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1.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128015, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182116

RESUMO

The important role of reactive chlorine species (RCS) in electrochemical system has been widely concerned for water disinfection recently. In this study, we built an electrochemical system using carbon nanotube as cathode and oxide precursor (Ti/SnO2-Sb2O5-IrO2) as anode, where RCS was produced from Cl-. This system was used to degrade nitrogen contaminants, i.e. NO3- and 4-nitrophenol. Optimization of the reaction conditions was carried out by a treatment of inorganic nitrogen contaminant NO3- and the optimal condition of the electrochemical system was determined at U = 5.5 V, and pH = 10 with a Cl- concentration of 2000 mg L-1, and the removal efficiency of NO3- can reach up to 60.6% in 150 min. Under the optimal condition, a common nitrogenous organic pollutant, 4-nitrophenol was treated and a removal efficiency of nearly 100% in 90 min. To investigate the detailed degradation mechanism in the applied electrochemical system, a combined method of products identification and density functional theory (DFT) calculation was employed. It concluded that Cl radicals' generation was stimulated was stimulated by the OH radicals after adding Cl- into the electrochemical system. These two radicals jointly promoted the transformation of 4-nitrophenol resulting in the formation of more toxic organic and inorganic substances. In addition, a conversion of organic nitro group to amino group leading to the formation of 4-aminophenol was found and explained by the indirect reduction theory.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite there is a wide range of antidepressants available, with various mechanisms of actions, the efficacy of current therapeutic options is yet satisfactory. Previous shreds of evidence have indicated that genetics, cognitive, neuroendocrine, as well as personality factors, are all intrinsically linked and contribute to the diversity of treatment outcomes. We, therefore, sought to investigate this hypothesis in this study. METHOD: Based on 610 samples treated with a selection of serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI), noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) or tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), we compared the therapeutic effects of these four classes of drugs by survival analyses. Pharmacogenomic and survival analyses were carried out to explore the hereditary factors for curative effect and the accumulation of genetic factors was further discussed through pathway analysis and the global test. We built a machine learning-based prediction model that integrates genetic and non-genetic factors (including cognition, endocrinology, personality intelligence) to distinguish drug efficacy in single class drug situations. The values of the non-genetic makers after 6 weeks' treatment were collected to evaluate the efficacy of the model. RESULTS: Our results from the 6-week antidepressant therapeutic study indicated that SSRI and SNRI are better treatments than those of TCA and NaSSA in the Chinese population. Among all possible paired single-agent survival analyses, citalopram and venlafaxine were more effective than mirtazapine. Allele C carriers at rs6354 (SLC6A4) and allele G carriers at rs12150214 (SLC6A4) were significantly prone to poorer treatment response to fluoxetine. Besides, the combination of three loci (rs929377-rs6191-rs32897) located in HPA pathway was significantly associated with the treatment outcome of fluoxetine. In female MDD patients, the minor allele of rs6323 and rs1137070 on the MAOA gene likely lead to a worse response to venlafaxine. Furthermore, genetic variants linked to drug efficacy tended to concentrate on the neurotrophin pathway in depressed patients comorbid with anxiety. From multivariate models, more severe cognitive deficits, psychopathic personality and lower levels of operational intelligence, and higher levels of cortisol predicted worse response status with SSRI or SNRI after 6-week treatment. Notably, genetic factors in the multi-dimensional prediction model for both classes of drugs include loci in HTR2A and CRHBP genes. CONCLUSION: SSRI and SNRI are more suitable for the treatment of Chinese people with depression. SLC6A4 genetic variants, as well as HPA pathway, play an important role in the fluoxetine antidepressant therapeutic response while the polymorphism of MAOA gene involved in the pharmacological action of venlafaxine among female MDD patients. The presence of anxiety in MDD patients was related to the neurotrophin pathway. Genetic, cognitive, neuroendocrine, and personality intelligence factors combined have an ensemble impact on the medication effect of patients with major depression, leading to more precise and personalized medicine for specific groups of people.

