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1.
Anim Biotechnol ; : 1-7, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847248

RESUMO

DNA methylation could take part in the gene expression and acts an important role in muscle development. In this study, DNA methylation and expression in adipose and muscle tissues were examined at the same time to evaluate the extent of epigenetic modifications and gene expression on the differentially methylated region (DMR) in SERPINA3. Chain reaction of bisulfite sequencing polymerase (BSP) was used to compared difference among DNA methylation patterns. The result of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that there was an extensive expression of SERPINA3 gene in tissue and there was a significant difference existing in muscle and adipose between Jiaxian cattle and individual of other breeds with increasing hybridization (p < 0.05). The statistic analyses indicated that DNA methylation patterns had a significant influence to the level of mRNA in tissue of fat and muscle. This study may be an important reference for investigating development of muscle tissue in cattle, and may promote the process of cattle molecular breeding.

2.
Neurosci Bull ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856646

RESUMO

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading inherited cause of intellectual disability, resulting from the lack of functional fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an mRNA binding protein mainly serving as a translational regulator. Loss of FMRP leads to dysregulation of target mRNAs. The Drosophila model of FXS show an abnormal circadian rhythm with disruption of the output pathway downstream of the clock network. Yet the FMRP targets involved in circadian regulation have not been identified. Here, we identified collapsing response mediator protein (CRMP) mRNA as a target of FMRP. Knockdown of pan-neuronal CRMP expression ameliorated the circadian defects and abnormal axonal structures of clock neurons (ventral lateral neurons) in dfmr1 mutant flies. Furthermore, specific reduction of CRMP in the downstream output insulin-producing cells attenuated the aberrant circadian behaviors. Molecular analyses revealed that FMRP binds with CRMP mRNA and negatively regulates its translation. Our results indicate that CRMP is an FMRP target and establish an essential role for CRMP in the circadian output in FXS Drosophila.

3.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA12016758, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896191

RESUMO

Cross-sectional studies have reported that high sodium sensitivity is more common among individuals with hypertension. Experimental studies have also reported various animal models with sodium-resistant hypertension. It is unknown, however, whether sodium sensitivity and resistance precede the development of hypertension. We conducted a feeding study, including a 7-day low-sodium diet (1180 mg/day) followed by a 7-day high-sodium diet (7081 mg/day), among 1718 Chinese adults with blood pressure (BP) <140/90 mm Hg. We longitudinally followed them over an average of 7.4 years. Three BP measurements and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion were obtained on each of 3 days during baseline observation, low-sodium and high-sodium interventions, and 2 follow-up studies. Three trajectories of BP responses to dietary sodium intake were identified using latent trajectory analysis. Mean (SD) changes in systolic BP were -13.7 (5.5), -4.9 (3.0), and 2.4 (3.0) mm Hg during the low-sodium intervention and 11.2 (5.3), 4.4 (4.1), and -0.2 (4.1) mm Hg during the high-sodium intervention (P<0.001 for group differences) in high sodium-sensitive, moderate sodium-sensitive, and sodium-resistant groups, respectively. Compared with individuals with moderate sodium sensitivity, multiple-adjusted odds ratios (95% CIs) for incident hypertension were 1.43 (1.03-1.98) for those with high sodium sensitivity and 1.43 (1.03-1.99) for those with sodium resistance (P=0.006 for nonlinear trend). Furthermore, a J-shaped association between systolic BP responses to sodium intake and incident hypertension was identified (P<0.001). Similar results were observed for diastolic BP. Our study indicates that individuals with either high sodium sensitivity or sodium resistance are at an increased risk for developing hypertension.

