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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 251: 117084, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142625

RESUMO

Many anti-counterfeiting inks have been explored recently, most of them are commonly involved in weak fastness, high cost and long-term toxicity, impeding their real-life applications. Herein, an environment-friendly and inexpensive anti-counterfeiting ink with excellent fastness is reported. The untifake ink is developed by combining hybrid dots (silicon/carbon) with hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) binder. Interestingly, the HEC binder can effectively prevent from aggregation-induced quenching of hybrid dots. Subsequently, the customized patterns are successfully transferred onto different surfaces of various substrates including cotton fabric, cellulosic paper, glass, metal, silicon wafer and PET film, using the as-prepared ink by screen-printing technique, exhibiting that the hybrid dots/HEC ink possesses widespread practicability. Notably, fluorescent color of these patterns can be switchable by adjusting environmental pH-value, further imparting the as-prepared ink with excellent covert performance. This new fluorescent hybrid dots/HEC ink will be promising candidates for high-level anti-counterfeiting applications including food packaging, apparel and documents.

2.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 88: 106998, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182064

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease for which conventional treatments have limited efficacy or side effects. Free radicals are primarily involved in blood-brain barrier disruption and induce neuronal and axonal damage, thus promoting the development of MS. Amifostine, a radioprotective drug used as a cytoprotective agent, attenuates oxidative stress and improves radiation damage by acting as a direct scavenger of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of amifostine on MS in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which was developed by immunizing C57BL/6 mice with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein and pertussis toxin. EAE mice received intraperitoneal injections of amifostine prior to onset of clinical symptoms and were monitored up to day 15 post induction. We observed abnormal clinical behavioral scores and a decrease in body weight. Histological analysis showed severe inflammatory infiltration and demyelination in the brain and spinal cord lumbar enlargements where significant upregulation of the mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and interleukin-8, downregulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10, and obvious microgliosis were also observed. Amifostine treatment potently reversed these abnormal changes. The anti-inflammatory effect of amifostine was associated with the inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation. Furthermore, the expression of proteins involved in the NLRP3 signaling pathway and pyroptosis was decreased. In conclusion, our study showed that amifostine ameliorates induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via anti-inflammatory and anti-pyroptosis effects, providing further insights into the use of amifostine for the treatment of MS.

3.
Acta Cir Bras ; 35(10): e202001002, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237174

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the mechanism of Periplaneta americana extract promoting intestinal mucosal repair of OXZ-induced colitis in rat. METHODS: All experiments used an equal number of male and female SD rats (n=48). We injected OXZ into the colon to induce UC rat model. To determine the optimal concentration of P. Americana's extract (PA-40), it was classified into low (L), medium (M), and high (H) doses. After OXZ treatment, each drug was administered by enema for 7 consecutive days. Rats were divided into the following 6 groups: (1) Saline treatment group (NC), (2) OXZ treatment UC model group (MC), (3) OXZ + budesonide group (BUN), (4) OXZ + PA-40 L group, (5) OXZ + PA-40 M group, (6) OXZ + PA-40 H group. Disease activity index (DAI) scores, colon length, histopathological score, serum cytokine level (IL-4, IL-10, iNOS, tNOS), and amount of MPO, EGF, IL-13 in colonic mucosa were measured. RESULTS: PA treatment had a significant healing effect on the OXZ-colitis model and significantly reduced the lesioned area, especially in the PA-40H groups. PA treatment did not alter the expression of IL-10 and MPO level, but increased EGF (epidermal growth factor) and decrease IL-13 in the colonic tissue. PA inhibited the rise of NOSs (nitric oxide synthase) and decreased the serum IL-4 level. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that Periplaneta americana extract may be a potential compound for the treatment of colonic lesions. The mechanism may be related to inhibiting the secretion of IL-13 and promoting the formation of EGF.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Periplaneta , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colo , Feminino , Mucosa Intestinal , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 8861347, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224982

