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1.
Clin Genet ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600844

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) is a late-onset, Mendelian mitochondrial disorder characterised by paresis of the extraocular muscles, ptosis, and skeletal-muscle restricted multiple mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions. Although dominantly inherited, pathogenic variants in POLG, TWNK and RRM2B are among the most common genetic defects of adPEO, identification of novel candidate genes and the underlying pathomechanisms remains challenging. We report the clinical, genetic and molecular investigations of a patient who presented in the seventh decade of life with PEO. Oxidative histochemistry revealed cytochrome c oxidase-deficient fibres and occasional ragged red fibres showing subsarcolemmal mitochondrial accumulation in skeletal muscle, while molecular studies identified the presence of multiple mtDNA deletions. Negative candidate screening of known nuclear genes associated with PEO prompted diagnostic exome sequencing, leading to the prioritisation of a novel heterozygous c.547G>C variant in GMPR (NM_006877.3) encoding guanosine monophosphate reductase, a cytosolic enzyme required for maintaining the cellular balance of adenine and guanine nucleotides. We show that the novel c.547G>C variant causes aberrant splicing, decreased GMPR protein levels in patient skeletal muscle, proliferating and quiescent cells, and is associated with subtle changes in nucleotide homeostasis protein levels and evidence of disturbed mtDNA maintenance in skeletal muscle. Despite confirmation of GMPR deficiency, demonstrating marked defects of mtDNA replication or nucleotide homeostasis in patient cells proved challenging. Our study proposes that GMPR is the 19th locus for PEO and highlights the complexities of uncovering disease mechanisms in late-onset PEO phenotypes.

2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435670

RESUMO

BCS1L encodes a homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae bcs1 protein, which has a known role in the assembly of Complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Phenotypes reported in association with pathogenic BCS1L variants, include Growth Retardation, Aminoaciduria, Chloestasis, Iron overload, Lactic acidosis and Early death (GRACILE syndrome) and Björnstad syndrome, characterised by abnormal flattening and twisting of hair shafts (pili torti) and hearing problems. Here we describe two patients harbouring biallelic variants in BCS1L; the first with a heterozygous variant c.166C>T, p.(Arg56*) together with a novel heterozygous variant c.205C>T, p.(Arg69Cys) and a second patient with a novel homozygous c.325C>T, p.(Arg109Trp) variant. The two patients presented with different phenotypes; the first patient presented as an adult with aminoaciduria, seizures, bilateral sensorineural deafness and learning difficulties. The second was an infant who presented with a classical GRACILE syndrome leading to death at 4 months of age. A decrease in BCS1L protein levels was seen in both patients and biochemical analysis of Complex III revealed normal respiratory chain enzyme activities in the muscle of both patients. A decrease in Complex III assembly was detected in the adult patient's muscle, whilst the paediatric patient displayed a combined mitochondrial respiratory chain defect in cultured fibroblasts. Yeast complementation studies indicate that the two missense variants, c.205C>T, p.(Arg69Cys) and c.325C>T, p.(Arg109Trp), impair the respiratory capacity of the cell. Together, these data support the pathogenicity of the novel BCS1L variants identified in our patients.

3.
Mitochondrion ; 47: 18-23, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022467

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA variants in the MT-TM (mt-tRNAMet) gene are rare, typically associated with myopathic phenotypes. We identified a novel MT-TM variant resulting in prolonged seizures with childhood-onset myopathy, retinopathy, short stature and elevated CSF lactate associated with bilateral basal ganglia changes on neuroimaging. Muscle biopsy confirmed multiple respiratory chain deficiencies and focal cytochrome c oxidase (COX) histochemical abnormalities. Next-generation sequencing of the mitochondrial genome revealed a novel m.4412G>A variant at high heteroplasmy levels in muscle that fulfils all accepted criteria for pathogenicity including segregation within single muscle fibres, thus broadening the genotypic and phenotypic landscape of mitochondrial tRNA-related disease.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5108, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911037