4.
Biomater Sci ; 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908463

RESUMO

Anti-tumor treatment based on free radicals is often inefficient in hypoxic tumors, mainly because of the oxygen-dependent generation mechanism of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Herein, we report an NIR laser-controlled nano-system that is capable of generating alkyl radicals in situ in an oxygen-independent approach. Hollow mesoporous Prussian blue nanoparticles (HPB NPs) were developed to co-encapsulate the azo initiator (AIBI) and 1-tetradecanol as the phase change material (PCM, melting point of ∼39 °C), obtaining the AP@HPB NPs. At normal body temperature, the PCM remained in the solid state to prevent the pre-leakage of AIBI. Upon NIR laser irradiation (808 nm) at the tumor site, AP@HPB NPs generated heat upon photothermal conversion, which melted the PCM to release AIBI and decomposed AIBI to produce toxicity free alkyl radicals under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The alkyl free radicals efficiently killed tumor cells by causing oxidative stress and damaging DNA. Meanwhile, NIR light-induced hyperthermia cooperated with free radicals to efficiently eradicate tumors. This study therefore provides a promising strategy toward oxygen-independent free radical therapy, especially for the treatment of hypoxic tumors.

5.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(8): 1768-1777, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746594

RESUMO

Aim: In other respiratory infectious diseases, obesity may be associated with a poor outcome. For coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the association between obesity and severity or prognosis requires further analysis. Methods: This was a retrospective, single-center study. Hospitalized patients were recruited in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 2, 2020 to February 20, 2020. The data of body mass index (BMI) was obtained from follow-up of surviving patients. According to BMI, normal weight was defined as 18.5-23.9 kg/m2, overweight as 24.0-27.9 kg/m2 and obesity as > 28.0 kg/m2. Results: A total of 463 patients were enrolled, of which 242 (52.3%) patients were in the normal weight group; 179 (38.7%) were in the overweight group; and 42 (9.1%) were in the obesity group. Compared to the normal group, obese patients were more likely to have a higher heart rate; lower finger oxygen saturation; higher levels of white blood cells, neutrophil counts, basophil counts, intravenous glucose, triacylglycerol, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase-MB, CD19+ cell counts and percentage; and lower levels of monocyte percentage, high density lipoprotein and CD3+ cell percentage. In addition, the proportions of hypertension (21.5% vs. 42.6%) and severe+critical illness (47.8 vs. 81.0 %) were significantly higher in the obesity group than those in normal group. However, no significant differences were observed between the normal and obesity groups in critical illness, organ damage and defined endpoint (mechanical ventilation or intensive care unit). Multiple logistic regression showed that obesity increased the risk of developing severe+critical illness (Odd ratio 3.586, 95% CI 1.550-8.298, P=0.003) in patients with COVID-19, and did not affect the risk of critical illness, organ damage and endpoints. Overweight did not affect the risk of severity, organ damage or endpoint in patients with COVID-19. Conclusion: Obesity may be a risk factor for developing severity in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Idoso , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , /diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
6.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 51(5): 666-673, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with atopic dermatitis (AD) are often sensitized to food and aeroallergens, but sensitization patterns have not been analysed with biologic measures of disease pathogenicity. OBJECTIVE: We sought to define allergen sensitization grouping(s) using unbiased machine learning and determine their associations with skin filaggrin (FLG) and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) (assesses skin barrier integrity), S100A8 and S100A9 expression (assesses skin inflammation) and AD severity. METHODS: We studied 400 children with AD in the Mechanisms of Progression from Atopic Dermatitis to Asthma in Children (MPAACH) cohort to identify groupings of food and aeroallergen sensitizations. MPAACH is a paediatric AD cohort, aged 1-2, recruited through hospital/community settings between 2016 and 2018. We analysed these groupings' associations with AD biomarkers: skin FLG, S100A8 and S100A9 expression, total IgE, TEWL and AD severity. RESULTS: An unbiased machine learning approach revealed five allergen clusters. The most common cluster (N = 131), SPTPEP, had sensitization to peanut, egg and/or pets. Three low prevalence clusters, which included children with allergen sensitization other than peanut, egg or pets, were combined into SPTOther . SPTNEG included children with no sensitization(s). SPTPEP children had higher median non-lesional TEWL (16.9 g/m2 /h) and IgE (90 kU/L) compared with SPTOTHER (8.8 g/m2 /h and 24 kU/L; p = .01 and p < .001) and SPTNEG (9 g/m2 /h and 26 kU/L; p = .003 and p < .001). SPTPEP children had lower median lesional (0.70) and non-lesional (1.09) FLG expression compared with SPTOTHER (lesional: 0.9; p = .047, non-lesional: 1.78; p = .01) and SPTNEG (lesional: 1.47; p < .001, non-lesional: 2.21; p < .001). There were no differences among groupings in S100A8 or S100A9 expression. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In this largely clinic-based cohort of young children with AD, allergic sensitization to peanut, egg, cat or dog was associated with more severe disease and skin barrier function but not markers of cutaneous inflammation. These data need replicating in a population-based cohort but may have important implications for understanding the interaction between AD and allergic sensitization.