RESUMO

Background: The subchondral bone parallels with the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the biomechanical properties and histopathological changes of subchondral bone changes in the lumbar facet joint (LFJ) after long-term axial loading on the spine have not been explored. In this study, we aimed to investigate the subchondral bone histopathological changes that occur in the LFJ and pain behaviors in a novel bipedal standing mouse model. Methods: Sixteen 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into bipedal standing and control groups. A finite element stimulate model based on the micro-CT data was generated to simulate the von Mises stress distribution on the LFJ during different positions. The spine pain behaviors tests were analysis. In addition, the change in the subchondral bone of the LFJ was assessed by histological and immunohistochemistry staining. Results: The computerized simulation of the von Mises stress distribution in the superior articular process of LFJ at the spine level 5 in the lying position increased and reached a maximum value at the bipedal standing posture. The spine pain behavior test revealed that the threshold of pressure tolerance decreased significantly in bipedal groups relative to control groups, whereas the mechanical hyperalgesia of the hind paw increased significantly in bipedal groups relative to control groups. The axial load accelerates LFJ degeneration with increased histological scores in bipedal groups. The expression of type II collagen and aggrecan (ACAN) was significantly decreased in the bipedal groups compared with the control groups, whereas the expression of MMP13 was increased. Compared with the control groups, the osteoclast activity was activated with higher TRAP-positive staining and associated with increased CD-31-positive vessels and GCRP-positive nerve ending expression in the subchondral bone of LFJ. Conclusion: Collectively, long-term axial loading induces the development of spine hyperalgesia in mice associate with increased osteoclast activity and aberrant angiogenesis and nerve invasion into the subchondral bone of LFJ that stimulates the natural pathological change in human LFJ OA. These results indicate that aberrant bone remodeling associate with aberrant nerve innervation in the subchondral bone has a potential as a therapeutic target in LFJ OA pain.

5.
Langmuir ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232170

RESUMO

The SnO2/Li4Ti5O12/C compound was gained via hydrothermal, sintering, and ball milling methods. Nano-grained SnO2/Li4Ti5O12 are homogeneously wrapped in a sheet-like graphite. Li4Ti5O12 possesses cyclic stability and superior rate capacity. Meanwhile, the SnO2/Li4Ti5O12 hybrid can supply abundant active sites for absorption of Li+, mitigate chemical stress in cycling, and prevent the ultrathin graphite nanosheets from stacking. Besides, the sheet-like graphite could reduce volume variation in cycling and reduce transmission distance for the electron or Li+. Therefore, an outstanding electrochemical property of the SnO2/Li4Ti5O12/C composite can be obtained.

6.
J Perianesth Nurs ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168405

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Currently, there is no standardized handover pattern for patients undergoing general anesthesia when being transferred to the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). DESIGN: A review of the literature. METHODS: In this study, a review of the literature was conducted to analyze the PACU handover status, factors for poor handover, and commonly used handover patterns. FINDINGS: Important handover information was often omitted during the handover of PACU patients, and there were many factors influencing postoperative patient handover quality. This study analyzed and compared several commonly used handover patterns for patients. Among these, the Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendation tool is relatively mature. However, there is currently no unified standardized patient handover pattern, and the validity and applicability of tools still need to be verified. CONCLUSIONS: PACU is an important place for the recovery of surgical patients. Anesthesia providers need to provide PACU nurses with complete and comprehensive postoperative handover information. A standardized handover model for clinical nurses is needed to improve patient safety management and work efficiency.

7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; : 107162, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168410

RESUMO

Skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM) is the most invasive form of skin cancer with poor prognosis. Growing evidence has demonstrated that tumor immune microenvironment plays a key contributing role in tumorigenesis and predicting clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to recognize immune classification and a reliable prognostic signature for patients with SKCM. By using single-sample gene set enrichment (ssGSEA) and hierarchical clustering analyses, we evaluated the immune infiltration landscape of SKCM afflicted patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset and named two SKCM subtypes: Immunity-high and Immunity-low. The Immunity-high subgroup was characterized by up-regulation of immune response and favorable survival probability. Seven candidate small molecule drugs which potentially reverse SKCM immune status were identified by using Connectivity map (CMap) database. A prognostic five-immune-associated gene (IAG) signature consisting IFITM1, TNFSF13B, APOBEC3G, CCL8 and KLRK1 with high predictive value was established using the LASSO Cox regression analysis in training set, and validated in testing set as well as Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) external validation cohort (P < 0.05). Lower tumor purity and active immune-related signaling pathways were obviously presented in low-risk group. Furthermore, a novel composite nomogram based upon the five-IAG signature and other clinical parameters was built with excellent calibration curves. Collectively, comprehensively characterizing the SKCM subtypes based upon immune microenvironment landscape and development of a survival-related IAG signature may provide a promising avenue for improving individualized treatment design and prognosis prediction for patients with SKCM.

