Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.855
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 171, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420167

RESUMO

Smoking has a substantial impact on deaths from non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs). Quantitatively measuring the impact of tobacco control on population health is of great theoretical and practical importance, for governments to make health policy decisions. Focusing on premature deaths, we predicted the deaths by 2030 from major NCDs caused by smoking among people aged 30-69 years in Sichuan Province, Southwest China. We extracted data for 1990-2015 from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 and calculated the population attributable fraction, to estimate the proportion of deaths caused by smoking. Four different tobacco control standards were used to estimate 2030 projections for the prevalence of smoking and premature mortality. If smoking prevalence were reduced by 30% from 2015 levels, premature mortality could be expected to decline by 24.4% in 2030, achieving 81.3% of the World Health Organization target for reducing premature mortality by 30%. Compared with the continuation of historical trends, the strongest tobacco control policy scenario would reduce premature mortality by 6.6%, prevent 23,600 deaths, reduce mortality by 7.8%, and increase life expectancy at birth by 0.3 years. Smoking bans represent an important action toward achieving national health goals.

2.
South Med J ; 114(1): 35-40, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398359

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Studies have shown that patients enrolled in Medicaid have difficulty obtaining access to care compared with patients with private insurance. Whether variables such as geographic location, state expansion versus nonexpansion, and private versus academic affiliation affect access to care among foot and ankle surgery patients enrolled in Medicaid has not been previously established. The purpose of this study was to assess the differences in access to care between patients who are privately insured and those with Medicaid in need of foot and ankle consultation. Secondary objectives include assessment of whether access to care for foot and ankle patients with Medicaid differs between those with acute and chronic conditions, Medicaid expanded and unexpanded states, geographic regions within the United States, and academic versus private practices. METHODS: Twenty providers from each of five Medicaid-expanded and five nonexpanded states in different US geographic regions were randomly chosen via the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society directory. One investigator contacted each office requesting the earliest available appointment for their fictitious relative's acute Achilles tendon rupture or hallux valgus. Investigator insurance was stated to be Medicaid for half of the telephone calls and Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS) for the other half. Appointment success rate and average time to appointment were compared between private insurance and Medicaid. Results were further compared across geographic regions, between private and academic practices, and between urgent acute injury (Achilles rupture) and chronic nonurgent injury (hallux valgus). RESULTS: Appointments were successful for all 100 (100%) calls made with BCBS as the insurer, in comparison to 73 of 100 calls (73%) with Medicaid (P < 0.001). Both acute and chronic injury had significantly higher success rates with BCBS than Medicaid (P < 0.001). The appointment success rate was significantly lower with Medicaid than with BCBS (P ≤ 0.01) in all of the geographic regions. The success rate with Medicaid (66.7%) was significantly lower than with BCBS (100.0%, P < 0.001) for private practice offices, but not for academic practices. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with Medicaid experience fewer options when obtaining appointments for common nonemergent foot and ankle problems and may experience less difficulty scheduling appointments at academic rather than private institutions. The medical community should continue to seek and identify potential interventions which can improve access to orthopedic care for all patients and increase the visibility of practices that accept Medicaid.

3.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2021 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454907

RESUMO

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a conventional method used to visualize the distribution of DNA elements within a genome. To examine the relationships within the Chrysanthemum genus, ribosomal DNA (rDNA), a popular cytogenetic marker, was utilized as a probe for FISH within this genus. Based on the genome data of Chrysanthemum nankingense, C. seticuspe and its allied genera in the Compositae(Asteraceae), we explored rDNA sequences to design oligonucleotide probes and perform oligonucleotide fluorescence in situ hybridization (Oligo-FISH) in eight Chrysanthemum accessions. The results showed that the majority of 5S rDNA signals were located in subterminal chromosome regions and that the number of 5S rDNA sites might be tightly associated with ploidy. For 45S rDNA sites, the number and intensity of signals differed from those of previously investigated Chrysanthemum resources. These findings may provide an optimally reliable method of examining the chromosome composition and structural variation of Chrysanthemum and its related species and allow researchers to understand the evolutionary history and phylogenetic relationships of Chrysanthemum.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459888