7.
J Int Med Res ; 49(3): 300060521989200, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether protein regulator of cytokinesis 1 (PRC1), which is involved in the regulation of human carcinogenesis, contributes to poor prognosis in patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). METHODS: Data and tissues from patients with CCA were retrospectively studied. Immunohistochemical staining and western blotting were used to evaluate and contrast the PRC1 expression profile at the protein level in CCA tumour and pericarcinomatous tissues from the same study population. Relationships between clinical characteristics and patient survival were observed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Correlations between PRC1 expression and clinical characteristics were analysed by logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 45 patients were included. PRC1 expression was found to be upregulated in CCA cancer tissues versus pericarcinomatous tissues. Overexpression of PRC1 was shown to be related to tumour differentiation, tumour node metastasis staging and lymph node metastasis, and was also revealed to be an independent marker of poor CCA prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that PRC1 may be a prognostic and therapeutic biomarker for patients with CCA.

8.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 83, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonpharmacologic interventions for asthma management rely on identification and mitigation of important asthma triggers. Cockroach exposure is strongly associated with asthma morbidity. It is also associated with stress, another risk factor for asthma. Despite high prevalence of both in vulnerable populations, the impact of joint exposure has not been examined. METHODS: Participants included 173 children with asthma in New Orleans, Louisiana. Cockroach exposure was based on visual inspection using standard protocols. Caregiver stress was measured using Cohen's 4-item Perceived Stress Scale. Outcomes included unscheduled clinic or emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalization, and pulmonary function. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess independent effects of the exposure on the outcome and effect modification was examined in stratified analysis based on stress. Path analysis to explore the mediation effect by stress was performed using a probit link with parameters based on Bayes' method with non-informative priors. RESULTS: Adjusting for stress and other covariates, cockroach exposure was associated with unscheduled clinic/ED visits (aOR = 6.2; 95% CI 1.8, 21.7). Positive associations were also found for hospitalization and FEV1 < 80%. High stress modified the relationship with unscheduled clinic/ED visits (high aOR = 7.7 95% CI 1.0, 60.2, versus normal aOR = 4.1 95% CI 0.8, 21.9). Path models identified direct and indirect effects (p = 0.05) indicating that a majority of the total effect on unscheduled clinic/ED visits is attributed directly to cockroach exposure. CONCLUSION: The strong association between cockroach exposure and asthma morbidity is not due to uncontrolled confounding by stress. The combination of cockroach exposure and high stress, common in urban homes, are modifiable factors associated with poor asthma outcomes.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33738477