3.
Curr Protoc Chem Biol ; 12(4): e86, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197155

RESUMO

Reverse-polarity activity-based protein profiling (RP-ABPP) is a chemical proteomics approach that uses nucleophilic probes amenable to "click" chemistry deployed into living cells in culture to capture, immunoprecipitate, and identify protein-bound electrophiles. RP-ABPP is used to characterize the structure and function of reactive electrophilic post-translational modifications (PTMs) and the proteins harboring them, which may uncover unknown or novel functions. RP-ABPP has demonstrated utility as a versatile method to monitor the metabolic regulation of electrophilic cofactors, using a pyruvoyl cofactor in S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase (AMD1), and to discover novel types of electrophilic modifications on proteins in human cells, such as the glyoxylyl modification on secernin-3 (SCRN3). These cofactors cannot be predicted by sequence, and therefore this area is relatively undeveloped. RP-ABPP is the only global, unbiased approach to discover such electrophiles. Here, we describe the utility of these experiments and provide a detailed protocol for de novo discovery, quantitation, and global profiling of electrophilic functionality of proteins. © 2020 The Authors. Basic Protocol 1: Identification and quantification of probe-reactive proteins Basic Protocol 2: Characterization of the site of probe labeling Basic Protocol 3: Determination and quantitation of electrophile structure.

4.
World J Biol Psychiatry ; : 1-13, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143498

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Environmental and genetic factors play important roles in the development of schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BPD) or major depressive disorder (MDD). Some risk loci are identified with shared genetic effects on major psychiatric disorders. To investigate whether SNX29 gene played a significant role in these psychiatric disorders in the Han Chinese population. METHODS: We focused on 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) harboring SNX29 gene and carried out case-control studies in patients with SCZ (n = 1,248), BPD (n = 1,344), or MDD (n = 1,056), and 1,248 healthy controls (HC) recruited from the Han Chinese population. We constructed weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and extracted significant modules by R package. RESULTS: We found that rs3743592 was significantly associated with MDD and rs6498263 with BPD in both allele and genotype distributions. Before correction, rs3743592 showed allelic and genotypic significance with SCZ, rs6498263 showed allelic significance with SCZ. WGCNA identified top ten modules of co-expressed genes. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway analysis were used to examine the functions of SNX29, which revealed that SNX29 was involved in the regulation of a number of biological processes, such as TGF-beta, ErbB, and Wnt signaling pathway, etc. CONCLUSIONS: Our results supported common risk factors in SNX29 might share among these three mental disorders in the Han Chinese population.

5.
Environ Pollut ; : 115850, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143980

RESUMO

Metal-resistant bacteria can reduce Cd accumulation in plants, but mechanisms underlying this effect are poorly understood. In this study, a highly effective Cd-resistant WRS8 strain was obtained from the rhizoshere soil of Triticum aestivum L. Yangmai-13 and identified as Pseudomonas taiwanensis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Strain WRS8 was investigated for its effects on Cd availability and wheat tissue Cd contents and the related mechanisms using a hydroponic culture experiment. In strain WRS8-inoculated solution, the Cd concentration reduced and the pH and cell-adsorbed Cd increased with time. Strain WRS8 increased the wheat root and above-ground tissue dry weights by 11-36% compared to the controls. In strain WRS8-inoculated wheat plants, the Cd contents of the roots and above-ground tissues decreased by 78-85% and 88-94% and the Cd bioconcentration and translocation factors decreased by 78-85% and 46-58% at days 3 and 10, respectively, compared with the controls. The root surface-adsorbed Cd contents increased by 99-121% in the WRS8 strain-inoculated wheat plants at days 3 and 10 compared to the controls. Furthermore, strain WRS8 colonized the wheat root surfaces and interiors and reduced the expression levels of the LCT1 and HMA2 genes involved in Cd accumulation and transport in wheat roots by 46% and 30%, respectively, compared to the controls. In the Cd-contaminated soils, strain WRS8 significantly reduced the available Cd content by 20-24% and increased the pH compared to the controls. These findings showed the important role of strain WRS8 in reducing solution and soil Cd availability and suggested that strain WRS8 reduced the wheat tissue Cd accumulation by increasing root surface Cd adsorption and decreasing wheat root Cd uptake and transport-related gene expression and may provide a new and effective wheat rhizobacteria-enhanced approach for reducing wheat Cd uptake in Cd-polluted environments.