RESUMO

To characterize trace elements from inhalable particles and to estimate human health risks, airborne particles at an urban area of Ningbo city during haze and non-haze periods from November 2013 to May 2014 were collected by a nine-stage sampler. Seventeen trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentrations of trace elements are in the ranges of 0.51 ng m-3 (Co) ~ 1.53 µg m-3 (K) for fine particles (Dp < 2.1 µm), and 1.07 ng m-3 (Co) ~ 4.96 µg m-3 (K) for coarse particles (2.1 µm < Dp < 9.0 µm) during the haze days, which are 1.15 -4.30 and 1.23- 7.83-fold as those of non-haze days, respectively. These elements could be divided into crustal elements (Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, Fe and Co), non-crustal elements (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) and mixed elements (K, V, Cr, Mn, Ni and As) according to their enrichment factor values (EFs) and size distribution characteristics. Five emission sources of trace elements were identified by positive matrix factorization (PMF) modeling. The main sources of trace elements in fine particles are traffic emission (21.7%), coal combustion (23.6%) and biomass burning (32.1%); however, soil dust (61.5%), traffic emission (21.9%) and industry emissions (11.8%) are the main contributors for coarse particles. With the help of the multiple-path particle dosimetry (MPPD) model, it was found that deposition fractions of seventeen measured elements in the pulmonary region were in the range of 12.4%-15.1% and 6.66% -12.3% for the fine and coarse particles, respectively. The human health risk assessment (HRA) was employed according to the deposition concentration in the pulmonary region. The non-carcinogenic risk (HI) was below the safety limit (1.00). Nonetheless, the excess lifetime carcinogenic risk (ELCR) for adults increased by 2.42-fold during the haze days (2.06 × 10-5) as compared to that of non-haze days (8.50 × 10-6) in fine particles. Cr (VI) and As together contributed 96.5% and 96.3% of the integrated cancer risks during the haze and non-haze periods, respectively. Moreover, the related ELCR values in coarse particles were 36.7% and 62.8% of those in the fine particles for the non-haze period and haze period, respectively.

5.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 71: 105358, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068842

RESUMO

In spite of the high added value and tremendous output from duck processing industries, duck liver (DLv) is underutilized and a major factor is related to its prominent off-flavor perception which hampers the consumption and processing attributes. This work was designed to investigate the impact of low-frequency ultrasound (US) pretreatments on the headspace volatilome evolution of DLv and its isolated protein (DLvP) microstructure, aiming at exploring the potential of US technology to inhibit off-flavor perception and possible mechanisms behind. Results suggested that US pretreatment resulted in decreased lipid oxidation and off-flavor perception, simultaneously without significantly causing physicochemical influence including texture, pH and color. US induced obvious tertiary structural changes of DLvP, as revealed by the intrinsic fluorescence and surface hydrophobicity (H0), whereas the SH, S-S, secondary structure and molecular weight of DLvP remained unaffected, suggesting the presence of molten globule state (MG-state) under ultrasonic conditions. Besides, the headspace contents of flavor compounds, mainly aldehydes and alcohols, were significantly decreased whereas acids were increased. Multivariate analysis suggested an obvious US-induced effect on the volatilome evolution of DLv samples. Discriminant analysis recognized the aroma compounds including aldehydes and alkenals as the major contributors leading to the change of olfactory characteristics of DLv after ultrasonic treatment. Correlation analysis demonstrated the positive relationship between the volatile markers variation and the increased H0 values, a characteristic attribute of MG-state protein. The results obtained in this work suggested that US technology matched with suitable parameters could be a very promising approach to modulate the off-flavor perception of liver products by altering DLvP conformation.

6.
Food Chem ; 344: 128690, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246683

RESUMO

The effects of different particle sizes (90-µm and 200-µm) and contents (1.5% and 3%) of water-insoluble dietary fibers (IDF) on the gelation properties of duck myofibrillar protein (MP) were explored. The results showed that the addition of IDF improved the gel strength and water holding capacity of MP compared with the control (P < 0.05). IDF reinforced the formation of network structure and the viscoelasticity of gel; 1.5% 200-µm IDF reached the maximum among these treatments. PT21 of the gel with IDF was higher than that of the control (P < 0.05), revealing that the addition of IDF accelerated the transformation of free water into immobilized water within the gel matrix. An ordered flaky gel network with small water holes was responsible for the increase of fractal dimension of the gel with IDF. Water distribution and viscoelasticity are the critical factors that IDF affects the gel properties of duck MP.