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) is an indicator of poor fetal growth "programming" an elevated risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Little is known about early life endocrine characteristics in SGA subtypes. Stunting (short) and wasting (skinny) are considered distinct SGA phenotypes in neonatal prognosis. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether SGA infants with stunting or wasting have similar alterations in neonatal endocrine metabolic health biomarkers. DESIGN: A nested case-control study. SETTING: The 3D (Design, Develop and Discover) birth cohort in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 146 SGA (birth weight <10 th percentile) and 155 optimal for gestational age (OGA, 25 th-75 th percentiles) infants. Stunting was defined as birth length <10 th percentile, and wasting as body mass index <10 th percentile for sex and gestational age, respectively. MAIN OUTCOMES: Cord plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), proinsulin, leptin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin and ghrelin. RESULTS: Comparing to OGA infants adjusted for maternal and neonatal characteristics, SGA infants with either stunting only or wasting only had lower cord plasma IGF-I and leptin concentrations. HMW adiponectin concentrations were lower in SGA infants with wasting only (P=0.004), but similar in SGA infants with stunting only (P=0.816). Only SGA infants with both stunting and wasting had substantially lower proinsulin (P<0.001) and higher ghrelin concentrations (P<0.001) than OGA infants. CONCLUSIONS: The study is the first to demonstrate that SGA infants with wasting only are characterized by low HMW adiponectin concentrations, while those with stunting only are not. SGA with both stunting and wasting are characterized by low proinsulin and high ghrelin concentrations.

10.
Neuroscience ; 460: 1-12, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588002

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that the coupling relating the structural connectivity (SC) of the brain to its functional connectivity (FC) exhibits remarkable changes during development, normal aging, and diseases. Although altered structural-functional connectivity couplings (SC-FC couplings) have been previously reported in schizophrenia patients, the alterations in SC-FC couplings of different illness stages of schizophrenia (SZ) remain largely unknown. In this study, we collected structural and resting-state functional MRI data from 73 normal controls (NCs), 61 first-episode (FeSZ) and 78 chronic (CSZ) schizophrenia patients. Positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores were assessed for all patients. Structural and functional brain networks were constructed using gray matter volume (GMV) and resting-state magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) time series measurements. At the connectivity level, the CSZ patients showed significantly increased SC-FC coupling strength compared with the FeSZ patients. At the node strength level, significant decreased SC-FC coupling strength was observed in the FeSZ patients compared to that of the NCs, and the coupling strength was positively correlated with negative PANSS scores. These results demonstrated divergent alterations of SC-FC couplings in FeSZ and CSZ patients. Our findings provide new insight into the neuropathological mechanisms underlying the developmental course of SZ.

11.
JCI Insight ; 6(6)2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591952

RESUMO

Ventilation throughout life is dependent on the formation of pulmonary alveoli, which create an extensive surface area in which the close apposition of respiratory epithelium and endothelial cells of the pulmonary microvascular enables efficient gas exchange. Morphogenesis of the alveoli initiates at late gestation in humans and the early postnatal period in the mouse. Alveolar septation is directed by complex signaling interactions among multiple cell types. Here, we demonstrate that IGF1 receptor gene (Igf1r) expression by a subset of pulmonary fibroblasts is required for normal alveologenesis in mice. Postnatal deletion of Igf1r caused alveolar simplification, disrupting alveolar elastin networks and extracellular matrix without altering myofibroblast differentiation or proliferation. Moreover, loss of Igf1r impaired contractile properties of lung myofibroblasts and inhibited myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation and mechanotransductive nuclear YAP activity. Activation of p-AKT, p-MLC, and nuclear YAP in myofibroblasts was dependent on Igf1r. Pharmacologic activation of AKT enhanced MLC phosphorylation, increased YAP activation, and ameliorated alveolar simplification in vivo. IGF1R controls mechanosignaling in myofibroblasts required for lung alveologenesis.

12.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1098-1108, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518069