8.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191663

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The influence of myopia and ocular biometry parameters on diabetic retinopathy (DR) needs further clarification. We aimed to investigate the association between ocular biometrical parameters and DR in Chinese people with diabetes mellitus (DM) without any ocular intervention. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited type 2 DM patients with no history of ocular treatment in Guangzhou, China. The ocular biometrical parameters were obtained by Lenstar (LS900, Haag-Streit AG, Koeniz, Switzerland), including corneal diameter, central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal curvature (CC), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT) and axial length (AL). The lens power and axial length-to-cornea radius ratio (AL/CR ratio) were calculated. Spherical equivalent (SE) was determined by auto-refraction after pupil dilation. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the associations of ocular biometry with any DR and vision threatening DR (VTDR). RESULTS: A total of 1838 patients were included in the final analysis, involving 1455 (79.2%) patients without DR and 383(20.8%) patients with DR. After adjusting confounding factors, any DR was independently associated with AL (odds ratio (OR) 0.84 per 1 mm increase, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74, 0.94) and AL/CR ratio (OR 0.26 per 1 increase, 95%CI: 0.10, 0.70). Similarly, the presence of VTDR was independently related to AL (OR 0.67 per 1 mm increase, 95%CI: 0.54, 0.85) and AL/CR ratio (OR 0.04 per 1 increase, 95%CI: 0.01, 0.25). The lens power may not be significantly correlated with presence of any DR or VTDR. The CC, corneal diameter and refractive status were not significantly correlated with presence of DR or VTDR. CONCLUSION: Longer AL and higher AL/CR ratio may be protective factors against the occurrence and progression of DR. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to verify if refractive status and AL-associated parameters contribute to the occurrence and progression of DR in type 2 DM.

9.
Zootaxa ; 4759(2): zootaxa.4759.2.10, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056926

RESUMO

One new cicada genus Versicolora gen. nov. and two new species, V. ziyongi sp. nov. from China and V. bellula sp. nov. from China and Vietnam, are described. The new genus is placed in the tribe Leptopsaltriini of the subfamily Cicadinae. The relationship of this new genus to other related taxa is discussed. Versicolora ziyongi sp. nov. camouflages itself on the bark of the host-plants and gradually changes its body colour when captured. This colour-changing behaviour is recorded for the first time in Cicadoidea, which provides innovative information for ecomorphological study of this remarkable species and other cicadas that potentially exhibit this behaviour.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China , Cor , Vietnã
10.
Clin Neuroradiol ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006652

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore changes in functional connectivity (FC) within the sensorimotor network (SMN) and the relationship between the SMN and bilateral thalamus in patients with thalamic infarction (TI) using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Also determined was whether those measures are useful for monitoring the functional recovery of somatosensory deficits. METHODS: The study included 31 patients with TI presenting somatosensory dysfunction and 31 controls who underwent clinical assessments and MRI scanning at 6 months after a stroke. An independent component analysis was used to identify the SMN. The mean time courses of SMN activity were extracted for each subject, and FC with the bilateral thalamus was assessed. Differences in connectivity strength were compared between groups. Finally, we correlated the altered FC values with clinical data from patients with TI. RESULTS: Compared to controls, patients with TI showed decreases in FC within SMN in the ipsilesional posterior central gyrus (PCG) (Z-score = -4.581, cluster size = 171), but presented increased FC within the SMN in the ipsilesional supplementary motor area (SMA) (Z-score = 4.648, cluster size = 46). The FC values of the ipsilesional SMA correlated with the somatosensory function score of patients with TI (r = 0.426, P = 0.027). Increased FC was observed between the SMN and bilateral thalamus in patients with TI. The region exhibiting increased FC was adjacent to the lesion in the affected thalamus, while the area with increased FC overlapped the location of the lesion when the lesion was mirrored onto the unaffected thalamus. CONCLUSION: The increased FC in the ipsilesional SMA and between the SMN and perilesional thalamus might reflect functional reorganization in patients with TI presenting somatosensory deficits.

11.
Curr Eye Res ; : 1-7, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865040

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To summarize the research status on the function and mechanism of circRNAs in regulating the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase.com, and ARVO Abstracts website and reviewed relevant studies. Results: Thousands of circRNAs were found to be aberrantly expressed in DR patients, animal models, or cell models. A few circRNAs, such as cPWWP2A, circDNMT3B, circHIPK3, circ_0005015, et al were demonstrated to play an important role in DR by regulating the angiogenesis, proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammatory response of various cells in the retina. Conclusion: CircRNAs are involved in the development of DR. CircRNAs can not only serve as DR biomarkers, but also become therapeutic targets for DR. The role of plenty of circRNAs in DR is yet to be discovered.

