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2.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 215, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, interest in Bacillus velezensis has increased significantly due to its role in many industrial water bioremediation processes. In this study, we isolated and assessed the transcriptome of Bacillus velezensis LG37 (from an aquaculture pond) under different nitrogen sources. Since Bacillus species exhibit heterogeneity, it is worth investigating the molecular mechanism of LG37 through ammonia nitrogen assimilation, where nitrogen in the form of molecular ammonia is considered toxic to aquatic organisms. RESULTS: Here, a total of 812 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from the transcriptomic sequencing of LG37 grown in minimal medium supplemented with ammonia (treatment) or glutamine (control) were obtained, from which 56 had Fold Change ≥2. BLAST-NCBI and UniProt databases revealed 27 out of the 56 DEGs were potentially involved in NH4+ assimilation. Among them, 8 DEGs together with the two-component regulatory system GlnK/GlnL were randomly selected for validation by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and the results showed that expression of all the 8 DEGs are consistent with the RNA-seq data. Moreover, the transcriptome and relative expression analysis were consistent with the transporter gene amtB and it is not involved in ammonia transport, even in the highest ammonia concentrations. Besides, CRISPR-Cas9 knockout and overexpression glnK mutants further evidenced the exclusion of amtB regulation, suggesting the involvement of alternative transporter. Additionally, in the transcriptomic data, a novel ammonium transporter mnrA was expressed significantly in increased ammonia concentrations. Subsequently, OEmnrA and ΔmnrA LG37 strains showed unique expression pattern of specific genes compared to that of wild-LG37 strain. CONCLUSION: Based on the transcriptome data, regulation of nitrogen related genes was determined in the newly isolated LG37 strain to analyse the key regulating factors during ammonia assimilation. Using genomics tools, the novel MnrA transporter of LG37 became apparent in ammonia transport instead of AmtB, which transports ammonium nitrogen in other Bacillus strains. Collectively, this study defines heterogeneity of B. velezensis LG37 through comprehensive transcriptome analysis and subsequently, by genome editing techniques, sheds light on the enigmatic mechanisms controlling the functional genes under different nitrogen sources also reveals the need for further research.

3.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 845-854, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161444

RESUMO

Background: Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) is a new type of administration that results in steadier levodopa plasma concentrations in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and effectively reduces poor mobility and dyskinesia. Methods: Electronic databases were searched up to January 1, 2018. The inclusion criteria for this review were as follows: LCIG vs oral medication in advanced PD patients. Results: Five trials, with a total of 198 patients, met all the inclusion criteria. The quality score of these studies ranged from 3 to 5. Two clinical trials showed that compared with oral medication, LCIG had a better treatment effect on on-time with troublesome dyskinesia (TSD) (p = 0.02) and on-time without TSD (p < 0.00001) in advanced PD patients. In addition, four of the 5 studies showed that the LCIG may have better efficacy than oral medication for improving the scores of the UPDRS, and two studies found that LCIG demonstrated better efficacy for improving the PDQ-39 scores. The video recording results indicated a potential decline in both dyskinesia and the "off" state in LCIG-treated patients. The incidence of adverse events was not significantly different between the LCIG and oral medication groups. Conclusion: Compared with oral treatment, LCIG exerts its effectiveness, mostly by reducing the time of on-time with TSD, increasing the time of on-time without TSD and scores of UPDRS and PDQ-39. It is suggesting that LCIG was likely to be a new type of administration used in clinical applications. However, due to methodological flaws, these findings should be viewed with caution, and more RCTs are needed in the field to complement our findings.

