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1.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661606

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Elevated serum cancer antigen 19-9(CA19-9) levels have been found in diabetes patients in most observational studies; however, whether there is causal association between CA19-9 and diabetes mellitus (DM) is unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study was conducted based on the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort comprising 27,009 individuals. We first investigated the associations between serum CA19-9 levels and incident DM risk in a prospective cohort study (12,700 individuals). Then, we explored the potential causal relationship between CA19-9 and DM risk in a cross-sectional study (3,349 DM cases and 8,341 controls) using Mendelian randomization analysis. A weighted genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated by adding the CA19-9 increasing alleles in five SNPs (rs17271883, rs3760776 and rs3760775 in FUT6, rs11880333 in CA11, rs265548 in B3GNT3, and rs1047781 in FUT2) which were identified in previous genome-wide association study on serum CA19-9 levels. RESULTS: In the prospective study, a total of 1,004 incident DM cases were diagnosed during mean 4.54 years of follow-up period. Elevated serum CA19-9 level was associated with a higher incident diabetes risk after adjustment for confounders, with a HR of 1.20 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.30) per SD (12.17U/ml) CA19-9 increased. Using the genetic score to estimate the unconfounded effect, we did not find causal association of CA19-9 with diabetes risk (OR per weighted CA19-9-increasing allele: 0.99; 95 % CI: 0.94-1.04; P=0.61). CONCLUSIONS: The present study does not support a causal association of serum CA19-9 with diabetes risk. CA19-9 might be a potential biomarker of incident DM risk.

2.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113325, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614327

RESUMO

Associations between single metal and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels have been reported in previous studies. However, the association between multi-metals exposure and FBG level are little known. To assess the joints of arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) co-exposure on FBG levels, Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) statistical method was used to estimate the potential joint associations between As, Ni, Cd, Se, and Zn co-exposure and FBG levels among 1478 community-based Chinese adults from two counties, Shimen (n = 696) and Huayuan (n = 782), with different exposure profiles in Hunan province of China. The metals levels were measured in spot urine (As, Ni, and Cd) and plasma (Se and Zn) using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, respectively. The exposure levels of all the five metals were significantly higher in Shimen area (median: As = 57.76 µg/L, Cd = 2.75 µg/L, Ni = 2.73 µg/L, Se = 112.67 µg/L, Zn = 905.68 µg/L) than those in Huayuan area (As = 41.14 µg/L, Cd = 2.22 µg/L, Ni = 1.88 µg/L, Se = 65.59 µg/L, Zn = 819.18 µg/L). The BKMR analyses showed a significantly positive over-all effect of the five metals on FBG levels when metals concentrations were all above the 50th percentile while a statistically negative over-all effect when metals concentrations were all under the 50th percentile in Shimen area. However, a totally opposite over-all effect of the mixture of the five metals on FBG levels was found in Huayuan area. BKMR also revealed a non-linear exposure-effect of Zn on FBG levels in Huayuan area. In addition, interaction effects of As and Se on FBG level were observed. The relationship between single or combined metals exposure and FBG was different against different exposure profiles. Potential interaction effects of As and Se on FBG levels may exist.

3.
Diabetologia ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482198

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: A healthy lifestyle has been widely recommended for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. However, no systematic review has summarised the relationship between combined lifestyle factors (including, but not limited to, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, diet and being overweight or obese) and incident type 2 diabetes and risk of health outcomes among diabetic individuals. METHODS: EMBASE and PubMed were searched up to April 2019 without language restrictions. References included in articles in relevant publications were also screened. Cohort studies investigating the combined associations of at least three lifestyle factors with incident type 2 diabetes and health outcomes among diabetic individuals were included. Reviewers were paired and independently screened studies, extracted data and evaluated study quality. Random-effects models were used to calculate summary HRs. Heterogeneity and publication bias tests were also conducted. RESULTS: Compared with participants considered to have the least-healthy lifestyle, those with the healthiest lifestyle had a 75% lower risk of incident diabetes (HR 0.25 [95% CI 0.18, 0.35]; 14 studies with approximately 1 million participants). The associations were largely consistent and significant among individuals from different socioeconomic backgrounds and baseline characteristics. Among individuals with type 2 diabetes (10 studies with 34,385 participants), the HRs (95% CIs) were 0.44 (0.33, 0.60) for all-cause death, 0.51 (0.30, 0.86) for cardiovascular death, 0.69 (0.47, 1.00) for cancer death and 0.48 (0.37, 0.63) for incident cardiovascular disease when comparing the healthiest lifestyle with the least-healthy lifestyle. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Adoption of a healthy lifestyle is associated with substantial risk reduction in type 2 diabetes and long-term adverse outcomes among diabetic individuals. Tackling multiple risk factors, instead of concentrating on one certain lifestyle factor, should be the cornerstone for reducing the global burden of type 2 diabetes.