7.
Food Chem ; 343: 128493, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158671

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of various duck sources on the lipid oxidation and aroma flavor of sauced-ducks, Mallard (ML), Sheldrake (SD), Muscovy (MC), and Cherry-Valley (CV) ducks were used in sauced-duck processing. The results showed significantly different thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values of the four samples (SD > CV > ML > MC, p < 0.05), while the contents of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) were ML > SD/CV > MC (p < 0.05). Altogether, 105 volatile flavor compounds were detected in sauced-ducks, including acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, hydrocarbons, furans, nitrogen compounds, and others. The volatile compounds were observed differentially composed in the four products, and nineteen potential characteristic biomarkers were explored. The correlation analysis indicated that the characteristic aroma flavor of sauced-ducks were significantly associated with specific free fatty acids. These information are useful for learning aroma formation and meat selection and identification in duck products.


Assuntos
Patos , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/análise , Carne/análise , Odorantes/análise , Animais , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/química , Paladar
8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(2): 187-190, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313631

RESUMO

A linker molecule with four pendant thiophene functions was crystallized with Zr(iv) ions to form a semiconductive porous coordination solid (1.1 × 10-5 S cm-1). Oxidative treatment with FeCl3 guests then coupled the thiophene units to form conjugated bridges as covalent crosslinks. The resulting hybrid of a metal-organic framework and conjugated polymer featured robust crystalline order that withstood long-term air exposure and broad pH (from 0 to 12) conditions. Moreover, the homocoupled thiophene units, conjugated through sulfide links (-S-) with the linker backbone, afforded higher electronic conductivity (e.g., >2.2 × 10-3 S cm-1), which is characteristic of conductive polymer prototypes of polythiophene and polyphenylene sulfide. The crosslinked solid also exhibited proton conductivity that could be increased broadly upon H2SO4 treatment (e.g., from 5.0 × 10-7 to 1.6 × 10-3 S cm-1).

9.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 377-387, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357703

RESUMO

Sugar-smoking contributes to improving flavor attributes of meat products. However, there is rather limited information concerning the relationship between sugar-smoking process parameters and volatile compound (VC) fingerprinting as well as related quality attributes of sugar-smoked chicken. In this work, the changes in VC across the whole sugar-smoking process were determined and analyzed and physicochemical properties, free fatty acid, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values, and E-nose were also performed to characterize the quality properties of sugar-smoked chicken breast (CB) and chicken skin (CS). Results suggested that a higher amount (P < 0.05) of total VC was observed in CS compared with CB during the whole processing, which may be correlated with higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values, and higher polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratio. According to E-nose analysis, the volatile flavor is clearly separated in the sugar-smoking stage. Volatile fingerprinting results revealed that heterocycles were the characteristic flavor formed during sugar-smoking process and hexanal, nonanal, furfural, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, and 2-acetyl-5-methylfuran were the major volatiles of the CS, which was closely related to lipid oxidation and caramelization reaction. Above all, the flavor of sugar-smoked chicken was mainly derived from CS and sugar-smoked process improved the flavor of CS. This study could provide theoretical guidance for regulation of the color and flavor of sugar-smoked chicken and further promote the development of the industry.