4.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 41, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma tends to present at an advanced stage because the primary anatomic site is located in a less visible area and its clinical symptoms are nonspecific. Prognosis of advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma cases remains disappointing. SEPT9 is a methylation-based biomarker approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis. Interestingly, downregulation of SEPT9, especially SEPT9_v2, mediated by promoter hypermethylation has been also detected in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma than in head and neck squamous epithelium, while other SEPT9 variants did not. These reasons above indicate a crucial role of SEPT9_v2 in cancer progression. Therefore, we address the methylation status of SEPT9_v2 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma and explore the role of SEPT9_v2 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma proliferation and cancer progression. RESULTS: SEPT9_v2 expression was found to be downregulated via promoter methylation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines and tissues. Ectopic expression of SEPT9_v2 induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, which exerted an inhibitory effect in cell proliferation and colony formation. Additionally, nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell migration and invasion were shown to be inhibited by SEPT9_v2. Furthermore, our data suggested that SEPT9_v2 inhibits proliferation and migration of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells through inactivation of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway via miR92b-3p/FZD10. CONCLUSIONS: This study delineates SEPT9_v2, frequently silenced by promoter hypermethylation, exerts anti-tumor functions through inactivation of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway via miR92b-3p/FZD10 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells and, hence, SEPT9_v2 may be a promising therapeutic target and biomarker for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4262, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144352

RESUMO

Liver-enriched gene 1 (Leg1) is a newly identified gene with little available functional information. To evolutionarily and molecularly characterize Leg1 genes, a phylogenetic study was first conducted, which indicated that Leg1 is a conserved gene that exists from bacteria to mammals. During the evolution of mammals, Leg1s underwent tandem duplications, which gave rise to Leg1a, Leg1b, and Leg1c clades. Analysis of the pig genome showed the presence of all three paralogs of pig Leg1 genes (pLeg1s), whereas only Leg1a could be found in the human (hLeg1a) or mouse (mLeg1a) genomes. Purifying force acts on the evolution of Leg1 genes, likely subjecting them to functional constraint. Molecularly, pLeg1a and its coded protein, pig LEG1a (pLEG1a), displayed high similarities to its human and mouse homologs in terms of gene organization, expression patterns, and structures. Hence, pLeg1a, hLeg1a, and mLeg1a might preserve similar functions. Additionally, expression analysis of the three Leg1as suggested that eutherian Leg1as might have different functions from those of zebrafish and platypus due to subfunctionalization. Therefore, pLeg1a might provide essential information about eutherian Leg1a. Moreover, a preliminary functional study using RNA-seq suggested that pLeg1a is involved in the lipid homeostasis. In conclusion, our study provides some basic information on the aspects of evolution and molecular function, which could be applied for further validation of Leg1 using pig models.

6.
J Org Chem ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200631

RESUMO

A novel Michael/alkylation cascade reaction of N-unprotected 3-bromooxindoles with α,ß-unsaturated acyl phosphonates using DABCO as a robust catalyst followed by the derivatization of the acyl phosphonate intermediates in situ has been developed. This scenario enables a rapid access to a diverse set of highly functionalized spirocyclopropyl oxindoles in moderate yields with good to excellent diastereoselectivities, which are analogues of a high active non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor against HIV-1. The synthetic potential of this tactic has been highlighted by a gram-scale reaction and Suzuki cross-coupling reactions of the product. Moreover, the reaction mechanism has been tentatively elucidated by control experiments and dynamic high-resolution mass spectrometry studies, which indicates that this Michael/alkylation cascade reaction involved DABCO-derived α-substituted ammonium ylides.

7.
J Mol Diagn ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205290

RESUMO

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) measurements can be used to estimate tumor burden, but avoiding false-positives is a challenge. We evaluated digital next-generation sequencing (NGS) as a ctDNA detection method. Plasma KRAS and GNAS hotspot mutation levels were measured in 140 subjects including 67 with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and 73 healthy and disease controls. To limit chemical modifications of DNA that yield false-positive mutation calls, plasma DNA was enzymatically pre-treated, after which DNA was aliquoted for digital detection of mutations (up to 384 aliquots/sample) by PCR and NGS. A digital NGS score of two standard deviations above the mean in controls was considered positive. 37% of patients with pancreatic cancer, including 31% of patients with Stage I/II disease had positive KRAS codon 12 ctDNA scores; only one patient had a positive GNAS mutation score. Two disease control patients had positive ctDNA scores. Low normal-range digital NGS scores at mutation hot-spots were found at similar levels in healthy and disease controls, usually at sites of cytosine deamination, and were likely the result of chemical modification of plasma DNA and NGS error, rather than true mutations. Digital NGS detects mutated ctDNA in patients with pancreatic cancer with similar yield to other methods. The detection of low-level, true-positive ctDNA is limited by frequent low-level detection of false-positive mutation cells in plasma DNA from controls.