RESUMO

In contrast to the later stages of follicle development, little is known about the characteristics and mechanisms associated with early folliculogenesis in avian species. The objectives of the present study were to examine and compare the histomorphological and molecular changes of primordial, primary, and secondary follicles from duck and goose ovaries during the first 6 post-hatching week. Morphological analysis showed that the length and width of both duck and goose ovaries increased steadily during weeks 1 to 5 but increased acutely at week 6, whereas a greater increment was observed in the ovarian length of ducks than that of geese during weeks 4 to 5. Furthermore, smaller diameters of the 3 categories of follicles were observed in ducks than those in geese at the first appearance, but they reached a similar size at week 6. More importantly, secondary follicles were found in the ovaries of ducks 1 wk earlier than in those of geese. These results indicated a more rapid growth rate for ovarian follicles in ducks than in geese during early post-hatching development. At the molecular level, it was found that the mRNAs encoding follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and cysteine-dependent aspartate specific protease 3 (CASPASE3) were ubiquitously expressed in all ovarian follicles of ducks and geese with different expression profiles in each follicular category during the first 6 post-hatching week. Notably, transcript levels of FSHR, AMH, and CASPASE3 changed differently between ducks and geese during weeks 5 to 6, which was postulated to be one of the mechanisms inducing more rapid growth of ovarian follicles in ducks rather than in geese. In conclusion, our results revealed, for the first time, differences in early folliculogenesis, including the rate of growth of each follicular category and the timing of transition of primary to secondary follicles, between ducks and geese, and these differences could result from different expression profiles of FSHR, AMH, and CASPASE3 during early post-hatching development.


Assuntos
Patos/fisiologia , Gansos/fisiologia , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Animais , Patos/anatomia & histologia , Patos/genética , Feminino , Gansos/anatomia & histologia , Gansos/genética , RNA/química , RNA/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária
13.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1167-1177, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518075

RESUMO

There are great differences in physiological and biological functions between animals of different sexes. However, whether there is a consensus between sexes in duck intestinal development and microorganisms is still unknown. The current study used Nonghua ducks to estimate the effect of sex on the intestine by evaluating differences in intestinal growth indexes and microorganisms. The intestines of male and female ducks were sampled at 2, 5, and 10 wk from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and cecum. Then, the intestinal length and weight were measured, the morphology was observed with HE staining, and the intestinal content was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing. The results showed that male ducks have shorter intestinal lengths with higher relative weights/relative lengths. The values of jejunal villus height (VH)/crypt depth (CD) of female ducks were significantly higher at 2 wk, whereas the jejunal VH/CD was significantly lower at 10 wk. There was obvious separation of microorganisms in each intestinal segment of ducks of different sexes at the 3 time periods. The dominant phyla at different stages were Firmicutea, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. The duodenal Chao index at the genus level of male ducks was significantly higher at 10 wk than that of female ducks. Significantly different genera were found only in the jejunum, and the abundances of Escherichia_Shigella, Pseudomonas, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Sphingomonas, and Desulfovibrio in male ducks were higher than those in female ducks, whereas the abundance of Rothia was lower, and the abundance of viral infectious diseases, lipid metabolism, metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides, parasitic infectious diseases, xenobiotic biodegradation and metabolism, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism of other amino acids in male ducks were higher than that in female ducks, whereas gene folding, sorting and degradation pathways, and nucleotide metabolism were lower. This study provides a basic reference for the intestinal development and microbial symbiosis of ducks of different sexes.


Assuntos
Patos , Intestino Delgado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Patos/microbiologia , Feminino , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
14.
J Hypertens ; 39(5): 961-969, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560053

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Heart disease is the most common cause of death in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Emerging data have shown that NAFLD may affect subclinical myocardial remodeling, mainly left ventricular hypertrophy; however, evidence from the prospective studies is still lacking. METHODS: Prospective analyses were performed to investigate the association of fatty liver index (FLI) with left ventricular mass (LVM) among 1962 participants from the Bogalusa Heart Study (BHS, 1995-2010) and 1547 participants from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (YFS, 2001-2011) free of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) at baseline. LVM was assessed by two-dimensional guided M-mode echocardiography and indexed (LVMI) to body height (m2.7). Multivariable regression models were applied after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors. RESULTS: In both cohorts, we observed significant and positive associations between FLI and LVM (BHS: ß=0.59, P < 0.001; YFS: ß=0.41, P < 0.001) and LVMI (BHS: ß=0.14, P < 0.001; YFS: ß=0.09, P < 0.001). In addition, we found that the relationship between FLI and LVMI was stronger in women than men (BHS: P-interaction = 0.01; YFS: P-interaction < 0.01); and the relationship between FLI and LVM/LVMI was stronger in black than white individuals (LVM: P-interaction = 0.02; LVMI: P-interaction = 0.04). Moreover, we found that the associations of FLI with LVM and LVMI were attenuated by high physical activity, especially in BHS (P-interaction = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Our findings from two independent prospective cohorts indicate that FLI is positively associated with LVM/LVMI, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Such relationships are more pronounced among women and black individuals and are attenuated by high physical activity.