13.
Genomics ; 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927008

RESUMO

Aging is a very complicated biological process that can change gene expressions. The Chinese rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta lasiota; CR) is closely related to humans. We explored gene expression with increasing age and DNA methylation changes in young and old CRs. Results showed blood transcriptome and DNA methylome significantly changed from young to old CRs. The age-associated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were associated with age-related biological features, such as immunity, blood coagulation, and biosynthetic process. The measurements of coagulation indicators confirmed old CRs had shorter coagulation time than young CRs, and the activities of coagulation factor II (FII) and factor VIII (FVIII) were enhanced in old CRs. Humans and CRs exhibited the same enhanced blood coagulation with age phenotype. Our study found aging is a critical factor affecting gene expression in CRs, and also provided new insights into the blood coagulation changes in non-human primates.

14.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1926, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983119

RESUMO

Innate immunity is the first-line defense against antiviral or antimicrobial infection. RIG-I and MDA5, which mediate the recognition of pathogen-derived nucleic acids, are essential for production of type I interferons (IFN). Here, we identified mitochondrion depolarization inducer carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) inhibited the response and antiviral activity of type I IFN during viral infection. Furthermore, we found that the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Parkin mediated mitophagy, thus negatively regulating the activation of RIG-I and MDA5. Parkin directly interacted with and catalyzed the K48-linked polyubiquitination and subsequent degradation of RIG-I and MDA5. Thus, we demonstrate that Parkin limits RLR-triggered innate immunity activation, suggesting Parkin as a potential therapeutic target for the control of viral infection.

15.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-5, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985239

RESUMO

This work aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of total flavonoids from Glycyrrhiza uralensis. The main compounds in licorice total flavonoids (LTF) were isolated from Glycyrrhiza uralensis and their total content in LTF were more than 60%. Hepatoprotective effects of LTF were investigated in three kinds of hepatic injury mice model induced by high-fat emulsion, Chinese liquor and tetrachloromethane. Serum ALT, AST and ALP levels and hepatic MDA, TG, cholesterol, and hydroxyproline of hepatic injury mice were reduced by LTF. Simultaneously, hepatic SOD and glutathione were increased by LTF. These results suggested that LTF can repair liver tissue and reduce hepatic injury via alleviating inflammation, improving antioxidant enzyme activity and reducing oxidative stress in liver tissue and it may be a valuable natural source of hepatoprotective activity.

16.
Cell ; 183(1): 211-227.e20, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937106

RESUMO

The striosome compartment within the dorsal striatum has been implicated in reinforcement learning and regulation of motivation, but how striosomal neurons contribute to these functions remains elusive. Here, we show that a genetically identified striosomal population, which expresses the Teashirt family zinc finger 1 (Tshz1) and belongs to the direct pathway, drives negative reinforcement and is essential for aversive learning in mice. Contrasting a "conventional" striosomal direct pathway, the Tshz1 neurons cause aversion, movement suppression, and negative reinforcement once activated, and they receive a distinct set of synaptic inputs. These neurons are predominantly excited by punishment rather than reward and represent the anticipation of punishment or the motivation for avoidance. Furthermore, inhibiting these neurons impairs punishment-based learning without affecting reward learning or movement. These results establish a major role of striosomal neurons in behaviors reinforced by punishment and moreover uncover functions of the direct pathway unaccounted for in classic models.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914298

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the status of depression and anxiety of healthcare workers and to explore the risk factors during the outbreak of COVID-19 in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was designed using convenience sampling to obtain a sample of healthcare workers. A structured questionnaire was designed to collect the information of the basic characteristics, workload, and the health condition. Burnout, coping style, anxiety, and depression were measured by specific scales. Multiple logistic regression model was performed to explore the risk factors of anxiety or depression. RESULTS: There were 902 questionnaires received between February 9, 2020 and February 11, 2020. The proportion of healthcare workers with symptoms of moderate/severe anxiety and moderate/severe depression were 16.63% and 18.29%, respectively. There were 24.50% healthcare workers experiencing moderate/severe anxiety and depression at the same time. The increased workload, respiratory symptoms, digestive symptoms, having done specific test(s) related to COVID-19, having family member needs to be taken care of, negative coping style, and job burnout were the independent risk factors of anxiety. Furthermore, the increased workload, respiratory symptoms, digestive symptoms, having done specific test(s) related to COVID-19, negative coping style, and job burnout were the independent risk factors of depression. CONCLUSION: More attention should be paid to the mental health of frontline healthcare workers at the outbreak of COVID-19 in China. Taking steps to reduce the intensity of the work and burnout will be effective to stabilize the mental state of them.