4.
Environ Res ; 179(Pt A): 108747, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557604

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we conducted a prospective cohort study to investigate the joint effects of daily cooking duration with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on lung cancer incidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 33,868 individuals recruited in 2013 from Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study were included in our research, in which 5178 participants were genotyped. Daily cooking duration was accessed by questionnaire, and the incident lung cancer cases were confirmed. Fifteen lung cancer related SNPs were selected according to the previous reports. We used the multiple Cox regression models to evaluate the separate and joint effects of daily cooking duration and SNPs on lung cancer incidence. RESULTS: Each 1-h increase in daily cooking duration was associated with a 17% elevated risk of lung cancer incidence [hazard ratio (HR) (95%CI) = 1.17(1.03, 1.33)]. Specifically, subjects with daily cooking duration >2 h/day had a 2.05-fold increased incident risk of lung cancer than those without cooking [HR(95%CI) = 2.05(1.20, 3.53)] (Ptrend = 0.011). The rs2395185 and rs3817963, both located at 6p21.32, were significantly associated with lung cancer incidence. Compared with no cooking subjects with rs2395185GG or rs3817963TT genotype, subjects with daily cooking >2 h/day and carrying rs2395185GT + TT genotypes had a 2.48-fold increased risk of lung cancer [HR(95%CI) = 2.48(1.03, 5.97)], and there were significant joint effects of rs3817963TC + CC with daily cooking 1-2 and >2 h/day [HR(95%CI) = 2.23(1.07, 4.64) and 2.22(1.05, 4.68), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: Longer daily cooking duration, especially daily cooking >2 h/day, was associated with increased risk of lung cancer. There were significant joint effects of rs2395185 and rs3817963 with daily cooking duration on lung cancer incidence. This study offered a new indicator of cooking related pollution exposure and added new evidence for the joint effects of environment and genetic factors on lung cancer incidence.

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1910915, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539074

RESUMO

Importance: Observational studies have shown associations of birth weight with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and glycemic traits, but it remains unclear whether these associations represent causal associations. Objective: To test the association of birth weight with T2D and glycemic traits using a mendelian randomization analysis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This mendelian randomization study used a genetic risk score for birth weight that was constructed with 7 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The associations of this score with birth weight and T2D were tested in a mendelian randomization analysis using study-level data. The association of birth weight with T2D was tested using both study-level data (7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable) and summary-level data from the consortia (43 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable). Data from 180 056 participants from 49 studies were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: Type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits. Results: This mendelian randomization analysis included 49 studies with 41 155 patients with T2D and 80 008 control participants from study-level data and 34 840 patients with T2D and 114 981 control participants from summary-level data. Study-level data showed that a 1-SD decrease in birth weight due to the genetic risk score was associated with higher risk of T2D among all participants (odds ratio [OR], 2.10; 95% CI, 1.69-2.61; P = 4.03 × 10-5), among European participants (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.42-2.71; P = .04), and among East Asian participants (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.18-1.62; P = .04). Similar results were observed from summary-level analyses. In addition, each 1-SD lower birth weight was associated with 0.189 SD higher fasting glucose concentration (ß = 0.189; SE = 0.060; P = .002), but not with fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose, or hemoglobin A1c concentration. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, a genetic predisposition to lower birth weight was associated with increased risk of T2D and higher fasting glucose concentration, suggesting genetic effects on retarded fetal growth and increased diabetes risk that either are independent of each other or operate through alterations of integrated biological mechanisms.