6.
J Autoimmun ; : 102562, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168359

RESUMO

Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rare autoinflammatory disease with systemic involvement, and its pathophysiology remains unclear. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in the Chinese population have revealed an association between AOSD and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus; however, causal variants in the MHC remain undetermined. In the present study, we identified independent amino-acid polymorphisms in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules that are associated with Han Chinese patients with AOSD by fine-mapping the MHC locus. Through conditional analyses, we identified position 34 in HLA-DQα1 (p = 1.44 × 10-14) and Asn in HLA-DRß1 position 37 (p = 5.12 × 10-11) as the major determinants for AOSD. Moreover, we identified the associations for three main HLA class II alleles: HLA-DQB1*06:02 (OR = 2.70, p = 3.02 × 10-14), HLA-DRB1*15:01 (OR = 2.44, p = 3.66 × 10-13), and HLA-DQA1*01:02 (OR = 1.97, p = 1.09 × 10-9). This study reveals the relationship between functional variations in the class II HLA region and AOSD, implicating the MHC locus in the pathogenesis of AOSD.

7.
Chem Biodivers ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205900

RESUMO

Two new diterpenoids (1 and 14), along with thirteen known diterpenoids (2-13 and 15), were isolated from the whole plants of Ajuga decumbens Thunb. Their structures were elucidated by the extensive spectroscopic analysis (UV, IR, MS, and NMR). The absolute configurations of ajudecunoid A (1) and ajudecunoid B (14) were defined through analysis of X-ray crystallography. Compounds 1-15 were evaluated for inhibition of the formation of osteoclasts in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) cells. Two neo-clerodane diterpenoids ajuganipponin B (5) and (12S)-6α,19-diacetoxy-18-chloro-4α-hydroxy-12-tigloyloxy-neo-clerod-13-en-15,16-olide (12) showed significant inhibition of osteoclastogenesis with IC50 values of 0.88 and 0.79 µM, respectively. Here we firstly reported diterpenoids from A. decumbens having anti-osteoclastogenesis activity.

8.
J Org Chem ; 85(21): 14210-14218, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115229

RESUMO

A mild and transition-metal-free benzannulation reaction for the construction of the naphthalene skeleton has been described. Benzynes react with α-cyano-ß-alkylenones through a tandem nucleophilic addition/cyclization/aromatization process to afford polysubstituted naphthalenes in 50-94% yields.

9.
J Affect Disord ; 278: 570-575, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: . The development of depressive symptoms (DSs) is a complex process caused by both genetic and environmental factors. CEND1 gene coordinates cell division, differentiation and maturation of neural precursor cells, which affects brain structure and function. Our study investigated whether CEND1 was a genetic factor for DSs, particularly under negative life events. METHODS: . 272 freshmen with DSs and 467 healthy controls were recruited via the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The adolescent Self-rating Life Event Checklist (ASLEC) was adopted to assess stressful life events during the past 12 months. Two SNPs (rs7946354, rs6597982) within the CEND1 gene were genotyped using Agena MassARRAY iPLEX technology. We combined generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) with RStudio programming to assess the direct association and gene-environment interaction (G × E). RESULTS: . Rs7946354 was associated with DSs in an overdominant model (GT vs. GG+TT). In addition, both rs7946354 and rs6597982 had considerable impacts on negative life events. GMDR showed a statistical G × E that the AG genotype of rs6597982 and GT genotype of rs7946354 contribute to the maximum risk of DSs under high negative life events. LIMITATIONS: . Only two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were examined. Verification studies with bigger sample size and more varied demographic background information could be adopted to further support the generalization of these findings. CONCLUSIONS: .CEND1 can potentially cause high sensitivity to life events and affect DSs especially in the presence of negative life events, which contribute to the field of depression prevention and treatment.