RESUMO

Primary mitochondrial dysfunction is an under-appreciated cause of cardiomyopathy, especially when cardiac symptoms are the unique or prevalent manifestation of disease. Here, we report an unusual presentation of mitochondrial cardiomyopathy, with dilated phenotype and pathologic evidence of biventricular fibro-adipose replacement, in a 33-year old woman who underwent cardiac transplant. Whole exome sequencing revealed two novel compound heterozygous variants in the TSFM gene, coding for the mitochondrial translation elongation factor EF-Ts. This protein participates in the elongation step of mitochondrial translation by binding and stabilizing the translation elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). Bioinformatics analysis predicted a destabilization of the EF-Ts variants complex with EF-Tu, in agreement with the dramatic steady-state level reduction of both proteins in the clinically affected myocardium, which demonstrated a combined respiratory chain enzyme deficiency. In patient fibroblasts, the decrease of EF-Ts was paralleled by up-regulation of EF-Tu and induction of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, along with increased expression of respiratory chain subunits and normal oxygen consumption rate. Our report extends the current picture of morphologic phenotypes associated with mitochondrial cardiomyopathies and confirms the heart as a main target of TSFM dysfunction. The compensatory response detected in patient fibroblasts might explain the tissue-specific expression of TSFM-associated disease.

5.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(3): 515-524, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911575

RESUMO

Objectives: Mitochondrial methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase (MTFMT) is required for the initiation of translation and elongation of mitochondrial protein synthesis. Pathogenic variants in MTFMT have been associated with Leigh syndrome (LS) and mitochondrial multiple respiratory chain deficiencies. We sought to elucidate the spectrum of clinical, neuroradiological and molecular genetic findings of patients with bi-allelic pathogenic variants in MTFMT. Methods: Retrospective cohort study combining new cases and previously published cases. Results: Thirty-eight patients with pathogenic variants in MTFMT were identified, including eight new cases. The median age of presentation was 14 months (range: birth to 17 years, interquartile range [IQR] 4.5 years), with developmental delay and motor symptoms being the most frequent initial manifestation. Twenty-nine percent of the patients survived into adulthood. MRI headings in MTFMT pathogenic variants included symmetrical basal ganglia changes (62%), periventricular and subcortical white matter abnormalities (55%), and brainstem lesions (48%). Isolated complex I and combined respiratory chain deficiencies were identified in 31% and 59% of the cases, respectively. Reduction of the mitochondrial complex I and complex IV subunits was identified in the fibroblasts (13/13). Sixteen pathogenic variants were identified, of which c.626C>T was the most common. Seventy-four percent of the patients were alive at their last clinical review (median 6.8 years, range: 14 months to 31 years, IQR 14.5 years). Interpretation: Patients that harbour pathogenic variants in MTFMT have a milder clinical phenotype and disease progression compared to LS caused by other nuclear defects. Fibroblasts may preclude the need for muscle biopsy, to prove causality of any novel variant.

6.
Cell Rep ; 25(12): 3315-3328.e6, 2018 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566859

RESUMO

Mutations in genes essential for mitochondrial function have pleiotropic effects. The mechanisms underlying these traits yield insights into metabolic homeostasis and potential therapies. Here we report the characterization of a mouse model harboring a mutation in the tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase 2 (Wars2) gene, encoding the mitochondrial-localized WARS2 protein. This hypomorphic allele causes progressive tissue-specific pathologies, including hearing loss, reduced adiposity, adipose tissue dysfunction, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We demonstrate the tissue heterogeneity arises as a result of variable activation of the integrated stress response (ISR) pathway and the ability of certain tissues to respond to impaired mitochondrial translation. Many of the systemic metabolic effects are likely mediated through elevated fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) following activation of the ISR in certain tissues. These findings demonstrate the potential pleiotropy associated with Wars2 mutations in patients.