10.
Int J Parasitol ; 51(1): 49-61, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991917

RESUMO

The roundworm Toxocara canis causes toxocariasis in dogs and larval migrans in humans. Better understanding of the lung response to T. canis infection could explain why T. canis must migrate to and undergoes part of its development inside the lung of the definitive host. In this study, we profiled the expression patterns of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and mRNAs in the lungs of Beagle dogs infected by T. canis, using high throughput RNA sequencing. At 24 h p.i., 1,012 lncRNAs, 393 mRNAs and 10 miRNAs were differentially expressed (DE). We also identified 883 DElncRNAs, 264 DEmRNAs and 20 DEmiRNAs at 96 h p.i., and 996 DElncRNAs, 342 DEmRNAs and eight DEmiRNAs at 36 days p.i., between infected and control dogs. Significant changes in the levels of expression of transcripts related to immune response and inflammation were associated with the antiparasitic response of the lung to T. canis. The remarkable increase in the expression of scgb1a1 at all time points after infection suggests the need for consistent moderation of the excessive inflammatory response. Also, upregulation of foxj1 at 24 h p.i., and downregulation of IL-1ß and IL-21 at 96 h p.i., suggest an attenuation of the humoral immunity of infected dogs. These results indicate that T. canis pathogenesis in the lung is mediated through contributions from both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network analysis revealed significant interactions between DElncRNAs, DEmiRNAs and DEmRNAs, and improved our understanding of the ceRNA regulatory mechanisms in the context of T. canis infection. These data provide comprehensive understanding of the regulatory networks that govern the lung response to T. canis infection and reveal new mechanistic insights into the interaction between the host and parasite during the course of T. canis infection in the canine.

11.
Ambio ; 50(2): 436-447, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789767

RESUMO

Small hydropower (SHP) is promoted as a pro-poor renewable energy source that does not have the negative social impacts of large dams. This article challenges these claims, using data from a household survey in China's upper Red River Basin. We find that SHP can fragment river systems in ways that reduce irrigation water availability, provoke changes to agricultural practices, and negatively impact river health. These social impacts of river fragmentation mainly occur in villages situated between a plant's intake and outflow. The frequency of plant water diversions due to continued generation in the dry season significantly predicts all social impacts; installed capacity of the plant and the quality of the village's irrigation infrastructure predict some impacts. Villages with strong local governance can negotiate with the plant to temporarily halt generation when irrigation water is needed, lessening social impacts. Our findings reveal that SHP plants are not as benign as they are made out to be; they must be built and managed according to community needs.


Assuntos
Rios , Mudança Social , Agricultura , China , Energia Renovável
12.
J Proteomics ; 232: 104049, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212252

RESUMO

Toxocara canis causes ocular larva migrans and visceral larva migrans in humans. Knowledge about the molecular mechanism of T. canis-hosts interaction is limited. The proteomic alterations in the plasma of Beagle dogs induced by T. canis infection were studied by the quantitative mass spectrometry-based data-independent acquisition (DIA). 418, 414 and 411 plasma proteins were identified at 24 h post-infection (hpi), 96 hpi and 36 days post-infection (dpi), including 6, 5 and 23 proteins with differential abundance, respectively. At 24 hpi, the altered proteins, retinoic acid receptor responder protein 2 (RARRES2), WD repeat-containing protein 1 (WDR1), moesin and filamin-A, may participate in pro-inflammatory reaction or promote larvae migration. At 96 hpi, the altered protein C and fibroleukin may maintain the stability of the coagulation system to protect the lung. At 36 dpi, the alterations of C-reactive protein (CRP), ficolin (FCN), complement factor H-related protein 5 (CFHR5) and other complements can affect the three traditional complement system, including the classic pathway, lectin pathway and alternative pathway. These proteins may play important roles in the interaction between T. canis and its definitive hosts. Further study on these altered proteins triggered by T. canis infection may discovery novel therapeutic or diagnostic targets for toxocariasis. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: Toxocara canis is one of the globally distributed soil-transmitted helminths, which causes ocular larva migrans and visceral larva migrans in humans and a wide range of warm-blooded animals. T. canis adapts to different microenvironments by resisting and adjusting various biological processes of the hosts. Knowledge about the molecular mechanism of T. canis-hosts interaction is limited. Plasma proteins are good marker for monitoring the occurrence and development of diseases. The proteomic alterations in the plasma of Beagle dogs induced by T. canis infection were studied by the quantitative mass spectrometry-based data-independent acquisition (DIA) in this study. A total of 418, 414 and 411 plasma proteins were identified at 24 h post-infection (hpi), 96 hpi and 36 days post-infection, respectively. Ten protein with differential abundances were validated by using parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). Collectively, our deep proteomic analysis of plasma revealed that proteins alterations were affected by disease development, and proteomic analysis is an ideal method for quantifying changes in circulating factors on a global scale in response to pathophysiological perturbations such as T. canis infection.

