in the transcriptional regulation of oncogenes MYC and targets downstream of NOTCH1, and here we demonstrate its role in transcriptional regulation of CD44. Hence, targeting BRD4 will dismantle the NOTCH1-MYC-CD44 axis. As a proof of concept, degrading BRD4 with proteolysis targeting chimera (PROTAC) ARV-825, prolonged the survival of mice in Notch1 mutated patient-derived xenograft (PDX) and genetic models (ΔPTEN) of T-ALL. Single-cell proteomics analysis from the PDX model, demonstrated quantitative reduction of LICs (CD34+ CD7+ CD19-) and downregulation of the NOTCH1-MYC-CD44 axis, along with cell cycle, apoptosis and PI3K/Akt pathways. Moreover, secondary transplantation from PDX and ΔPTEN models of T-ALL, confirmed delayed leukemia development and extended survival of mice engrafted with T-ALL from ARV-825 treated mice, providing functional confirmation of depletion of LICs. Hence, BRD4 degradation is a promising LIC-targeting therapy for T-ALL.


Assuntos
Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/genética , Camundongos , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células T Precursoras/metabolismo , Receptor Notch1/genética , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
20.
Anal Chem ; 94(9): 3914-3921, 2022 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35188385

RESUMO

Oligomeric organization of G protein-coupled receptors is proposed to regulate receptor signaling and function, yet rapid and precise identification of the oligomeric status especially for native receptors on a cell membrane remains an outstanding challenge. By using blinking carbon dots (CDs), we now develop a deep learning (DL)-based blinking fingerprint recognition method, named deep-blinking fingerprint recognition (BFR), which allows automatic classification of CD-labeled receptor organizations on a cell membrane. This DL model integrates convolutional layers, long-short-term memory, and fully connected layers to extract time-dependent blinking features of CDs and is trained to a high accuracy (∼95%) for identifying receptor organizations. Using deep blinking fingerprint recognition, we found that CXCR4 mainly exists as 87.3% monomers, 12.4% dimers, and <1% higher-order oligomers on a HeLa cell membrane. We further demonstrate that the heterogeneous organizations can be regulated by various stimuli at different degrees. The receptor-binding ligands, agonist SDF-1α and antagonist AMD3100, can induce the dimerization of CXCR4 to 33.1 and 20.3%, respectively. In addition, cytochalasin D, which inhibits actin polymerization, similarly prompts significant dimerization of CXCR4 to 30.9%. The multi-pathway organization regulation will provide an insight for understanding the oligomerization mechanism of CXCR4 as well as for elucidating their physiological functions.


Assuntos
Carbono , Aprendizado Profundo , Pontos Quânticos , Receptores CXCR4 , Benzilaminas/química , Benzilaminas/farmacologia , Quimiocina CXCL12/agonistas , Ciclamos/química , Ciclamos/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Receptores CXCR4/química
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