7.
BMC Med Genet ; 19(1): 196, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: IARS2 encodes a mitochondrial isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase, a highly conserved nuclear-encoded enzyme required for the charging of tRNAs with their cognate amino acid for translation. Recently, pathogenic IARS2 variants have been identified in a number of patients presenting broad clinical phenotypes with autosomal recessive inheritance. These phenotypes range from Leigh and West syndrome to a new syndrome abbreviated CAGSSS that is characterised by cataracts, growth hormone deficiency, sensory neuropathy, sensorineural hearing loss, and skeletal dysplasia, as well as cataract with no additional anomalies. METHODS: Genomic DNA from Iranian probands from two families with consanguineous parental background and overlapping CAGSSS features were subjected to exome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. RESULTS: Exome sequencing and data analysis revealed a novel homozygous missense variant (c.2625C > T, p.Pro909Ser, NM_018060.3) within a 14.3 Mb run of homozygosity in proband 1 and a novel homozygous missense variant (c.2282A > G, p.His761Arg) residing in an ~ 8 Mb region of homozygosity in a proband of the second family. Patient-derived fibroblasts from proband 1 showed normal respiratory chain enzyme activity, as well as unchanged oxidative phosphorylation protein subunits and IARS2 levels. Homology modelling of the known and novel amino acid residue substitutions in IARS2 provided insight into the possible consequence of these variants on function and structure of the protein. CONCLUSIONS: This study further expands the phenotypic spectrum of IARS2 pathogenic variants to include two patients (patients 2 and 3) with cataract and skeletal dysplasia and no other features of CAGSSS to the possible presentation of the defects in IARS2. Additionally, this study suggests that adult patients with CAGSSS may manifest central adrenal insufficiency and type II esophageal achalasia and proposes that a variable sensorineural hearing loss onset, proportionate short stature, polyneuropathy, and mild dysmorphic features are possible, as seen in patient 1. Our findings support that even though biallelic IARS2 pathogenic variants can result in a distinctive, clinically recognisable phenotype in humans, it can also show a wide range of clinical presentation from severe pediatric neurological disorders of Leigh and West syndrome to both non-syndromic cataract and cataract accompanied by skeletal dysplasia.

8.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285085

RESUMO

Recessively-inherited variants in AARS2 (NM_020745.2) encoding mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetase (mt-AlaRS) were first described in patients presenting with fatal infantile cardiomyopathy and multiple oxidative phosphorylation defects. To date, all described patients with AARS2-related fatal infantile cardiomyopathy are united by either a homozygous or compound heterozygous c.1774C>T (p.Arg592Trp) missense founder mutation that is absent in patients with other AARS2-related phenotypes. We describe the clinical, biochemical and molecular investigations of two unrelated boys presenting with fatal infantile cardiomyopathy, lactic acidosis and respiratory failure. Oxidative histochemistry showed cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-deficient fibres in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Biochemical studies showed markedly decreased activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and IV with a mild decrease of complex III activity in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Using next-generation sequencing, we identified a c.1738C>T (p.Arg580Trp) AARS2 variant shared by both patients that was in trans with a loss-of-function heterozygous AARS2 variant; a c.1008dupT (p.Asp337*) nonsense variant or an intragenic deletion encompassing AARS2 exons 5-7. Interestingly, our patients did not harbour the p.Arg592Trp AARS2 founder mutation. In silico modelling of the p.Arg580Trp substitution suggested a deleterious impact on protein stability and folding. We confirmed markedly decreased mt-AlaRS protein levels in patient fibroblasts, skeletal and cardiac muscle, although mitochondrial protein synthesis defects were confined to skeletal and cardiac muscle. In vitro data showed that the p.Arg580Trp variant had a minimal effect on activation, aminoacylation or misaminoacylation activities relative to wild-type mt-AlaRS, demonstrating that instability of mt-AlaRS is the biological mechanism underlying the fatal cardiomyopathy phenotype in our patients.

