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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(1): 73-79, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848237

RESUMO

Lithium is the most attractive anode material for high-energy density rechargeable batteries, but its cycling is plagued by morphological irreversibility and dendrite growth that arise in part from its heterogeneous "native" solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). Enriching the SEI with lithium fluoride (LiF) has recently gained popularity to improve Li cyclability. However, the intrinsic function of LiF-whether chemical, mechanical, or kinetic in nature-remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the stability of LiF in model LiF-enriched SEIs that are either artificially preformed or derived from fluorinated electrolytes, and thus, the effect of the LiF source on Li electrode behavior. We discovered that the mechanical integrity of LiF is easily compromised during plating, making it intrinsically unable to protect Li. The ensuing in situ repair of the interface by electrolyte, either regenerating LiF or forming an extra elastomeric "outer layer," is identified as the more critical determinant of Li electrode performance. Our findings present an updated and dynamic picture of the LiF-enriched SEI and demonstrate the need to carefully consider the combined role of ionic and electrolyte-derived layers in future design strategies.

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(16): 4700-4706, 2018 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052041

RESUMO

Nonaqueous metal-gas batteries have emerged as a growing family of primary and rechargeable batteries with high capacities and energy densities. We herein report a high-capacity primary Li-gas battery that uses a perfluorinated gas, nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), as the cathode reactant. Gravimetric capacities of ∼1100 and 4000 mAh/gC are achieved at 25 and 55 °C, respectively (at 20 mA/gC), with discharge voltages up to 2.6 V vs Li/Li+. NF3 reduction occurs by a 3e-/NF3 process, yielding polycrystalline lithium fluoride (LiF) on a carbon cathode. The detailed electrochemical NF3 conversion mechanism is proposed and supported by solid- and liquid-phase characterization and theoretical computation, revealing the origin of observed discharge overpotentials and elucidating the significant contribution of N-F bond cleavage. These findings indicate the value of exploring fluorinated gas cathodes for primary batteries; moreover, they open new avenues for future targeted electrocatalyst design and cathode materials synthesis applications benefiting from conformal coatings of LiF.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(5): 4301-4308, 2017 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27408953

RESUMO

Owing to the formation of potassium superoxide (K+ + O2 + e- = KO2), K-O2 batteries exhibit superior round-trip efficiency and considerable energy density in the absence of any electrocatalysts. For further improving the practical performance of K-O2 batteries, it is important to carry out a systematic study on parameters that control rate performance and capacity to comprehensively understand the limiting factors in superoxide-based metal-oxygen batteries. Herein, we investigate the influence of current density and oxygen diffusion on the nucleation, growth, and distribution of potassium superoxide (KO2) during the discharge process. It is observed that higher current results in smaller average sizes of KO2 crystals but a larger surface coverage on the carbon fiber electrode. As KO2 grows and covers the cathode surface, the discharge will eventually end due to depletion of the oxygen-approachable electrode surface. Additionally, higher current also induces a greater gradient of oxygen concentration in the porous carbon electrode, resulting in less efficient loading of the discharge product. These two factors explain the observed inverse correlation between current and capacity of K-O2 batteries. Lastly, we demonstrate a reduced graphene oxide-based K-O2 battery with a large specific capacity (up to 8400 mAh/gcarbon at a discharge rate of 1000 mA/gcarbon) and a long cycle life (over 200 cycles).

4.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(49): 15310-15314, 2016 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27809386

RESUMO

Alkali metal-oxygen batteries are of great interests for energy storage because of their unparalleled theoretical energy densities. Particularly attractive is the emerging Na-O2 battery because of the formation of superoxide as the discharge product. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a promising solvent for this battery but its instability towards Na makes it impractical in the Na-O2 battery. Herein we report the enhanced stability of Na in DMSO solutions containing concentrated sodium trifluoromethanesulfonimide (NaTFSI) salts (>3 mol kg-1 ). Raman spectra of NaTFSI/DMSO electrolytes and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation reveal the Na+ solvation number in DMSO and the formation of Na(DMSO)3 (TFSI)-like solvation structure. The majority of DMSO molecules solvating Na+ in concentrated solutions reduces the available free DMSO molecules that can react with Na and renders the TFSI anion decomposition, which protects Na from reacting with the electrolyte. Using these concentrated electrolytes, Na-O2 batteries can be cycled forming sodium superoxide (NaO2 ) as the sole discharge product with improved long cycle life, highlighting the beneficial role of concentrated electrolytes for Na-based batteries.

