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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109820, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670242

RESUMO

Huge amounts of fly ash (FA) can be annually produced in power plants. Fly ash always contains high levels of arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) due to the preconcentration of these two elements during coal combustion process. It would be much concerned to screen their fractions and potential environmental behaviors in fly ash for beneficial use and treatment. Fast and practical methods for this purpose are urgently needed. Two fast and effective microwave-assisted sequential extraction schemes (MASE) were developed for fast screening As and Se fractions in fly ash for the first time. The extraction parameters including microwave irradiation time, temperature and power energy were optimized by comparing the results from MASE and the conventional scheme (Wenzel method). The results indicate that the extraction efficiency of As and Se in various fractions can be significantly accelerated by microwave irradiation. The whole procedure operation time can be significantly reduced from 24.5 h to 44 min by microwave assistance compared with the conventional shaking schemes. The recoveries of As and Se in the various extracted fractions were all above 80% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 8%. The developed methods were further confirmed by the validation of the certified reference material GBW08401 and fly ash samples from six power plants. The developed MASE methods are practical and effective for fast screening arsenic and selenium fractions in fly ash samples.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Cinza de Carvão/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Micro-Ondas , Selênio/análise , Disponibilidade Biológica , Centrais Elétricas
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 528, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367959

RESUMO

The distribution and bioavailability of arsenic (As) in indoor/outdoor total suspended particulates (TSP), inhalable particulate matters (PM10), and fine particulate matters (PM2.5) in Baoding, China were investigated. The average I/O ratios for TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 were 0.52, 0.66, and 0.96, respectively. There was no significant correlation between indoor/outdoor TSP, PM10, and PM2.5. The indoor/outdoor concentrations of As surpassed the limited value of As. I/O ratios of arsenic in TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 were 0.52, 0.58, and 0.55, respectively. The contents of arsenic in different fractions were mainly affected by the total concentrations of arsenic in particulate matters (PM) rather than the particle sizes for TSP and PM10. Arsenic was mainly in non-specifically sorbed fraction (F1) in both indoor and outdoor PM2.5. The evaluated carcinogenic risk (CR) was within the safe level. The bioavailability of As increased with particle size decreasing for both indoor and outdoor PM. The potential bioavailability of As in outdoor particles was higher than that of indoor particles with the same size, especially PM2.5.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Arsênico/análise , Material Particulado/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Arsênico/química , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise
3.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt A): 336-343, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158662

RESUMO

The health risks and toxicity of heavy metals (HMs) in PM2.5 are not only associated with their total amounts, but also with their species and bioaccessibility. In this study, the speciation (fractions) and bioaccessibility of HMs (Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and Zn) as well as their correlations in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples from four seasons were studied. A sequential extraction procedure was applied to divide the studied HMs into four fractions: acid-soluble fraction (F1), reducible fraction (F2), oxidative fraction (F3) and residual fraction (F4). The simulated body fluids (gastrointestinal and lung phases) were used for in vitro tests in order to evaluate the bioaccessibility of HMs. The distribution of HMs in PM2.5 was season and element dependent. It was found that Zn was the most abundant element among the five measured metals and followed by Pb, Cu, Cr and Cd. The total contents of each HM in different seasons were in the following order: winter > autumn > spring > summer. The studied HMs were mainly concentrated in acid-soluble fraction (F1) with high bioaccessibility (p < 0.05) except for Cr. Zn, Pb and Cu possessed the highest bioaccessibility in summer while Cd and Cr were the highest in winter. In vitro tests indicated that HMs in PM2.5 were much more accessible to gastrointestinal fluids rather than lung phase (Gamble's solution). A significant correlation was found between the results from the optimized BCR sequential extraction and solubility bioaccessibility research consortium (SBRC). The fractions extracted by SBRC were consistent with the first two fractions extracted by the sequential extraction method.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Trato Gastrointestinal/química , Pulmão/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Líquidos Corporais/química , China , Cidades , Estações do Ano
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 169: 487-495, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472473

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) can be easily enriched in atmospheric particulate matters (PMs), especially in fine particulate matters (PM2.5). In this study, thirty two PM2.5 samples were collected in four seasons in Baoding, China, where the haze pollution was very serious in recent years. The total contents, species and bioavailability of arsenic in PM2.5 samples were investigated. Species of arsenic in the PM2.5 samples were discriminated as five fractions using a sequential extraction method: non-specifically sorbed fraction (F1), specifically-sorbed fraction (F2), amorphous and poorly-crystalline hydrous oxides of Fe and Al fraction (F3), well-crystallized hydrous oxides of Fe and Al fraction (F4) and residual fraction (F5). Bioavailabilities of arsenic in the PM2.5 samples were evaluated by in vitro tests using both solubility bioavailability research consortium (SBRC) and Gamble's solution extraction methods. The total volume concentrations of As in PM2.5 were significantly higher in winter than the other seasons. However, the highest mass concentration of As was found in spring. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization indicated that the physical morphology of the particles varied in different seasons. Significant differences of fraction distribution and BFs were found between different seasons. Arsenic in PM2.5 samples mainly presented in F1 with high bioavailability factor (BF), especially for the samples in summer. In vitro tests indicated that arsenic in PM2.5 could be dissolved more easily in gastric phase rather than intestinal and lung phases. There was a significant correlation between species and in vitro tests. Interestingly, a synergy effect was found between F2 and F3. Health risk assessment indicated that arsenic in PM2.5via inhalation exposure for both children and adults could cause adverse effects. Principal component analysis suggested that the arsenic in PM2.5 was from the similar sources between summer and autumn, winter and spring, respectively.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Arsênico/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto , Disponibilidade Biológica , Criança , China , Cidades , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Estações do Ano
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