9.
EMBO Mol Med ; 10(11)2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201738

RESUMO

OXA1, the mitochondrial member of the YidC/Alb3/Oxa1 membrane protein insertase family, is required for the assembly of oxidative phosphorylation complexes IV and V in yeast. However, depletion of human OXA1 (OXA1L) was previously reported to impair assembly of complexes I and V only. We report a patient presenting with severe encephalopathy, hypotonia and developmental delay who died at 5 years showing complex IV deficiency in skeletal muscle. Whole exome sequencing identified biallelic OXA1L variants (c.500_507dup, p.(Ser170Glnfs*18) and c.620G>T, p.(Cys207Phe)) that segregated with disease. Patient muscle and fibroblasts showed decreased OXA1L and subunits of complexes IV and V. Crucially, expression of wild-type human OXA1L in patient fibroblasts rescued the complex IV and V defects. Targeted depletion of OXA1L in human cells or Drosophila melanogaster caused defects in the assembly of complexes I, IV and V, consistent with patient data. Immunoprecipitation of OXA1L revealed the enrichment of mtDNA-encoded subunits of complexes I, IV and V. Our data verify the pathogenicity of these OXA1L variants and demonstrate that OXA1L is required for the assembly of multiple respiratory chain complexes.

10.
Neurol Genet ; 4(4): e262, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30109272

RESUMO

Objective: To address the relationship between mutations in the DNA strand break repair protein tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2) and spinocerebellar ataxia autosomal recessive 23 (SCAR23) and to characterize the cellular phenotype of primary fibroblasts from this disease. Methods: We have used exome sequencing, Sanger sequencing, gene editing and cell biology, biochemistry, and subcellular mitochondrial analyses for this study. Results: We have identified a patient in the United States with SCAR23 harboring the same homozygous TDP2 mutation as previously reported in 3 Irish siblings (c.425+1G>A). The current and Irish patients share the same disease haplotype, but the current patient lacks a homozygous variant present in the Irish siblings in the closely linked gene ZNF193, eliminating this as a contributor to the disease. The current patient also displays symptoms consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction, although levels of mitochondrial function in patient primary skin fibroblasts are normal. However, we demonstrate an inability in patient primary fibroblasts to rapidly repair topoisomerase-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the nucleus and profound hypersensitivity to this type of DNA damage. Conclusions: These data confirm the TDP2 mutation as causative for SCAR23 and highlight the link between defects in nuclear DNA DSB repair, developmental delay, epilepsy, and ataxia.

11.
Neurol Genet ; 4(4): e256, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30046662

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the disease relevance of a novel de novo dominant variant in the SLC25A4 gene, encoding the muscle mitochondrial adenosine diphosphate (ADP)/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) carrier, identified in a child presenting with a previously unreported phenotype of mild childhood-onset myopathy. Methods: Immunohistochemical and western blot analysis of the patient's muscle tissue were used to assay for the evidence of mitochondrial myopathy and for complex I-V protein levels. To determine the effect of a putative pathogenic p.Lys33Gln variant on ADP/ATP transport, the mutant protein was expressed in Lactococcus lactis and its transport activity was assessed with fused membrane vesicles. Results: Our data demonstrate that the heterozygous c.97A>T (p.Lys33Gln) SLC25A4 variant is associated with classic muscle biopsy findings of mitochondrial myopathy (cytochrome c oxidase [COX]-deficient and ragged blue fibers), significantly impaired ADP/ATP transport in Lactococcus lactis and decreased complex I, III, and IV protein levels in patient's skeletal muscle. Nonetheless, the expression levels of the total ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) content in the muscle biopsy was largely unaffected. Conclusions: This report further expands the clinical phenotype of de novo dominant SLC25A4 mutations to a childhood-onset, mild skeletal myopathy, without evidence of previously reported clinical features associated with SLC25A4-associated disease, such as cardiomyopathy, encephalopathy or ophthalmoplegia. The most likely reason for the milder disease phenotype is that the overall AAC expression levels were not affected, meaning that expression of the wild-type allele and other isoforms may in part have compensated for the impaired mutant variant.