8.
Molecules ; 25(5)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121474

RESUMO

Sensitive and selective detection of harmful gas is an important task in environmental monitoring. In this work, a gas sensor based on cataluminescence (CTL) for detection of acetaldehyde was designed by using nano-NiO as the sensing material. The sensor shows sensitive response to acetaldehyde at a relatively low working temperature of 200 °C. The linear range of CTL intensity versus acetaldehyde concentration is 0.02-2.5 mg/L, with a limit of detection of 0.006 mg/L at a signal-to-noise ratio of three. Mechanism study shows that electronically excited CO2 is the excited intermediate for CTL emission during the catalytic oxidation of acetaldehyde on the NiO surface. The proposed sensor has promising application in monitoring acetaldehyde in residential buildings and in the workplace.

9.
Pract Radiat Oncol ; 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151732

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed the feasibility and safety of placing a radiopaque hydrogel in the pancreaticoduodenal groove via endoscopic ultrasound guidance in patients with borderline resectable/locally advanced pancreatic cancer (BR/LAPC). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Hydrogel injections were done at time of fiducial placement to form blebs in the pancreaticoduodenal groove. Patients subsequently underwent simulation computed tomography (sim-CT) followed by hypofractionated SBRT (33 Gy in 5 fractions). Four-to-eight weeks after SBRT, patients underwent CT re-evaluation for surgical candidacy and assessment of hydrogel location and size. Hydrogel placement was considered successful if identified in the pancreaticoduodenal groove on sim-CT scan. Stability was evaluated using equivalence testing analyses, with a null hypothesis of the presence of a >20% mean percentage change in volume and >2 mm change in the median and mean inter-bleb surface distance with a p-value <0.05 required to reject the null hypothesis and conclude equivalence. For patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy, hydrogel sites were histologically examined for location and local inflammatory reactions. RESULTS: Hydrogel placement was successful in 6 of the 6 evaluable patients. The average changes in median and mean inter-bleb distances were -0.43 mm and -0.35 mm, respectively, with p<0.05. The average change in volume from sim-CT to post-SBRT CT was -1.0%, with p<0.05. One patient experienced grade 3 nausea following fiducial/hydrogel placement, with no other adverse events to date. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate feasibility and safety of injecting a hydrogel marker in the pancreaticoduodenal groove in patients with BR/LAPC and set the stage for a follow-up clinical trial to place hydrogel as a spacer between the pancreatic tumor and dose-limiting, radiosensitive duodenum.

10.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nodal involvement has been identified as one of the strongest prognostic factors in patients with nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NF-PanNETs). Sufficient lymphadenectomy and evaluation is vital for accurate staging. The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal number of examined lymph nodes (ELN) required for accurate staging. METHODS: The SEER database was used to identify patients with resected NF-PanNETs between 2004 and 2014. The distributions of positive lymph nodes (PLN) ratio and total lymph nodes were used to develop a mathematical model. The sensitivity of detecting nodal disease at each cutoff of ELN was estimated and used to identify the optimal cutoff for ELN. RESULTS: A total of 1098 patients were included in the study of which 391 patients (35.6%) had nodal disease. The median ELN was 12 (interquartile range [IQR]: 7-19.5), and the median PLN was 2 (IQR: 1-4) for patients with nodal disease. With an increase in ELN, the sensitivity of detecting nodal disease increased from 12.0% (ELN: 1) to 92.2% (ELN: 20), plateauing at 20 ELN (< 1% increase in sensitivity with an additional ELN). This sensitivity increase pattern was similar in subgroup analyses with different T stages. CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity of detecting nodal disease in patients with NF-PanNETs increases with an increase in the number of ELN. Cutoffs for adequate nodal assessment were defined for all T stages. Utilization of these cutoffs in clinical settings will help with patient prognostication and management.