13.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127745, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805654

RESUMO

Nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO42-) and ammonium (NH4+) in airborne fine particles (PM2.5) play a vital role in the formation of heavy air pollution in northern China. In particular, the increasing contribution of NO3- to PM2.5 has attracted worldwide attention. In this study, a highly time-resolved analyzer was used to measure water-soluble inorganic ions in PM2.5 in one of the fastest-developing megacities, Tianjin, China, from November 15 to March 15 (wintertime heating period) in 2014-2019. Severe PM2.5 pollution episodes markedly decreased during the heating period from 2014 to 2019. The highest concentrations of NO3- and SO42- were recorded in the heating period of 2015/2016. Afterwards, NO3- decreased from 2015/2016 (20.2 ± 23.8 µg/m3) to 2017/2018 (11.6 ± 14.8 µg/m3) but increased with increasing NOx concentrations during the heating period of 2018/2019. A continuous decrease in the SO2 concentration led to a decrease in SO42- from 2015/2016 (16.8 ± 21.8 µg/m3) to 2018/2019 (6.5 ± 8.9 µg/m3). The NO3- and SO42- concentrations increased as the air quality deteriorated. However, the proportion of NO3- and SO42- in PM2.5 slightly increased when the air quality deteriorated from moderate pollution (MP) to severe pollution (SP) levels. The average molar ratios of NH4+ to [NO3-+2 × (SO42-)] were 1.7, 0.9, 1.2, 1.2 and 1.5 for the heating periods of 2014/2015, 2015/2016, 2016/2017, 2017/2018 and 2018/2019, respectively, most of which were higher than 1.0, thus revealing an overall excess of NH4+ during the heating periods. However, the molar equivalent ratios of [NH4+] to [NO3-+2 × (SO42-)] were less than 1 under increasing PM2.5 pollution. The molar equivalent ratios of [NO3-]/[SO42-] were positively correlated with those of [NH4+]/[SO42-]. When the molar equivalent ratios of [NH4+]/[SO42-] were more than 1.5, those of [NO3-]/[SO42-] increased from close to 1 to higher values, indicating that the dominance of NO3- formation played an important role. The results of nonparametric wind regression exhibited distinct hot spots of NO3-, SO42- and NH4+ (higher concentrations) in the wind sectors between NE and SE at wind speeds of approximately 6-21 km/h. The southern areas in the North China Plain and parts of the western areas of China contributed more NO3-, SO42- and NH4+ than other areas to the study site. The abovementioned areas were also characterized by a higher contribution of NO3- than of SO42- to the study site and by NH4+-rich conditions. In summary, more efforts should be made to reduce NOx in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. This study provides observational evidence of the increasingly important role of nitrate as well as scientific support for formulating effective control strategies for regional haze in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Compostos de Amônio/análise , Nitratos/análise , Sulfatos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluição do Ar/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Transportes , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Água/química , Vento
14.
Mol Med Rep ; 23(1)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179098

RESUMO

Lipid accumulation in podocytes can lead to the destruction of cellular morphology, in addition to cell dysfunction and apoptosis, which is a key factor in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from medicinal plants such as Coptis chinensis, which has been reported to have a lipid­lowering effect and prevent CKD progression. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of BBR on palmitic acid (PA)­induced podocyte apoptosis and its specific mechanism using an in vitro model. Cell death was measured using the Cell Counting Kit­8 colorimetric assay. Cell apoptotic rate was assessed by flow cytometry. The expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress­ and apoptosis­related proteins was detected by western blotting or immunofluorescence. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were evaluated by 2',7'­dichlorofluorescein diacetate fluorescence staining. The results of the present study revealed that BBR treatment decreased PA­induced podocyte apoptosis. In addition, 4­phenylbutyric acid significantly reduced PA­induced cell apoptosis and the expression of ER stress­related proteins, which indicated that ER stress was involved in PA­induced podocyte apoptosis. In addition, N­acetylcysteine inhibited PA­induced excessive ROS production, ER stress and cell apoptosis of podocytes. BBR also significantly reduced PA­induced ROS production and ER stress in podocytes. These results suggested that PA mediated podocyte apoptosis through enhancing ER stress and the production of ROS. In conclusion, BBR may protect against PA­induced podocyte apoptosis, and suppression of ROS­dependent ER stress may be the key mechanism underlying the protective effects of BBR.