6.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319862066, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recent American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines for high blood pressure lowered the hypertension criteria from systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) of 140/90 mmHg or greater to 130/80 mmHg or greater, while the potential impact of the change on Chinese adults remains unclear. DESIGN: A pooled prospective cohort analysis. METHODS: Included were 154,407 Chinese adults from three prospective cohorts, which measured blood pressure at baseline and follow-up visits, and tracked death events by linkages to medical insurance system or vital statistics registries. Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: During a total follow-up of 1,718,089 person-years, 14,692 deaths were documented including 5086 cardiovascular deaths (1277 ischaemic heart disease and 2509 cerebrovascular disease deaths). Compared to normal blood pressure (SBP/DBP < 120/80 mmHg), newly defined stage 1 hypertension (SBP/DBP 130-139/80-89 mmHg) was associated with increased cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.16-1.69; HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.12-1.65 for ischaemic heart disease mortality; HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.18-2.00 for cerebrovascular mortality), but not with all-cause mortality (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.89-1.21). Stage 2 hypertension (SBP/DBP ≥ 140/90 mmHg) showed significant associations with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, while elevated blood pressure (SBP 120-129 mmHg and DBP < 80 mmHg) showed null associations. The associations were stronger in adults younger than 65 years and adults without pre-existing cardiovascular disease compared with their counterparts (P for heterogeneity < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The newly defined stage 1 hypertension is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in the Chinese population, particularly among younger adults and those without a history of cardiovascular disease.

7.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; : e3202, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the association between metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and diabetes incidence in a middle-aged and elderly population and whether the association differed by the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: We examined 17 801 participants without diabetes at study entry (7980 males and 9821 females with a mean age of 63.2 years) derived from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study (median follow-up: 4.6 years). Participants were divided into six groups based on BMI (normal weight, overweight, or obese) and metabolic health (healthy/unhealthy) defined by the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The MHO was defined as BMI greater than 28.0 kg/m2 with 0 or 1 of four metabolic abnormalities (elevated blood pressure, triglyceridaemia, hyperglycaemia, low HDL cholesterol). The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for incident diabetes were derived from the Cox proportional hazard regression model. RESULTS: During 79 843 person-years of follow-up, 1453 individuals developed diabetes. Compared with metabolically healthy normal weight (MH-NW) individuals, the multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 1.74 (1.16-2.59) for MHO and 2.15 (1.65-2.81) for metabolically unhealthy obese subjects after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, family history of diabetes, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and NAFLD. Among those without NAFLD, MHO individuals showed higher incidence of diabetes (multivariate-adjusted HR = 2.71, 95% CI: 1.47-5.00) than MH-NW individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The MHO phenotype was associated with increased incidence of diabetes in a middle-aged and elderly population, and the association did not differ by the presence or absence of NAFLD.

8.
Acta Diabetol ; 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190268

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the potential risk factors and construct the predictive model of diabetic risk among a relatively low risk middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. METHODS: Information of participants was collected in the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study, a perspective cohort study of Chinese occupational population. The main outcome was incident type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Based on the conventional risk factors of diabetes, we defined low risk participants without underlying diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, dyslipidemia, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, obesity and family history of diabetes. Totally, 4833 participants from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study were enrolled, and of them, 171 had an incident diagnosis of T2DM during 4.6 years of follow-up period. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate effects of risk factors. The restricted cubic spline regression and the Youden index were used to explore the optimal cutoffs of risk factors, and the C index was used to assess the discrimination power of prediction models. RESULTS: There were significant linear relationships between BMI/TG level/fasting glucose level and incident diabetic risk among low risk participants. In the restricted cubic spline regression, when fasting glucose level was above 5.4 mmol/L, TG above 1.06 mmol/L and BMI above 22 kg/m2, the HRs (95% CIs) of diabetes were above 1.0. The detailed HRs (95% CI) were 1.29 (1.01, 1.64), 2.57 (1.00, 6.58), and 1.49 (1.00, 2.22), respectively. The optimal cutoff determined by the Yonden index was 1.1 mmol/L for TG, 24 kg/m2 for BMI and 5.89 mmol/L for fasting plasma glucose, respectively. The C index was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.7-0.81) when age, sex, smoke status, physical activity, BMI (< 24 kg/m2 and ≥ 24 kg/m2), TG (< 1.1 mmol/L and ≥ 1.1 mmol/L), and FPG (< 5.89 mmol/L and ≥ 5.89 mmol/L) were introduced into the diabetes predictive model. CONCLUSIONS: Fasting plasma glucose level, BMI, and triglyceride level were still dominated factors to predict 5-year diabetic risk among the relatively low risk participants. The cutoff values for fasting plasma glucose, TG, and BMI set as 5.89 mmol/L, 1.1 mmol/L, and 24 kg/m2, respectively, had the best predictive discrimination of diabetes.