10.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33100205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) contributes to the control of synaptic dopamine (DA) transmission by catalyzing DA degradation in the presynaptic space. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism (rs4680) substantially alters enzymatic activity and consequently synaptic DA concentration in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. The COMT genotype could, therefore, exert a major influence on antipsychotic treatment response as many of these agents also target dopaminergic transmission. Objective:The present meta-analysis aimed to test a putative relationship between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and antipsychotic response across different populations and antipsychotic types. METHODS: Searches of PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, OVID, Google Scholar, and Baidu Scholar databases yielded 30 peer-reviewed studies published before January 2020 with a pooled total of 6291 participants. The Lipták-Stouffer Zscore method for meta-analysis was applied to combine data. The Z score was also calculated separately for Caucasian and Asian subgroups. RESULTS: Pooled results indicated a highly significant association between COMT Val158Met and antipsychotic response (Z = 6.709, P = 9.8 × 10-12). Further, this relationship remained significant in subgroup analyses of Caucasian patients (Z = 3.180, P = 7.4 × 10-4 ) and Asian patients (Z = 4.487, P = 3.6 × 10-6 ). CONCLUSIONS: Pooled evidence supports the hypothesis that the COMT Val158Met polymorphism influences the antipsychotic response in both Caucasian and Asian schizophrenia patient populations. Prediction of antipsychotic response by patient genotyping may warrant closer consideration in randomized clinical trials of efficacy.

11.
Theranostics ; 10(25): 11719-11736, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052243

RESUMO

Rationale: Photothermal therapy employs the photoabsorbers to generate heat under the near-infrared (NIR) irradiation for thermal tumor ablation. However, NIR irradiation might damage the adjacent tissue due to the leakage of the photoabsorbers and the residual materials after treatment might hinder the local healing process. A bifunctional hydrogel that holds both photothermal property and potent pro-healing ability provides a viable option to resolve this issue. Methods: In this study, we developed a bioinspired green hydrogel (BVSF) with the integration of bioproduct biliverdin into natural derived silk fibroin matrix for antiglioma photothermal therapy and wound healing. Results: The BVSF hydrogel possessed excellent and controllable photothermal activity under NIR irradiation and resulted in effective tumor ablation both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, the BVSF hydrogel exerted anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro and in vivo, and stimulated angiogenesis and wound healing in a full-thickness defect rat model. Conclusion: Overall, this proof-of-concept study was aimed to determine the feasibility and reliability of using an all-natural green formulation for photothermal therapy and post-treatment care.

12.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 377, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effects and optimal parameters of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on cognition function of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to estimate which cognitive function may obtain more benefits from rTMS. METHOD: The articles dealing with rTMS on cognitive function of PD patients were retrieved from the databases until April 2019. Outcomes of global cognitive function and different cognitive domains were extracted. The standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) of cognitive outcome for different parameters, scales, and cognitive functions were estimated. RESULTS: Fourteen studies involving 173 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. A significant effect size was observed with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) for the global cognitive outcome based on the evidence of four published articles. Further subtests for different cognitive domains demonstrated prominent effect for the executive function. The significant effect sizes for executive function were found with multiple sessions of high-frequency rTMS over frontal cortex; especially over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). All of the other cognitive domains, which included memory, attention, and language ability, did not obtain significant effects. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple sessions of high-frequency rTMS over the DLPFC may have positive effect on executive function in PD patients. Further well designed studies with large sample sizes are needed to verify our results and ascertain the long-term effects of rTMS.