15.
Anal Chem ; 93(8): 3968-3975, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599499

RESUMO

Accurate counting of single molecules at nanoscale resolution is essential for the study of molecular interactions and distribution in subcellular fractions. By using small-sized carbon dots (CDs), we have now developed a quantitative single-molecule localization microscopy technique (qSMLM) based on spontaneous blinking to count single molecules with a localization precision of 10 nm, which can be accomplished on conventional microscopes without sophisticated laser control. We explore and adapt the blinking of CDs with diverse structures and demonstrate a counting accuracy of >97% at a molecular density of 500 per µm2. When applied to G-protein coupled receptors on a cell membrane, we discriminated receptor oligomerization and clustering and revealed ligand-regulated receptor distribution patterns. This is the first example of adapting nanoparticle self-blinking for molecular counting, and this demonstrates the power of CDs as SMLM probes to reliably decipher sub-diffraction structures that mediate crucial biological functions.

16.
Genes Genomics ; 43(2): 173-182, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skin color is colorful for birds, which has been reported to be associated with multi-biological functions, such as crypsis, camouflage, social signaling and mate choice, but little is known about its underlying molecular mechanism. OBJECTIVE: Studies on the major genes affecting the black skin color of ducks. METHODS: For this purpose, Silver ammonia staining and RNA-seq analysis were carried out to identify the differences in tissue morphology and gene expressions between black and yellow skin ducks. RESULTS: The silver ammonia dyes slice results showed that in the development of black duck, the content of melanin in black skin gradually increased and then decreased, and the content of melanin in yellow and black skin was significantly different. Through transcriptome, a total of 102 and 84 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in beak skin and web skin, respectively. These DEGs were enriched in melanin biosynthesis and play a critical role in melanogenesis pathway. Co-expression analysis showed that EDNRB2 was the only gene associated with black skin color in DEGs, which was also consistent with qRT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: The melanin synthesis pathway dominated by EDNRB2 up-regulated the amount of melanin synthesis, leading to the formation of black skin in ducks.

17.
Trials ; 22(1): 108, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Strong evidence supports the importance of diet and other lifestyle factors in preventing T2DM. Among individuals with T2DM, low-carbohydrate diets lead to decreases in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). However, research on the effects of low-carbohydrate diets on glycemic outcomes among individuals not currently on glucose-lowering medications who have elevated HbA1c is limited. METHODS: The objective of this randomized controlled trial is to study the effect of a healthy low-carbohydrate diet achieved through behavioral intervention and key food supplementation compared with usual diet on HbA1c and other metabolic risk factors among individuals with HbA1c from 6.0 to 6.9% who are not on glucose-lowering medications. In this parallel trial, 150 participants will be randomized to the intervention or control group for 6 months. The healthy low-carbohydrate diet target is < 40 g of net carbohydrates during the first 3 months and < 40 to 60 net grams for months 3 to 6. This diet is characterized by abundant unsaturated fat and protein, high-fiber foods such as non-starchy vegetables and nuts, and minimal refined carbohydrates. The primary outcome is the difference in HbA1c change from baseline to 6 months in the intervention compared with usual diet group. Secondary outcomes include differences between groups in 6-month changes in fasting glucose, systolic blood pressure, total-to-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio, and body weight. Exploratory outcomes include differences in 6-month changes in fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. An intention-to-treat analysis will be used. DISCUSSION: We expect that the results from this study will lead to new approaches for developing and implementing dietary approaches (other than the most commonly used reduced fat diet) that will substantially reduce risk of cardiometabolic disease among adults with or at high risk of T2DM. The study intervention involves behavioral counseling and promotes consumption of dietary components thought to reduce risk of cardiometabolic disease and has expected applicability in clinical practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03675360 . Registered on September 18, 2018 (prior to enrolment of the first participant).