9.
Curr Med Sci ; 39(3): 483-492, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209822

RESUMO

The intervention of behaviors, including physical activity (PA), has become a strategy for many hospitals dealing with patients with chronic diseases. Given the limited evidence available about PA and healthcare use with chronic diseases, this study explored the association between different levels of PA and annual hospital service use and expenditure for inpatients with coronary heart disease (CHD) in China. We analyzed PA information from the first follow-up survey (2013) of the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study of 1460 CHD inpatients. We examined factors such as PA exercise volume and years of PA and their associations with the number of inpatient visits, number of hospital days, and inpatient costs and total medical costs. We found that the number of hospital days and the number of inpatient visits were negatively associated with intensity of PA level. Similarly, total inpatient and outpatient costs declined when the PA exercise volume levels increased. Furthermore, there were also significant associations between the number of hospital days, inpatient costs or total medical costs and levels of PA years. This study provides the first empirical evidence about the effects of the intensity and years of PA on hospital service use and expenditure of CHD in China. It suggests that the patients' PA, especially the vigorous PA, should be promoted widely to the public and patients in order to relieve the financial burden of CHD.

10.
Stroke ; 50(7): 1661-1668, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167624

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Circulating metals synchronously reflect multiple metal exposures from both natural and anthropogenic sources, which may be linked with the risk of stroke. However, there is a lack of prospective studies investigating the associations of multiple metal exposures with incident stroke. Methods- We performed a nested case-control study within the ongoing Dongfeng-Tongji cohort launched in 2008. A total of 1304 incident stroke cases (1035 ischemic strokes and 269 hemorrhagic strokes) were prospectively identified by December 31, 2016, and matched to incident identity sampled controls according to age (within 1 year), sex, and blood sampling date (within 1 month). We determined the concentrations of 24 plasma metals and assessed the associations of plasma multiple metal concentrations with incident stroke using conditional logistic regression and elastic net model. Results- The average follow-up was 6.1 years. After adjusting for established risk confounders, copper, molybdenum, and titanium were significantly associated with higher risk of ischemic stroke (odds ratios according to per interquartile range increase, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.13-1.46], 1.19 [95% CI, 1.05-1.35], and 1.30 [95% CI, 1.07-1.59]), whereas rubidium and selenium were associated with lower risk of hemorrhagic stroke (odds ratios according to per interquartile range increase, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.50-0.87] and 0.68 [95% CI, 0.51-0.91]). The predictive plasma metal scores based on multiple metal exposures were significantly associated with higher risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke (adjusted odds ratios according to per interquartile range increase, 1.37 [95% CI, 1.20-1.56] and 1.53 [95% CI, 1.16-2.01]). Conclusions- Plasma copper, molybdenum, and titanium were associated with higher risk of ischemic stroke, whereas plasma rubidium and selenium were associated with lower risk of hemorrhagic stroke. These findings may have important public health implications given the ever-increasing burden of stroke worldwide.

11.
Environ Int ; 129: 497-506, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metals exposure from natural environment and pollution have been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, whether associations existing between plasma multiple metals and incident cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a prospective cohort study to investigate whether plasma levels of metals are associated with incident CVD risk in patients with T2D. METHODS: In a prospective study of 3897 type 2 diabetes embedded in the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort, fasting blood samples were collected in 2008 at baseline and in 2013 in the first follow-up period. Plasma concentrations of 23 metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The associations between plasma metal concentrations and CVD risk in patients with T2D were investigated with Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During an average of 6.2 years follow-up, 1114 participants developed CVD. In the single-metal models adjusting for established cardiovascular risk factors, plasma zinc and selenium levels were negatively and strontium was positively associated with incident CVD risk in patients with T2D. Similar results were obtained in the multiple-metal model, the HRs (95% CIs) for zinc, selenium, and strontium comparing extreme quartiles were 0.78 (95% CI: 0.65-0.93; P trend = 0.011), 0.76 (95% CI: 0.64-0.91; P trend = 0.001), and 1.51 (95% CI: 1.26-1.81; P trend <0.001), respectively. In the joint association analyses of two metals, individuals with high plasma levels of zinc and selenium had significantly lower risk of incident CVD in patients with T2D than those with low levels (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.65-0.91). CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggested that plasma levels of zinc and selenium had an inverse association with incident CVD risk in patients with T2D, while strontium had a positive correlation. Plasma zinc and selenium combinedly decreased incident CVD risk in patients with T2D. Further research is still needed to verify these findings in other populations.