12.
Hum Mutat ; 39(4): 563-578, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29314548

RESUMO

In recent years, an increasing number of mitochondrial disorders have been associated with mutations in mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (mt-aaRSs), which are key enzymes of mitochondrial protein synthesis. Bi-allelic functional variants in VARS2, encoding the mitochondrial valyl tRNA-synthetase, were first reported in a patient with psychomotor delay and epilepsia partialis continua associated with an oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) Complex I defect, before being described in a patient with a neonatal form of encephalocardiomyopathy. Here we provide a detailed genetic, clinical, and biochemical description of 13 patients, from nine unrelated families, harboring VARS2 mutations. All patients except one, who manifested with a less severe disease course, presented at birth exhibiting severe encephalomyopathy and cardiomyopathy. Features included hypotonia, psychomotor delay, seizures, feeding difficulty, abnormal cranial MRI, and elevated lactate. The biochemical phenotype comprised a combined Complex I and Complex IV OXPHOS defect in muscle, with patient fibroblasts displaying normal OXPHOS activity. Homology modeling supported the pathogenicity of VARS2 missense variants. The detailed description of this cohort further delineates our understanding of the clinical presentation associated with pathogenic VARS2 variants and we recommend that this gene should be considered in early-onset mitochondrial encephalomyopathies or encephalocardiomyopathies.

13.
Hum Mutat ; 39(1): 69-79, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29044765

RESUMO

Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ; MIM# 607426) deficiencies are an emerging group of inherited mitochondrial disorders with heterogonous clinical phenotypes. Over a dozen genes are involved in the biosynthesis of CoQ10 , and mutations in several of these are associated with human disease. However, mutations in COQ5 (MIM# 616359), catalyzing the only C-methylation in the CoQ10 synthetic pathway, have not been implicated in human disease. Here, we report three female siblings of Iraqi-Jewish descent, who had varying degrees of cerebellar ataxia, encephalopathy, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and cognitive disability. Whole-exome and subsequent whole-genome sequencing identified biallelic duplications in the COQ5 gene, leading to reduced levels of CoQ10 in peripheral white blood cells of all affected individuals and reduced CoQ10 levels in the only muscle tissue available from one affected proband. CoQ10 supplementation led to clinical improvement and increased the concentrations of CoQ10 in blood. This is the first report of primary CoQ10 deficiency caused by loss of function of COQ5, with delineation of the clinical, laboratory, histological, and molecular features, and insights regarding targeted treatment with CoQ10 supplementation.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Ataxia Cerebelar/diagnóstico , Ataxia Cerebelar/genética , Metiltransferases/deficiência , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/diagnóstico , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/deficiência , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Biópsia , Ataxia Cerebelar/dietoterapia , Ataxia Cerebelar/metabolismo , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Suplementos Nutricionais , Transporte de Elétrons , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Estudos de Associação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/genética , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/dietoterapia , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Músculos/patologia , Consumo de Oxigênio , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Irmãos , Ubiquinona/biossíntese
14.
Ann Neurol ; 83(1): 115-130, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29283441

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Single, large-scale deletions in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are a common cause of mitochondrial disease. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the genetic defect and molecular phenotype to improve understanding of pathogenic mechanisms associated with single, large-scale mtDNA deletions in skeletal muscle. METHODS: We investigated 23 muscle biopsies taken from adult patients (6 males/17 females with a mean age of 43 years) with characterized single, large-scale mtDNA deletions. Mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency in skeletal muscle biopsies was quantified by immunoreactivity levels for complex I and complex IV proteins. Single muscle fibers with varying degrees of deficiency were selected from 6 patient biopsies for determination of mtDNA deletion level and copy number by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: We have defined 3 "classes" of single, large-scale deletion with distinct patterns of mitochondrial deficiency, determined by the size and location of the deletion. Single fiber analyses showed that fibers with greater respiratory chain deficiency harbored higher levels of mtDNA deletion with an increase in total mtDNA copy number. For the first time, we have demonstrated that threshold levels for complex I and complex IV deficiency differ based on deletion class. INTERPRETATION: Combining genetic and immunofluorescent assays, we conclude that thresholds for complex I and complex IV deficiency are modulated by the deletion of complex-specific protein-encoding genes. Furthermore, removal of mt-tRNA genes impacts specific complexes only at high deletion levels, when complex-specific protein-encoding genes remain. These novel findings provide valuable insight into the pathogenic mechanisms associated with these mutations. Ann Neurol 2018;83:115-130.