11.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 38(1): 108-113, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037777

RESUMO

Identifying the ideal implantation site is important for the long-term stability and effectiveness of follow-up restorations. Implant surgical guide and navigation are used to determine the implantation site in clinic and improve the precision of implantation. However, due to difficulties in digital methods, such as multiple procedures, high cost, and actual accuracy of more than 1 mm, many physicians still prefer to operate with free hand. In preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative procedures, time-saving and practical methods for implant site evaluation are lacking. In many cases, oral physicians found that the position deviates only by cone beam CT, which was costly to modify the position. In this article, we presented a precise implantation insertion technology that is guided by a measurable technique throughout the implantation application for all implant systems. This method was guided by a dynamic control measuring ruler, which functions together with the measuring and intraoperative locating rulers. The 3D space of the operative area was measured by a measuring ruler prior to operation, and the implant plan and quantitative guidance design were conducted according to the measured and cone beam CT data. The whole implantation process was guided by the dynamic control measuring ruler, and measuring verification results were also considered. This method can realize the quantification of the entire preoperative space analysis, intraoperative precise implantation guidance, and postoperative site measurement and evaluation. This practical technique also helps to adjust the position, improve the implantation accuracy and is suitable in generalizing dental implantation.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Projeto Auxiliado por Computador , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea , Imagem Tridimensional , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente
12.
Ecol Lett ; 23(4): 701-710, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052555

RESUMO

Satellite data indicate significant advancement in alpine spring phenology over decades of climate warming, but corresponding field evidence is scarce. It is also unknown whether this advancement results from an earlier shift of phenological events, or enhancement of plant growth under unchanged phenological pattern. By analyzing a 35-year dataset of seasonal biomass dynamics of a Tibetan alpine grassland, we show that climate change promoted both earlier phenology and faster growth, without changing annual biomass production. Biomass production increased in spring due to a warming-induced earlier onset of plant growth, but decreased in autumn due mainly to increased water stress. Plants grew faster but the fast-growing period shortened during the mid-growing season. These findings provide the first in situ evidence of long-term changes in growth patterns in alpine grassland plant communities, and suggest that earlier phenology and faster growth will jointly contribute to plant growth in a warming climate.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Pradaria , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 125: 109908, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014688

RESUMO

Chronic benzene (BZ) exposure is associated with multiple adverse health effects and leads to progressive bone marrow failure (BMF). BZ-induced BMF is an acquired aplastic anemia characterized by severe anemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, which is likely caused by immunotoxicity and oxidative stress. Previous studies showed that Epimedium polysaccharides (EPS), a natural and major herbal compound derived from Epimedium, has immunomodulatory and antioxidant potential. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of EPS against BZ-induced BMF. BMF mouse model was established by subcutaneous injection of 2 ml/kg BZ in CD1 mice. Mice received daily oral treatment with 100 mg/kg high-dose EPS and 20 mg/kg low-dose EPS for four weeks. Our data showed that EPS treatment alleviated BZ-associated weight loss and increased the number of whole blood cells in peripheral blood and nucleated cells in bone marrow. Furthermore, EPS treatment decreased apoptotic rate and reactive oxygen species production, S-phase arrest in bone marrow cells. Finally, EPS treatment improved T cell-mediated immune suppression by increasing CD3+, CD4 + T-cell counts, and CD4+/CD8+ ratio. and modulated hematopoietic cytokines including EPO, IL-11, and IL-2 in peripheral blood. Our study suggests that EPS is a potential therapeutic target to attenuate hematotoxicity induced by BZ.

14.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 125: 110021, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092826

RESUMO

Sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a class III histone deacetylase, exerts a protective role against kidney injury. However, its functions in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unclear as yet. In this study, we established acute kidney injury (AKI) rat model through renal ischemia and reperfusion, and the role of SIRT1 in I/R-induced AKI was investigated both in vivo and in vitro. In in vivo study, SIRT1 was expressed in tubular epithelial cells (TECs) and its expression was upregulated after I/R treatment. Meanwhile, our in vitro experiment confirmed that the expression of SIRT1 was also elevated in human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HK2) cells treated with hypoxia and reoxygenation (H/R). Notably, activation of SIRT1 by resveratrol (Res, an activator of SIRT1) could significantly ameliorate renal function and reduce the TECs apoptosis in rats. Likewise, Res intervention also reduced the apoptosis and the production of reactive oxygen species in HK2 cells. Furthermore, we found that the autophagy level was upregulated in I/R injury, which could be raised further through resveratrol intervention; and chloroquine (CQ, an autophagy inhibitor) did reverse these protective effects of SIRT1 activation. Taken together, our results suggest that SIRT1 plays a protective role by autophagy induction in I/R- induced AKI. Its role might serve as a preventive approach in I/R-associated AKI.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011271