12.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127295

RESUMO

Elevated blood pressure (BP), a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, is influenced by both genetic and lifestyle factors. Cigarette smoking is one such lifestyle factor. Across five ancestries, we performed a genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) in 129 913 individuals in stage 1 and follow-up analysis in 480 178 additional individuals in stage 2. We report here 136 loci significantly associated with MAP and/or PP. Of these, 61 were previously published through main-effect analysis of BP traits, 37 were recently reported by us for systolic BP and/or diastolic BP through gene-smoking interaction analysis and 38 were newly identified (P < 5 × 10-8, false discovery rate < 0.05). We also identified nine new signals near known loci. Of the 136 loci, 8 showed significant interaction with smoking status. They include CSMD1 previously reported for insulin resistance and BP in the spontaneously hypertensive rats. Many of the 38 new loci show biologic plausibility for a role in BP regulation. SLC26A7 encodes a chloride/bicarbonate exchanger expressed in the renal outer medullary collecting duct. AVPR1A is widely expressed, including in vascular smooth muscle cells, kidney, myocardium and brain. FHAD1 is a long non-coding RNA overexpressed in heart failure. TMEM51 was associated with contractile function in cardiomyocytes. CASP9 plays a central role in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Identified only in African ancestry were 30 novel loci. Our findings highlight the value of multi-ancestry investigations, particularly in studies of interaction with lifestyle factors, where genomic and lifestyle differences may contribute to novel findings.

13.
Ann Hepatol ; 18(2): 298-303, 2019 Mar - Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040092

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIM: It is indicated that high levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) are associated with increased incident type 2 diabetes risk. However, whether serum ALT levels could improve the discrimination of type 2 diabetes remains unclear. METHODS: The data was derived from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study, which was established in 2008 and followed until October 2013. A total of 17,173 participants free of type 2 diabetes at baseline were included and 1159 participants developed diabetes after 4.51 (0.61) years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) for the association between ALT and AST levels with incident diabetes risk. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves analysis was used to evaluate the predictive accuracy of models incorporating traditional risk factors with and without ALT. RESULTS: Compared with the lowest quartile of ALT and AST levels, the highest quartile had a significantly higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes (HR: 2.17 [95% CI: 1.78-2.65] and 1.29 [1.08-1.54], respectively) after adjustment for potential confounders. The addition of ALT levels into the traditional risk factors did not improve the predictive ability of type 2 diabetes, with AUC increase from 0.772 to 0.774; P=0.86. CONCLUSIONS: Although elevated ALT or AST levels increased incident type 2diabetes risk, addition of ALT levels into the prediction model did not improve the discrimination of type 2 diabetes.

14.
J Hypertens ; 37(10): 2007-2014, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116159

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations of newly defined blood pressure (BP) categories by the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline and changes in BP with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among the middle-aged and older Chinese. METHODS: Among 29 086 participants aged 61.6 years from the Dongfeng-Tongji (DFTJ) cohort, we estimated the hazard ratio for CVD using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: As BP increased, we found a significant trend for greater risk of incident CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke. Compared with the BP <120/<80 mmHg, those having stage 1 hypertension (BP of 130-139/80-89 mmHg) had an increased risk of CVD [hazard ratio of 1.29 (1.18-1.42)], CHD [hazard ratio of 1.27 (1.15-1.41)] and stroke [hazard ratio of 1.36 (1.10-1.70)], respectively. The effect of stroke was only presented in those aged at least 60 years, but not for those aged less than 60 years; whereas no age-specific association for CHD and CVD was found. Particularly, significantly increased risk of CVD (18%), CHD (14%) and stroke (37%) appeared even with elevated BP (120-129/<80 mmHg). Over a 5-year period, compared with individuals with stable BP less than 130/80 mmHg, those who maintained stage 1 hypertension had 43% increased risk for CVD, which was more prominent among those age at least 60 years. Relative to stable BP (-5 to 5 mmHg), a rise in SBP at least 15 mmHg and DBP at least 5 mmHg conferred 15 and 16% higher CVD risk; whereas the risk of CVD and CHD had 25 and 22% reduction with a decrease in SBP greater than15 mmHg, but not with DBP. CONCLUSION: Newly defined stage 1 hypertension and elevated BP were associated with increased risk of incident CVD, whereas long-term changes of SBP and DBP had effects of varying degree on CVD incidence.