15.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 15676, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29142257

RESUMO

Isolated Complex I (CI) deficiency is the most commonly observed mitochondrial respiratory chain biochemical defect, affecting the largest OXPHOS component. CI is genetically heterogeneous; pathogenic variants affect one of 38 nuclear-encoded subunits, 7 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded subunits or 14 known CI assembly factors. The laboratory diagnosis relies on the spectrophotometric assay of enzyme activity in mitochondrially-enriched tissue homogenates, requiring at least 50 mg skeletal muscle, as there is no reliable histochemical method for assessing CI activity directly in tissue cryosections. We have assessed a validated quadruple immunofluorescent OXPHOS (IHC) assay to detect CI deficiency in the diagnostic setting, using 10 µm transverse muscle sections from 25 patients with genetically-proven pathogenic CI variants. We observed loss of NDUFB8 immunoreactivity in all patients with mutations affecting nuclear-encoding structural subunits and assembly factors, whilst only 3 of the 10 patients with mutations affecting mtDNA-encoded structural subunits showed loss of NDUFB8, confirmed by BN-PAGE analysis of CI assembly and IHC using an alternative, commercially-available CI (NDUFS3) antibody. The IHC assay has clear diagnostic potential to identify patients with a CI defect of Mendelian origins, whilst highlighting the necessity of complete mitochondrial genome sequencing in the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected mitochondrial disease.

16.
Neurogenetics ; 18(4): 227-235, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29075935

RESUMO

Mitochondrial diseases are characterised by clinical, molecular and functional heterogeneity, reflecting their bi-genomic control. The nuclear gene GFM2 encodes mtEFG2, a protein with an essential role during the termination stage of mitochondrial translation. We present here two unrelated patients harbouring different and previously unreported compound heterozygous (c.569G>A, p.(Arg190Gln); c.636delA, p.(Glu213Argfs*3)) and homozygous (c.275A>C, p.(Tyr92Ser)) recessive variants in GFM2 identified by whole exome sequencing (WES) together with histochemical and biochemical findings to support the diagnoses of pathological GFM2 variants in each case. Both patients presented similarly in early childhood with global developmental delay, raised CSF lactate and abnormalities on cranial MRI. Sanger sequencing of familial samples confirmed the segregation of bi-allelic GFM2 variants with disease, while investigations into steady-state mitochondrial protein levels revealed respiratory chain subunit defects and loss of mtEFG2 protein in muscle. These data demonstrate the effects of defective mtEFG2 function, caused by previously unreported variants, confirming pathogenicity and expanding the clinical phenotypes associated with GFM2 variants.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/genética , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Fator G para Elongação de Peptídeos/genética , Criança , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo
17.
Neurol Genet ; 3(5): e187, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28955726

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the genetic etiology of a young woman presenting an early-onset, progressive neurodegenerative disorder with evidence of decreased mitochondrial complex I and IV activities in skeletal muscle suggestive of a mitochondrial disorder. METHODS: A case report including diagnostic workup, whole-exome sequencing of the affected patient, filtering, and prioritization of candidate variants assuming a suspected autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder and segregation studies. RESULTS: After excluding candidate variants for an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder, re-evaluation of rare and novel heterozygous variants identified a recently reported, recurrent pathogenic heterozygous CTBP1 missense change (c.991C>T, p.Arg331Trp), which was confirmed to have arisen de novo. CONCLUSIONS: We report the fifth known patient harboring a recurrent pathogenic de novo c.991C>T p.(Arg331Trp) CTBP1 variant, who was initially suspected to have an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder. Inheritance of suspected early-onset mitochondrial disease could wrongly be assumed to be autosomal recessive. Hence, this warrants continued re-evaluation of rare and novel heterozygous variants in patients with apparently unsolved suspected mitochondrial disease investigated using next-generation sequencing.