RESUMO

The object detection, which has been widely applied in the biomedical field already, is of real significance but technically challenging. In practice, the object detection accuracy is vulnerable to labeling quality, which is usually not a big headache for simple algorithm or model verification since there are a bunch of ideal public available datasets whose classes and tags are all well-marked. However, in real scenarios, image data is often partially or even incorrectly labelled. Particularly, in cell detection, this becomes a thorny issue since the labelling of the dataset is incomplete and inac- curate. To address this issue, we propose a data-augmentation algorithm that can generate full labelled cell image data from incomplete labeled ones. First of all, we randomly extract the labeled objects from raw cell images, and mean- while, keep their corresponding position information. Next, we employ the framework of cycle-consistent adversarial network, but significantly distinguished from the original one, to generate fully labeled data including both objects and backgrounds. We conduct extensive experiments on a blood cell classification dataset called BCCD to evaluate our model, and experimental results show that our proposed method can successfully address the weak annotation problem and improve the performance of object detection.

16.
Curr Genet ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060628

RESUMO

The DnaJ family of proteins (or J-proteins) are molecular chaperones that govern protein folding, degradation, and translocation in many organisms. Although J-proteins play key roles in eukaryotic and prokaryotic biology, the role of J-proteins in Aspergillus species is currently unknown. In this study, we characterized the dnjA gene, which encodes a putative DnaJ protein, in two Aspergillus species: Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus flavus. Expression of the dnjA gene is inhibited by the velvet regulator VosA, which plays a pivotal role in spore survival and metabolism in Aspergillus. The deletion of dnjA decreased the number of asexual spores (conidia), produced abnormal conidiophores, and reduced sexual fruiting bodies (cleistothecia) or sclerotia. In addition, the absence of dnjA caused increased sterigmatocystin or aflatoxin production in A. nidulans and A. flavus, respectively. These results suggest that DnjA plays a conserved role in asexual and sexual development and mycotoxin production in Aspergillus species. However, DnjA also plays a species-specific role; AniDnjA but not AflDnjA, affects conidial viability, trehalose contents, and thermal tolerance of conidia. In plant virulence assay, the infection ability of the ΔAfldnjA mutant decreased in the kernels, suggesting that DnjA plays a crucial role in the pathogenicity of A. flavus. Taken together, these results demonstrate that DnjA is multifunctional in Aspergillus species; it is involved in diverse biological processes, including fungal differentiation and secondary metabolism.

17.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 94, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New therapeutic drugs are urgently needed against visceral leishmaniasis because current drugs, such as pentavalent antimonials and miltefosine, produce severe side effects and development of resistance. Whether cyclosporine A (CsA) and its derivatives can be used as therapeutic drugs for visceral leishmaniasis has been controversial for many years. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of CsA and its derivative, dihydrocyclosporin A (DHCsA-d), against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania donovani. Sodium stibogluconate (SSG) was used as a positive control. RESULTS: Our results showed that DHCsA-d was able to inhibit the proliferation of L. donovani promastigotes (IC50: 21.24 µM and 12.14 µM at 24 h and 48 h, respectively) and intracellular amastigotes (IC50: 5.23 µM and 4.84 µM at 24 and 48 h, respectively) in vitro, but CsA treatment increased the number of amastigotes in host cells. Both DHCsA-d and CsA caused several alterations in the morphology and ultrastructure of L. donovani, especially in the mitochondria. However, DHCsA-d showed high cytotoxicity towards cells of the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7, with CC50 values of 7.98 µM (24 h) and 6.65 µM (48 h). Moreover, DHCsA-d could increase IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ production and decrease the levels of IL-10, IL-4, NO and H2O2 in infected macrophages. On the contrary, CsA decreased IL-12, TNF-α, and IFN-γ production and increased the levels of IL-10, IL-4, NO and H2O2 in infected macrophages. The expression of L. donovani cyclophilin A (LdCyPA) in promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes and the expression of cyclophilin A (CyPA) in RAW 264.7 cells were found to be significantly downregulated in the CsA-treated group compared to those in the untreated group. However, no significant changes in LdCyPA and CyPA levels were found after DHCsA-d or SSG treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings initially resolved the dispute regarding the efficacy of CsA and DHCsA-d for visceral leishmaniasis treatment. CsA showed no significant inhibitory effect on intracellular amastigotes. DHCsA-d significantly inhibited promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes, but it was highly cytotoxic. Therefore, CsA and DHCsA-d are not recommended as antileishmanial drugs.