15.
Acta Diabetol ; 56(9): 1037-1044, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989380

RESUMO

AIMS: Observational studies indicated that resting heart rate (RHR) was associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) risk; however, it remains unclear whether the association between RHR and DM is causal. We aimed to examine whether there was causal association of RHR with DM risk. METHODS: A prospective study including 16,201 middle-aged and older Chinese (7031 males and 9170 females) derived from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort was performed. Cox proportional hazard regression models were conducted to estimate the associations between RHR and incident DM risk. In 7481 participants, 65 single nucleotide polymorphisms related to RHR were genotyped. A genetic risk score (GRS) of RHR was calculated based on the RHR-associated variants. The causal associations of RHR with DM risk were investigated by Mendelian randomization analysis. RESULTS: During a mean (SD) follow-up of 4.5 (0.5) years, 1110 diabetes were identified. Compared with the referential RHR group (≤ 60 beats per minute [bpm]), individuals with RHR > 80 bpm have a higher incident diabetes risk, with a hazard ratio of 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.88). With per SD increase in the weighted genetic risk score, the resting heart rate increased by 0.71 bpm (95% CI 0.49-0.93). By using the GRS to estimate the unconfounded effect, we found that higher resting heart rate did not have a causal effect on diabetes risk (OR 1.00 [95% CI 0.95-1.05]). CONCLUSIONS: The present study supported a positive but not a causal association of RHR with incident diabetes risk. More studies are needed to verify our findings.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Descanso/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Estudos de Associação Genética/estatística & dados numéricos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6556, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31024039

RESUMO

Whether heart rate change is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population is unclear. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess the association of resting heart rate and its change with incident CVD in the middle-aged and older Chinese. Resting heart rate was measured during the baseline survey (September 2008 to June 2010) and the resurvey (2013). Incident CVD was followed up until December 31, 2016. Finally, a total of 20,828 participants were included in the analyses of baseline heart rate and 9132 participants were included in the analyses of heart rate change. The associations of baseline heart rate and heart rate change with incident CVD were assessed with multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Compared with moderate baseline heart rate (65 to 80 bpm), low baseline heart rate (<65 bpm) was associated with higher risk of CVD (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.32). Compared with stable heart rate (-5 to 15 bpm) in the moderate baseline heart rate group (65 to 80 bpm), an increase of heart rate (>15 bpm) in high baseline heart rate group (>80 bpm) (HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.02-2.71) or a decrease of heart rate (<-5 bpm) in low baseline heart rate group (<65 bpm) (HR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.27-4.82) was associated with higher risk of CVD. In conclusion, low resting heart rate is associated with higher risk of CVD. Both continuous increase in high baseline heart rate and decrease in low baseline heart rate are associated with higher risk of CVD.

17.
Atherosclerosis ; 285: 10-16, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The evidence concerning the association between hearing loss and stroke is limited. We aimed to investigate the association of hearing loss with risk of stroke and its subtypes among the middle-aged and older Chinese population. METHODS: We included 19,238 participants aged 64.6 years from the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort in 2013. Hearing loss was classified into normal, mild, moderate, severe or greater levels by the pure tone average at speech frequency and high frequency, respectively. We calculated the odds ratios of hearing loss and stroke by logistic regression models. RESULTS: With the increase of hearing loss level, the prevalence risk of stroke has gradually increased. Compared with normal hearing, participants having severe or greater hearing loss had a higher stroke risk of 76% and 39% at speech frequency and at high frequency, respectively. Similarly, individuals with severe or greater hearing loss had an increased risk of ischemic stroke of 69% and 52% at speech frequency and high frequency, respectively; while severe or greater hearing loss was associated with about a 2-fold risk of hemorrhagic stroke than normal hearing only at speech frequency. Stratified analysis suggested that some high cardiovascular risk participants such as male, age ≥65, exposed to occupational noise, smoker and with diabetes, hypertension or hyperlipidemia had higher risk of stroke. Furthermore, severe or greater hearing loss combined with age, diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia had joint effects on stroke. CONCLUSIONS: The results have suggested a dose-response relationship between hearing loss and stroke risk in middle-aged and older adults.