13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016301

RESUMO

Wafer-scale growth of the unidirectional graphene monolayer on Ge surfaces has rejuvenated the intense study of the surfaces and interfaces of semiconductors underneath graphene. Recently, it was reported that the Ge atoms in the Ge(110) surface beneath a graphene monolayer underwent a rearrangement and formed an ordered (6 × 2) reconstruction. However, a plausible atomic model related to this (6 × 2) reconstruction is still lacking. Here, by using scanning tunnelling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we deeply investigated the structural and electronic properties of the Ge(110) (6 × 2) surface encapsulated by a graphene monolayer. The (6 × 2) surface reconstruction was confirmed for the post-annealing-graphene-covered Ge(110) surface via STM, and was found to be quite air-stable, owing to the protection of the graphene monolayer against surface oxidation. Our study disclosed that the topographic features of the topmost graphene monolayer and the Ge(110) surface could be selectively imaged by utilizing suitable scanning biases. According to the STM results and DFT calculations, a rational ball-and-stick model of the (6 × 2) reconstruction was successfully provided, in which an elemental building block comprising two Ge triangles and two isolated Ge atoms adsorbed on the unreconstructed ideal Ge(110) surface. Local density of states of the graphene/Ge surface was explored via scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), presenting four well-defined differential conductance (dI/dV) peaks, protruding at energies of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 eV, respectively. The four peaks predominantly originated from the surface states of the reconstructing adatoms and were well reproduced by our theoretical simulation. This result means that the Ge surface is very robust after being encapsulated by the epitaxial graphene, which could be advantageous for directly fabricating graphene/Ge-hybrid high-speed electronics and optoelectronics based on conventional microelectronics technology.

14.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052664

RESUMO

In the magic-angle twisted bilayer graphene (MA-TBG), strong electron-electron (e-e) correlations caused by the band-flattening lead to many exotic quantum phases such as superconductivity, correlated insulator, ferromagnetism, and quantum anomalous Hall effects, when its low-energy van Hove singularities (VHSs) are partially filled. Here our high-resolution scanning tunneling microscope and spectroscopy measurements demonstrate that the e-e correlation in a nonmagic-angle TBG with a twist angle θ = 1.49° still plays an important role in determining its electronic properties. Our most interesting observation on that sample is when one of its VHSs is partially filled, the one associated peak in the spectrum splits into four peaks. Simultaneously, the spatial symmetry of electronic states around the split VHSs is broken by the e-e correlation. Our analysis based on the continuum model suggests that such a one-to-four split of the VHS originates from the formation of an interaction-driven spin-valley-polarized metallic state near the VHS, which is a symmetry-breaking phase that has not been identified in the MA-TBG or in other systems.

15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 307, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873781

RESUMO

Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe psychiatric disorder with a strong genetic component. High heritability of SCZ suggests a major role for transmitted genetic variants. Furthermore, SCZ is also associated with a marked reduction in fecundity, leading to the hypothesis that alleles with large effects on risk might often occur de novo. In this study, we conducted whole-genome sequencing for 23 families from two cohorts with unaffected siblings and parents. Two nonsense de novo mutations (DNMs) in GJC1 and HIST1H2AD were identified in SCZ patients. Ten genes (DPYSL2, NBPF1, SDK1, ZNF595, ZNF718, GCNT2, SNX9, AACS, KCNQ1, and MSI2) were found to carry more DNMs in SCZ patients than their unaffected siblings by burden test. Expression analyses indicated that these DNM implicated genes showed significantly higher expression in prefrontal cortex in prenatal stage. The DNM in the GJC1 gene is highly likely a loss function mutation (pLI = 0.94), leading to the dysregulation of ion channel in the glutamatergic excitatory neurons. Analysis of rare variants in independent exome sequencing dataset indicates that GJC1 has significantly more rare variants in SCZ patients than in unaffected controls. Data from genome-wide association studies suggested that common variants in the GJC1 gene may be associated with SCZ and SCZ-related traits. Genes co-expressed with GJC1 are involved in SCZ, SCZ-associated pathways, and drug targets. These evidences suggest that GJC1 may be a risk gene for SCZ and its function may be involved in prenatal and early neurodevelopment, a vulnerable period for developmental disorders such as SCZ.