18.
Ecol Lett ; 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100414

RESUMO

Grassland ecosystems account for more than 10% of the global CH4 sink in soils. A 4-year field experiment found that addition of P alone did not affect CH4 uptake and experimental addition of N alone significantly suppressed CH4 uptake, whereas concurrent N and P additions suppressed CH4 uptake to a lesser degree. A meta-analysis including 382 data points in global grasslands corroborated these findings. Global extrapolation with an empirical modelling approach estimated that contemporary N addition suppresses CH4 sink in global grassland by 11.4% and concurrent N and P deposition alleviates this suppression to 5.8%. The P alleviation of N-suppressed CH4 sink is primarily attributed to substrate competition, defined as the competition between ammonium and CH4 for the methane mono-oxygenase enzyme. The N and P impacts on CH4 uptake indicate that projected increases in N and P depositions might substantially affect CH4 uptake and alter the global CH4 cycle.

19.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32095817

RESUMO

Cyclic diadenylate (c-di-AMP) is a widespread second messenger in bacteria and archaea that is involved in the maintenance of osmotic pressure, response to DNA damage, and control of central metabolism, biofilm formation, acid stress resistance, and other functions. The primary importance of c-di AMP stems from its essentiality for many bacteria under standard growth conditions and the ability of several eukaryotic proteins to sense its presence in the cell cytoplasm and trigger an immune response by the host cells. We review here the tertiary structures of the domains that regulate c-di-AMP synthesis and signaling, and the mechanisms of c-di-AMP binding, including the principal conformations of c-di-AMP, observed in various crystal structures. We discuss how these c-di-AMP molecules are bound to the protein and riboswitch receptors and what kinds of interactions account for the specific high-affinity binding of the c-di-AMP ligand. We describe seven kinds of non-covalent-π interactions between c-di-AMP and its receptor proteins, including π-π, C-H-π, cation-π, polar-π, hydrophobic-π, anion-π and the lone pair-π interactions. We also compare the mechanisms of c-di-AMP and c-di-GMP binding by the respective receptors that allow these two cyclic dinucleotides to control very different biological functions.

20.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228643, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017793

RESUMO

Filamentous fungi reproduce asexually or sexually, and the processes of asexual and sexual development are tightly regulated by a variety of transcription factors. In this study, we characterized a Zn2Cys6 transcription factor in two Aspergillus species, A. nidulans (AN5859) and A. flavus (AFLA_046870). AN5859 encodes a Zn2Cys6 transcription factor, called ZcfA. In A. nidulans, ΔzcfA mutants exhibit decreased fungal growth, a reduction in cleistothecia production, and increased asexual reproduction. Overexpression of zcfA results in increased conidial production, suggesting that ZcfA is required for proper asexual and sexual development in A. nidulans. In conidia, deletion of zcfA causes decreased trehalose levels and decreased spore viability but increased thermal sensitivity. In A. flavus, the deletion of the zcfA homolog AFLA_046870 causes increased conidial production but decreased sclerotia production; these effects are similar to those of zcfA deletion in A. nidulans development. Overall, these results demonstrate that ZcfA is essential for maintaining a balance between asexual and sexual development and that some roles of ZcfA are conserved in Aspergillus spp.

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