18.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(12): 1288-1297, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30966819

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between sleep duration, sleep quality and hyperlipidemia in middle-aged and older Chinese. METHODS: We included 20,712 individuals at baseline from September 2008 to June 2010, and they were followed-up until October 2013. Hyperlipidemia was defined according to the Chinese guidelines on the prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia in adults. Sleep duration was self-reported and sleep quality was evaluated with a questionnaire that was designed according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models were conducted to explore the associations. RESULTS: In the cross-sectional analyses, longer sleep duration (≥10 h) was significantly associated with higher prevalence of hyperlipidemia (odds ratio (OR) = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.35) after adjusting for potential confounders. The ORs of hyperlipidemia were significantly elevated among participants with impaired sleep quality (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.08-1.22) and poor sleep quality (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.08-1.34) when compared to those with good sleep quality. In the longitudinal analyses, compared to participants with a sleep duration of 7-<8 h, those with a sleep duration of 9-<10 h (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.04-1.35) and ≥10 h (HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.02-1.58) showed significantly higher risk of hyperlipidemia after adjusting for potential confounders. However, no statistically significant association was found between impaired or poor sleep quality and hyperlipidemia. CONCLUSIONS: Longer sleep duration was significantly associated with higher risk of hyperlipidemia. Impaired or poor sleep quality were associated with elevated prevalence of hyperlipidemia, but not with the incidence of hyperlipidemia.

19.
Environ Int ; 127: 685-693, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991224

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Essential metals play important roles in the carcinogenic process. However, seldom longitudinal investigations have evaluated their roles in lung cancer development. We aimed to investigate the associations between multiple essential metals and lung cancer incidence and to explore the potential mechanisms. METHODS: A nested case-control study of 440 incident lung cancer cases and 1:3 frequency matched 1320 healthy controls from the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort was conducted. The baseline plasma concentrations of 11 essential metals (cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, rubidium, selenium, strontium, stannum, vanadium, and zinc) were measured, and their associations with lung cancer incidence were estimated. Effect of positive metal (zinc) on 4-year telomere attrition was then evaluated among an occupational cohort of 724 workers. We also assessed the transcriptional regulation effects of plasma zinc on mRNA expression profiles, and the expressions of zinc-related genes were further compared in pair-wised lung tumor and normal tissues. RESULTS: Elevated plasma level of zinc was associated with lower incident risk of lung cancer [OR (95% CI) = 0.89 (0.79, 0.99)] and decreased 4-year telomere attrition [ß (95% CI) = -0.73 (-1.27, -0.19)]. These effects were pronounced among males. In particularly, zinc could regulate the expressions of 8 cancer-related genes, including SOD1, APE, TP53BP1, WDR33, LAPTM4B, TRIT1, HUWE1, and ZNF813, which were over-expressed in lung tumor tissues. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that high plasma zinc could prevent incident lung cancer, probably by slowing down telomere attrition and regulating the expressions of cancer-related genes. These results provided a new insight into lung cancer prevention.

20.
Chemosphere ; 226: 321-328, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939371

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although environmental exposure to multiple metals is common, epidemiological studies on the associations of exposure to 23 metals with kidney function have not been analyzed. We aimed to investigate the associations of 23 metals levels with renal function. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in four rural regions of Hunan province. Plasma and urine metals levels were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Two-level logistic regression was used to investigate the associations of metals levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with adjustment for confounding factors. We conducted a sensitivity analysis of the results using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. RESULTS: A total of 3553 participants completed the investigation. Five metals (plasma arsenic and molybdenum; urine copper, rubidium, and strontium) were identified to be significantly associated with renal function. Participants in the highest quartile of plasma arsenic and molybdenum were at 17.95 (95% CI: 6.35-50.76) and 24.23 (95% CI: 7.42-79.19) fold risk of abnormal eGFR, respectively, compared with the lowest quartile. The highest quartiles of urine copper, rubidium, and strontium were associated with 3.70 (95% CI:1.92-7.14), 0.16 (95% CI:0.07-0.37) and 0.08 (95% CI: 0.03-0.21) fold risk of abnormal eGFR. The sensitivity analysis revealed that plasma arsenic, molybdenum and urine copper, rubidium and strontium levels retained similar associations with abnormal eGFR. CONCLUSION: Plasma arsenic and molybdenum, and urine copper are risk factors for abnormal renal function, while urine rubidium and strontium are protective factors for renal function.


Assuntos
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais/sangue , Metais/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Arsênico/sangue , China , Cobre/urina , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Molibdênio/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Rubídio/urina , Estrôncio/urina
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