16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6503-6518, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922013

RESUMO

Objective: A non-lipolysis nanoemulsion (NNE) was designed to reduce the first-pass metabolism of raloxifene (RAL) by intestinal UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) for increasing the oral absorption of RAL, coupled with in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods: In vitro stability of NNE was evaluated by lipolysis and the UGT metabolism system. The oral bioavailability of NNE was studied in rats and pigs. Finally, the absorption mechanisms of NNE were investigated by in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) in rats, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells model, and lymphatic blocking model. Results: The pre-NNE consisted of isopropyl palmitate, linoleic acid, Cremophor RH40, and ethanol in a weight ratio of 3.33:1.67:3:2. Compared to lipolysis nanoemulsion of RAL (RAL-LNE), the RAL-NNE was more stable in in vitro gastrointestinal buffers, lipolysis, and UGT metabolism system (p < 0.05). The oral bioavailability was significantly improved by the NNE (203.30%) and the LNE (205.89%) relative to the suspension group in rats. However, 541.28% relative bioavailability was achieved in pigs after oral NNE intake compared to the suspension and had two-fold greater bioavailability than the LNE (p < 0.05). The RAL-NNE was mainly absorbed in the jejunum and had high permeability at the intestine of rats. The results of both SPIP and MDCK cell models demonstrated that the RAL-NNE was absorbed via endocytosis mediated by caveolin and clathrin. The other absorption route, the lymphatic transport (cycloheximide as blocking agent), was significantly improved by the NNE compared with the LNE (p < 0.05). Conclusion: A NNE was successfully developed to reduce the first-pass metabolism of RAL in the intestine and enhance its lymphatic transport, thereby improving the oral bioavailability. Altogether, NNE is a promising carrier for the oral delivery of drugs with significant first-pass metabolism.


Assuntos
Absorção Fisico-Química , Emulsões/química , Lipólise , Nanopartículas/química , Cloridrato de Raloxifeno/metabolismo , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Transporte Biológico , Sobrevivência Celular , Cães , Emulsões/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Intestinos/fisiologia , Linfa/metabolismo , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Masculino , Polietilenoglicóis , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tensoativos/química , Suínos
17.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 194, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of the elevation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in different molecular subtypes of primary breast cancer, i.e. each 10% increment of TILs and high-level TILs (TILs≥50%) in tumor, on overall survival (OS) and pathological complete response (pCR) and to compare the presentation of high-level TILs across these molecular subtypes. METHODS: Citation retrieval was performed in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase and Web of Science databases. All statistical calculations were performed by the software of StataSE version 12.0. RESULTS: Twenty-two eligible clinical trials including 15,676 unique patients were included for meta-analysis. Each 10% increment of TILs significantly improved OS in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpression (pooled Hazard ratio (HR), 0.92; 95% CI, 0.89-0.95) and triple-negative (TN) (pooled HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.89-0.92) breast tumors but not in luminal tumor subtype (pooled HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.99-1.13). It was also associated with an increased pCR rate in breast cancers (pooled Odds ratio (OR), 1.27; 95% CI, 1.19-13.5). High-level TILs were significantly related with a higher pCR rate (pooled OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 2.40-3.01) than low-level TILs. The HER2-amplified (pooled OR, 3.14; 95% CI, 1.95-5.06) and TN (pooled OR, 4.09; 95% CI, 2.71-6.19) phenotypes of breast cancers expressed significantly more high-level TILs than the luminal tumor subtype, although the presentation of those between the former two subsets was not significantly different (pooled OR, 1.30; 95%CI, 0.83-2.04). CONCLUSIONS: The elevation of TILs in breast tumors predicts favorable prognostic outcomes, particularly in the HER2-overexpression and TN subtypes.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902142