18.
Sci Adv ; 6(36)2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917598

RESUMO

Heat defense is crucial for survival and fitness. Transmission of thermosensory signals into hypothalamic thermoregulation centers represents a key layer of regulation in heat defense. Yet, how these signals are transmitted into the hypothalamus remains poorly understood. Here, we reveal that lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPB) glutamatergic prodynorphin and cholecystokinin neuron populations are progressively recruited to defend elevated body temperature. These two nonoverlapping neuron types form circuits with downstream preoptic hypothalamic neurons to inhibit the thermogenesis of brown adipose tissues (BATs) and activate tail vasodilation, respectively. Both circuits are activated by warmth and can limit fever development. The prodynorphin circuit is further required for regulating energy expenditure and body weight homeostasis. Thus, these findings establish that the genetic and functional specificity of heat defense neurons occurs as early as in the LPB and uncover categorical neuron types for encoding two heat defense variables, inhibition of BAT thermogenesis and activation of vasodilation.

19.
Cancer Med ; 9(21): 8186-8201, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a critical role in tumorigenesis, development, and therapeutic efficacy. Major advances have been achieved in the treatment of various cancers through immunotherapy. Nevertheless, only a minority of patients have positive responses to immunotherapy, which is partly due to conditions of the immunosuppressive microenvironment. Therefore, it is essential to identify prognostic biomarkers that reflect heterogeneous landscapes of the TME. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Based upon the ESTIMATE algorithm, we evaluated the infiltrating levels of immune and stromal components derived from patients afflicted by various types of cancer from The Cancer Genome Atlas database (TCGA). According to respective patient immune and stromal scores, we categorized cases into high- and low-scoring subgroups for each cancer type to explore associations between TME and patient prognosis. Gene Set Enrichment Analyses (GSEA) were conducted and genes enriched in IFNγ response signaling pathway were selected to facilitate establishment of a risk model for predicting overall survival (OS). Furthermore, we investigated the associations between the prognostic signature and tumor immune infiltration landscape by using CIBERSORT algorithm and TIMER database. RESULTS: Among the cancers assessed, the immune scores for skin cutaneous melanoma (SKCM) were the most significantly correlated with patients' survival time (P < .0001). We identified and validated a five-IFNγ response-related gene signature (UBE2L6, PARP14, IFIH1, IRF2, and GBP4), which was closely correlated with the prognosis for SKCM afflicted patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that this risk model was an independent prognostic factor for SKCM. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and specific immune checkpoint molecules had notably differential levels of expression in high- compared to low-risk samples. CONCLUSION: In this study, we established a novel five-IFNγ response-related gene signature that provided a better and increasingly comprehensive understanding of tumor immune landscape, and which demonstrated good performance in predicting outcomes for patients afflicted by SKCM.

20.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888900

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To comprehensively evaluate the effectiveness of different types of laser trabeculoplasty (LT) in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma. DESIGN: Systematic review and network meta-analysis. METHODS: Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCT) were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, CNKI, and CBM for studies published between January 1, 2000 and April 20, 2020. Eight interventions were evaluated, including argon LT (ALT), medications, 180° selective LT (SLT), 270° SLT, 360° SLT, new LT, transscleral 360° SLT with SLT performed without gonioscopy, and low-energy 360° SLT. The primary outcome was reduction of medicated and unmedicated intraocular pressure (IOP) at six months. Secondary outcomes included reduction of IOP at 12 months, incidences of complications, and change in number of medications. Head-to-head meta-analysis and network meta-analysis were performed using STATA and R software. RESULTS: In total, 22 studies were included, involving 2,859 eyes of 2,704 patients. In terms of IOP reduction at 6 and 12 months, there were no statistically significant differences in both medicated and unmedicated IOP between any pairs of interventions considered herein, as determined based on both head-to head and network meta-analyses (all P > 0.05). In terms of reduction of medications, the individuals treated with 180° SLT required fewer medications than those treated with ALT at 12 months (0.28, 95%CI: 0.06 to 0.50, P = 0.014). No severe adverse outcomes were reported for any of the interventions. CONCLUSIONS: All the available types of LT are equally effective for decreasing IOP compared to medication-based therapy. The 180° SLT was slightly more effective than ALT in terms of reducing the number of medications needed. Additional well-performed RCTs with larger sample sizes are needed.

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