15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 112915, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360044

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Stellera Linn. consists of species of perennial herbs and shrubs, and is mainly distributed in the temperate regions of east Asia to west Asia. There are 10∼12 species in the world, two species in China: Stellera chamaejasme Linn. and Stellera formosana Hayata ex Li. As recorded, the roots of Stellera species are used to dissipate phlegm and relieve pain. The roots and the barks can be used for papermaking. AIM OF THIS REVIEW: This review aims to summarize the ethnopharmacological uses, chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, clinical applications and toxicology of the genus Stellera to better understand their therapeutic potential in the future. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relevant information of the genus Stellera was collected from scientific databases (Pubmed, ACS website, SciFinder Scholar, Elsevier, Google Scholar, Web of Science and CNKI). Information was also gathered from 'Flora Republicae Popularis Sinicae (〈〈〉〉)', folk records, conference papers on ethnopharmacology, Ph.D. and Masters' Dissertation. RESULTS: Stellera plants have been studied as traditional folk medicines all around the world. The chemical constituents of Stellera species mainly comprise terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, lignans, and so on. Extracts and compounds of Stellera species exhibit extensive pharmacological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-viral, anti-convulsive, anti-epileptic, anti-bacterial and anti-insect activities, etc. Clinical applications have suggested that the genus Stellera has the effects in treating several skin diseases and cancers, however, the results should be further verification. The genus Stellera plants are toxic and should be used reasonable. CONCLUSION: This paper reviewed the ethnopharmacological uses, chemical constituents, pharmacology, clinical applications and toxicology of the genus Stellera. The genus Stellera has broad application prospects. However, further in-depth studies are needed to determine the medical uses of the genus and its chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, clinical applications and toxicology.

16.
Exp Neurol ; 335: 113528, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189730

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke (IS) is one of the most common cerebrovascular diseases worldwide. The aberrant expression of BCL6 has been previously implicated in the pathogenesis of IS. Meanwhile, miR-31 is known as a target of BCL6, and has also been suggested to diminish cell damage by suppressing the PKD1 expression. Expanding on this relationship, the current study set out to investigate whether BCL6 participates in ischemic stroke by targeting PKD1. Firstly, IS models were established in vitro and in vivo. TUNEL staining and MTT assay were performed to examine the apoptosis and cell survival. In addition, qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis were applied to examine the expression patterns of the BCL6/miR-31/PKD1 axis and its downstream pathway. Bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the target of miR-31. It was found that BCL6 over-expression promoted ODG-induced increase of apoptosis and decreased the cell survival and miR-31 expression levels, whereas the opposite effects were noted in vitro and in vivo models of IS that were treated with shBCL6. Furthermore, miR-31 down-regulation blocked the effect of BCL6 on ODG-induced cell injury. It was also verified that miR-31 directly-targets PKD1. Also, OGD induced the PKD1 expression and activation of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway, while down-regulation of PKD1 inhibited the OGD-induced cell injury and JAK2/STAT3 pathway activation. Lastly, down-regulation of BCL6 in brain brought about a significant reduction in the size of cerebral infarction and oxidative stress levels in IS mice. Collectively, our findings suggest that inhibition of BCL6 may attenuate oxidative stress-induced neuronal damage by targeting the miR-31/PKD1 axis.

17.
Opt Lett ; 46(1): 110-113, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362028

RESUMO

Vortex beams carrying optical angular momentum (AM) could drive the orbital motion of a small particle around the optical axis. In general, the orbital rotation speed of trapped particles increases linearly with the increasing laser power. Beyond the linear optics regime, in this work, we investigate both the optical force and torque on a two-photon absorbing Rayleigh particle produced by the tightly focused femtosecond-pulsed circularly polarized vortex beam. Different from the trapping dynamics of particles without two-photon absorption (TPA), it is shown that the orbital motion of trapped particles with TPA accelerates nonlinearly as the laser power increases. Moreover, the orbital motion acceleration of trapped particles is proportional to the TPA coefficient. The corresponding underlying mechanism is discussed in detail. Our results may find interesting applications in the characterization of the optical nonlinearity of a single nanoparticle, and AM manipulation and particle transportation in the nonlinear optics regime.