RESUMO

AIM: To determine whether interleukin 18 (IL-18) is elevated in the blood of schizophrenia (SCZ) and first episode psychosis patients, as well as investigate whether this potential relationship is causal. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of IL-18 levels in the blood of SCZ patients, comprising of both chronic and first episode psychosis (FEP) cohorts. To investigate causality, we undertook the two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study. RESULTS: A total of eight studies were included in our meta-analysis, our results did indeed show an association between elevated levels of IL-18 and SCZ compared to healthy controls (Z = 3.50, P = .0005). This association remained significant in subsequent subgroup analyses for chronic (Z = 3.15, P = .002) and achieved borderline significance in FEP (Z = 1.93, P = .05) SCZ. Our MR analysis failed to detect any causal relationship between IL-18 levels and SCZ. CONCLUSION: The results of our study demonstrate that even though IL-18 levels are elevated in SCZ patients, IL-18 levels do not seem to cause of the disorder itself. Our findings suggest that IL-18 may have utility as a biomarker of SCZ and aid in research into the early intervention of the disease.

19.
World J Surg Oncol ; 18(1): 243, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the efficacy of three types of palliative therapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), including transarterial chemoembolisation (TACE) monotherapy, sorafenib alone and their combination. METHODS: The databases of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library were retrieved. The odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to investigate the binary variables, and the standardised mean difference (SMD) with its 95% CI was employed to evaluate the continuous variables. All statistical tests were performed by using Stata/SE, version 12.0. RESULTS: Thirty-one clinical studies, containing 5125 unique cases of patients with advanced HCC, were included. There were significant improvements in overall survival (OS) (pooled SMD = 2.54; 95% CI 1.74-3.34) and time to progression (TTP) (pooled SMD = 2.49; 95% CI 0.87-4.12) of the patients after receiving the combination therapy of TACE and sorafenib, compared to TACE monotherapy, and the OS in the combined treatment cohort was also longer than that in the sorafenib-alone cohort (pooled SMD = 2.92; 95% CI 1.72-4.13). The combination therapy group in comparison to the TACE group benefited a significantly increased overall response rate (ORR) (pooled OR = 2.61; 95% CI 1.43-4.77), 1-year (pooled OR = 2.96; 95% CI 1.71-5.14) and 2-year (pooled OR = 1.64; 95% CI 1.18-2.28) survival rates and reduced disease progression rate (DPR) (pooled OR = 0.47; 95% CI 0.33-0.68); in parallel, the ORR in the group was also significantly higher than that in the sorafenib-alone group (pooled OR = 3.62; 95% CI 1.28-10.22), although without a difference in the DPR (pooled OR = 0.28; 95% CI 0.05-1.48). In addition, we discovered that the 1-year (pooled OR = 1.39; 95% CI 0.84-2.29) and 2-year (pooled OR = 1.70; 95% CI 0.69-4.18) survival rates in the TACE monotherapy cohort were not significantly different to those in the sorafenib-alone cohort. CONCLUSION: The combination therapy is more effective than monotherapy in improving the prognostic outcomes of patients with advanced HCC. Therefore, we recommend it as the preferred treatment intervention for those patients.

20.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(50): 505601, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990271

RESUMO

We investigate, firstly, the competition between the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and the intrinsic SOC in Kane-Mele model. For the small intrinsic SOC, we investigate the effects of the Rashba SOC on the touching point of the valence and conduction bands when the ratio of the Rashba SOC to the intrinsic SOC is greater than classical value [Formula: see text]. For the large intrinsic SOC, we find that the critical ratio of the two SOCs at which the band touching occurs decreases with the increasing intrinsic SOC and the locations of these touching points deviate from points K and K' of the Brillouin zone. Furthermore, effects of the Rashba SOC on these touching points are discussed in detail when the ratio is greater than the critical value. The Rashba SOC-driven topologically trivial and non-trivial transitions are also obtained in the first part of the work. Secondly, using the slave-rotor mean field method we investigate the influences of the correlation on the Rashba SOC-driven topologically trivial and non-trivial transitions in both the charge condensate and Mott regions. The topological Mott insulator with gapped or gapless spin excitations which arises from the interplay of the Rashba SOC and correlations is obtained in the work.

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