18.
JAMA Neurol ; 74(6): 686-694, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28395030

RESUMO

Importance: YARS2 mutations have been associated with a clinical triad of myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia in predominantly Middle Eastern populations. However, the identification of new patients expands the clinical and molecular spectrum of mitochondrial disorders. Objectives: To review the clinical, molecular, and genetic features of YARS2-related mitochondrial disease and to demonstrate a new Scottish founder variant. Design, Setting, and Participants: An observational case series study was conducted at a national diagnostic center for mitochondrial disease in Newcastle upon Tyne, England, and review of cases published in the literature. Six adults in a well-defined mitochondrial disease cohort and 11 additional cases described in the literature were identified with YARS2 variants between January 1, 2000, and January 31, 2015. Main Outcome and Measures: The spectrum of clinical features and disease progression in unreported and reported patients with pathogenic YARS2 variants. Results: Seventeen patients (median [interquartile range] age at onset, 1.5 [9.8] years) with YARS2-related mitochondrial myopathy were identified. Fifteen individuals (88%) exhibited an elevated blood lactate level accompanied by generalized myopathy; only 12 patients (71%) manifested with sideroblastic anemia. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (9 [53%]) and respiratory insufficiency (8 [47%]) were also prominent clinical features. Central nervous system involvement was rare. Muscle studies showed global cytochrome-c oxidase deficiency in all patients tested and severe, combined respiratory chain complex activity deficiencies. Microsatellite genotyping demonstrated a common founder effect shared between 3 Scottish patients with a p.Leu392Ser variant. Immunoblotting from fibroblasts and myoblasts of an affected Scottish patient showed normal YARS2 protein levels and mild respiratory chain complex defects. Yeast modeling of novel missense YARS2 variants closely correlated with the severity of clinical phenotypes. Conclusions and Relevance: The p.Leu392Ser variant is likely a newly identified founder YARS2 mutation. Testing for pathogenic YARS2 variants should be considered in patients presenting with mitochondrial myopathy, characterized by exercise intolerance and muscle weakness even in the absence of sideroblastic anemia irrespective of ethnicity. Regular surveillance and early treatment for cardiomyopathy and respiratory muscle weakness is advocated because early treatment may mitigate the significant morbidity and mortality associated with this genetic disorder.


Assuntos
Acidose Láctica/genética , Anemia Sideroblástica/genética , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Miopatias Mitocondriais/genética , Debilidade Muscular/genética , Insuficiência Respiratória/genética , Tirosina-tRNA Ligase/genética , Acidose Láctica/etnologia , Acidose Láctica/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anemia Sideroblástica/etnologia , Anemia Sideroblástica/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/etnologia , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Inglaterra/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miopatias Mitocondriais/complicações , Miopatias Mitocondriais/etnologia , Debilidade Muscular/etnologia , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Mutação , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/etnologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Escócia/etnologia
19.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 4(1): 4-14, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28078310

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders such as ataxia and Parkinson's disease. We describe an extended Belgian pedigree where seven individuals presented with adult-onset cerebellar ataxia, axonal peripheral ataxic neuropathy, and tremor, in variable combination with parkinsonism, seizures, cognitive decline, and ophthalmoplegia. We sought to identify the underlying molecular etiology and characterize the mitochondrial pathophysiology of this neurological syndrome. METHODS: Clinical, neurophysiological, and neuroradiological evaluations were conducted. Patient muscle and cultured fibroblasts underwent extensive analyses to assess mitochondrial function. Genetic studies including genome-wide sequencing were conducted. RESULTS: Hallmarks of mitochondrial dysfunction were present in patients' tissues including ultrastructural anomalies of mitochondria, mosaic cytochrome c oxidase deficiency, and multiple mtDNA deletions. We identified a splice acceptor variant in POLG2, c.970-1G>C, segregating with disease in this family and associated with a concomitant decrease in levels of POLG2 protein in patient cells. INTERPRETATION: This work extends the clinical spectrum of POLG2 deficiency to include an overwhelming, adult-onset neurological syndrome that includes cerebellar syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, tremor, and parkinsonism. We therefore suggest to include POLG2 sequencing in the evaluation of ataxia and sensory neuropathy in adults, especially when it is accompanied by tremor or parkinsonism with white matter disease. The demonstration that deletions of mtDNA resulting from autosomal-dominant POLG2 variant lead to a monogenic neurodegenerative multicomponent syndrome provides further evidence for a major role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathomechanism of nonsyndromic forms of the component neurodegenerative disorders.

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