5.
Inorg Chem ; 55(8): 3960-6, 2016 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27022836

RESUMO

Molybdenum sulfides represent state-of-the-art, non-platinum electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). According to the Sabatier principle, the hydrogen binding strength to the edge active sites should be neither too strong nor too weak. Therefore, it is of interest to develop a molecular motif that mimics the catalytic sites structurally and possesses tunable electronic properties that influence the hydrogen binding strength. Furthermore, molecular mimics will be important for providing mechanistic insight toward the HER with molybdenum sulfide catalysts. In this work, a modular method to tune the catalytic properties of the S-S bond in MoO(S2)2L2 complexes is described. We studied the homogeneous electrocatalytic hydrogen production performance metrics of three catalysts with different bipyridine substitutions. By varying the electron-donating abilities, we present the first demonstration of using the ligand to tune the catalytic properties of the S-S bond in molecular MoS2 edge-site mimics. This work can shed light on the relationship between the structure and electrocatalytic activity of molecular MoS2 catalysts and thus is of broad importance from catalytic hydrogen production to biological enzyme functions.


Assuntos
Dissulfetos/química , Hidrogênio/química , Molibdênio/química , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Catálise , Conformação Molecular
6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 54(50): 15181-5, 2015 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26482571

RESUMO

Proton reduction is one of the most fundamental and important reactions in nature. MoS2 edges have been identified as the active sites for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysis. Designing molecular mimics of MoS2 edge sites is an attractive strategy to understand the underlying catalytic mechanism of different edge sites and improve their activities. Herein we report a dimeric molecular analogue [Mo2 S12 ](2-) , as the smallest unit possessing both the terminal and bridging disulfide ligands. Our electrochemical tests show that [Mo2 S12 ](2-) is a superior heterogeneous HER catalyst under acidic conditions. Computations suggest that the bridging disulfide ligand of [Mo2 S12 ](2-) exhibits a hydrogen adsorption free energy near zero (-0.05 eV). This work helps shed light on the rational design of HER catalysts and biomimetics of hydrogen-evolving enzymes.

7.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 54(23): 6857-61, 2015 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25907357

RESUMO

Efficient sensitized photocathodes are highly desired for solar fuels and tandem solar cells, yet the development is hindered by the scarcity of suitable p-type semiconductors. The generation of high cathodic photocurrents by sensitizing a degenerate n-type semiconductor (tin-doped indium oxide; ITO) is reported. The sensitized mesoporous ITO electrodes deliver cathodic photocurrents of up to 5.96±0.19 mA cm(-2), which are close to the highest record in conventional p-type sensitized photocathodes. This is realized by the rational selection of dyes with appropriate energy alignments with ITO. The energy level alignment between the highest occupied molecular orbital of the sensitizer and the conduction band of ITO is crucial for efficient hole injection. Transient absorption spectroscopy studies demonstrate that the cathodic photocurrent results from reduction of the photoexcited sensitizer by free electrons in ITO. Our results reveal a new perspective toward the selection of electrode materials for sensitized photocathodes.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 135(32): 11696-9, 2013 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23895560

RESUMO

A photostable p-type NiO photocathode based on a bifunctional cyclometalated ruthenium sensitizer and a cobaloxime catalyst has been created for visible-light-driven water reduction to produce H2. The sensitizer is anchored firmly on the surface of NiO, and the binding is resistant to the hydrolytic cleavage. The bifunctional sensitizer can also immobilize the water reduction catalyst. The resultant photoelectrode exhibits superior stability in aqueous solutions. Stable photocurrents have been observed over a period of hours. This finding is useful for addressing the degradation issue in dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells caused by desorption of dyes and catalysts. The high stability of our photocathodes should be important for the practical application of these devices for solar fuel production.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 4(11): 5922-9, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23054373

RESUMO

We have systematically studied the effects of substitutional doping of p-type nanoparticulate NiO with cobalt ions. Thin films of pure and Co-doped NiO nanoparticles with nominal compositions Co(x)Ni(1-x)O(y) (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) were fabricated using sol-gel method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed a surface enrichment of divalent cobalt ions in the Co(x)Ni(1-x)O(y) nanoparticles. Mott-Schottky analysis in aqueous solutions was used to determine the space charge capacitance values of the films against aqueous electrolytes, which yielded acceptor state densities (N(A)) and apparent flat-band potentials (E(fb)). Both N(A) and E(fb) values of the doped NiO were found to gradually increase with increasing amount of doping; thus the Fermi energy level of the charge carriers decreased with Co-doping. The photovoltage of p-DSCs constructed using the Co(x)Ni(1-x)O(y) films increased with increasing amount of cobalt, as expected from the trend in the E(fb). Co-doping increased both carrier lifetimes within the p-DSCs and the carrier transport times within the nanoparticulate semiconductor network. The nominal composition of Co0.06Ni0.94O(y) was found to be optimal for use in p-DSCs.


Assuntos
Cobalto/química , Cristalização/métodos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Níquel/química , Energia Solar , Eletrodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Teste de Materiais , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Conformação Molecular , Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Tamanho da Partícula , Semicondutores , Propriedades de Superfície
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