18.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e040792, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436467

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Chinese government has encouraged the development of private sector in delivering healthcare, including primary healthcare (PHC) in the new round of national health reform since 2009. However, the debate about the role of the private sector in achieving universal health coverage continues with poor support from theories and empirical evidence. This study intends to compare the quality of PHC services between the private and public providers in seven provinces in China, using unannounced standardised patients (USPs). METHODS: We are developing and validating 13 USP cases most commonly observed in the PHC setting. Six domains of quality will be assessed by the USP: effectiveness, safety, patient centredness, efficiency, timeliness and equity. The USP will make 2200 visits to 705 public and 521 private PHC institutions across seven provinces, following a multistage clustered sample design. Using each USP-provider encounter as the analytical unit, we will first descriptively compare the raw differences in quality between the private and public providers and then analyse the association of ownership types and quality, using propensity score weighting. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was primarily funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (#71974211, #71874116 and # 72074163) and was also supported by the China Medical Board (#16-260, #18-300 and #18-301), and have received ethical approval from Sun Yat-sen University (#2019-024). The validated USP tool and the data collected in this study will be freely available for the public after the primary analysis of the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: #ChiCTR2000032773.

19.
New Phytol ; 230(2): 475-484, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458826

RESUMO

In most legumes, two typical features found in leaves are diverse compound forms and the pulvinus-driven nyctinastic movement. Many genes have been identified for leaf-shape determination, but the underlying nature of leaf movement as well as its association with the compound form remains largely unknown. Using forward-genetic screening and whole-genome resequencing, we found that two allelic mutants of Medicago truncatula with unclosed leaflets at night were impaired in MtDWARF4A (MtDWF4A), a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 protein orthologous to Arabidopsis DWARF4. The mtdwf4a mutant also had a mild brassinosteroid (BR)-deficient phenotype bearing pulvini without significant deficiency in organ identity. Both mtdwf4a and dwf4 could be fully rescued by MtDWF4A, and mtdwf4a could close their leaflets at night after the application of exogenous 24-epi-BL. Surgical experiments and genetic analysis of double mutants revealed that the failure to exhibit leaf movement in mtdwf4a is a consequence of the physical obstruction of the overlapping leaflet laminae, suggesting a proper geometry of leaflets is important for their movement in M. truncatula. These observations provide a novel insight into the nyctinastic movement of compound leaves, shedding light on the importance of open space for organ movements in plants.

20.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395480

RESUMO

Molecular imprinted polymers coated magnetic halloysite nanotubes (MHNTs-MIPs) were prepared through sol-gel method by using quercetin (Que), APTES and TEOS as template, monomer and cross-linker agent, respectively. The synthesized MHNTs-MIPs were characterized by fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, XRD and vibrating sample magnetometer. Various parameters influencing the binding capacity of the MHNTs-MIPs were investigated with the help of response surface methodology. Selectivity experiments showed that the MHNTs-MIPs exhibited the maximum selective rebinding to Que. Therefore, the MHNTs-MIPs was applied as a solid-phase extraction adsorbent for the extraction and preconcentration of quercetin and luteolin in serum and urine samples. The limits of detection for quercetin and luteolin range from 0.51 to 1.32 ng mL-1 in serum and from 0.23 to 1.05 ng mL-1 in urine, the recoveries are between 95.20 and 103.73% with the RSD less than 5.77%. While the recovery hardly decreased after several cycles. The designed MHNTs-MIP with high affinity, sensitivity and maximum selectivity toward Que in SPE might recommend a novel method for the extraction of flavonoids in other samples like natural products.

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