18.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(23)2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266095

RESUMO

The vacuum hot-rolled SUS314/Q235 stainless steel clad plate has many drawbacks including serious interface alloy element diffusion, stainless steel cladding's sensitization, and carbon steel substrate's low strength. In this study, the comprehensive properties were systematically adjusted by changing the thickness of the Ni interlayer (0, 100, 200 µm) and the quenching temperature (1000~1150 °C). The results showed that the Ni interlayer can obviously hinder the diffusion of carbon element, so as to achieve the purpose of eliminating the decarburized layer and reducing the carbon content of the carburized layer. Meanwhile, the perfect metallurgical bonding between the substrate and cladding can be obtained, effectively improving the stainless steel clad plate's tensile shear strength and comprehensive mechanical properties, and significantly reduce the brittleness of the carburized layer. As the quenching temperature increases, the grains coarsening of carbon steel and stainless steel became more and more serious, and the sensitization phenomenon and the thickness of the carburized layer are gradually decreased. The stainless steel clad plate (Ni layer thickness of 100 µm) quenched at 1050 °C had the best comprehensive mechanical properties. Herein, the interface shear strength, tensile strength and the fracture elongation reached 360.5 MPa, 867 MPa and 16.10%, respectively, achieving strengthening and toughening aim. This is attributed to the disappearance of the sensitization phenomenon, the grain refinement and the lower interface residual stress.

19.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 587273, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33282932

RESUMO

Toxocara canis is a neglected zoonotic parasite, which threatens the health of dogs and humans worldwide. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the progression of T. canis infection remain mostly unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that have been identified in T. canis; however, the regulation and role of miRNAs in the host during infection remain incompletely understood. In this study, we determined hepatic miRNA expression at different stages of T. canis infection in beagle dogs. Individual dogs were infected by 300 embryonated T. canis eggs, and their livers were collected at 12 hpi (hours post-infection), 24 hpi, and 36 dpi (days post-infection). The expression profiles of liver miRNAs were determined using RNA-sequencing. Compared to the control groups, 9, 16, and 34 differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRNAs) were detected in the livers of infected dogs at the three infection stages, respectively. Among those DEmiRNAs, the novel-294 and cfa-miR-885 were predicted to regulate inflammation-related genes at the initial stage of infection (12 hpi). The cfa-miR-1839 was predicted to regulate the target gene TRIM71, which may influence the development of T. canis larvae at 24 hpi. Moreover, cfa-miR-370 and cfa-miR-133c were associated with immune response at the final stage of infection (36 dpi). Some immunity-related Gene Ontology terms were enriched particularly at 24 hpi. Likewise, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis showed that many significantly enriched pathways were involved in inflammation and immune responses. The expression level of nine DEmiRNAs was validated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results show that miRNAs play critical roles in the pathogenesis of T. canis during the hepatic phase of parasite development. Our data provide fundamental information for further investigation of the roles of miRNAs in the innate/adaptive immune response of dogs infected by T. canis.

20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2020 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379173

RESUMO

Acting as a typical harpin protein, Hpa1 of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is one of the pathogenic factors in hosts and can elicit hypersensitive responses (HR) in non-hosts. To further explain the underlying mechanisms of its induced resistance, we studied the function of the most stable and shortest three heptads in the N-terminal coiled-coil domain of Hpa1, named N21Hpa1. Proteins isolated from N21-transgenic tobacco elicited HR in Xanthi tobacco, which was consistent with the results using N21 and full-length Hpa1 proteins expressed in Escherichia coli. N21-expressing tobacco plants showed enhanced resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Pectobacterium carotovora subsp. carotovora (Pcc). Spraying of a synthesized N21 peptide solution delayed the disease symptoms caused by Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructicola and promoted the growth and drought tolerance of plants. Further analysis indicated that N21 upregulated the expression of multiple plant defense-related genes, such as genes mediated by salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling, and genes related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) biosynthesis. Further, the bioavailability of N21 peptide was better than that of full-length Hpa1Xoo. Our studies support the broad application prospects of N21 peptide as a promising succedaneum to biopesticide Messenger or Illite or other biological pharmaceutical products, and provide a basis for further development of biopesticides using proteins with similar structures.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA