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1.
Autophagy ; : 1-17, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315519

RESUMO

Liver dysfunction is an outstanding dose-limiting toxicity of gefitinib, an EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), in the treatment of EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying gefitinib-induced hepatotoxicity, and provide potentially effective intervention strategy. We discovered that gefitinib could sequentially activate macroautophagy/autophagy and apoptosis in hepatocytes. The inhibition of autophagy alleviated gefitinib-induced apoptosis, whereas the suppression of apoptosis failed to lessen gefitinib-induced autophagy. Moreover, liver-specific Atg7 +/- heterozygous mice showed less severe liver injury than vehicle, suggesting that autophagy is involved in the gefitinib-promoted hepatotoxicity. Mechanistically, gefitinib selectively degrades the important anti-apoptosis factor COX6A1 (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6A1) in the autophagy-lysosome pathway. The gefitinib-induced COX6A1 reduction impairs mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV (RCC IV) function, which in turn activates apoptosis, hence causing liver injury. Notably, this autophagy-promoted apoptosis is dependent on PLK1 (polo like kinase 1). Both AAV8-mediated Plk1 knockdown and PLK1 inhibitor BI-2536 could mitigate the gefitinib-induced hepatotoxicity in vivo by abrogating the autophagic degradation of the COX6A1 protein. In addition, PLK1 inhibition could not compromise the anti-cancer activity of gefitinib. In conclusion, our findings reveal the gefitinib-hepatotoxicity pathway, wherein autophagy promotes apoptosis through COX6A1 degradation, and highlight pharmacological inhibition of PLK1 as an attractive therapeutic approach toward improving the safety of gefitinib-based cancer therapy. Abbreviations: 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; AAV8: adeno-associated virus serotype 8; ATG5: autophagy related 5; ATG7: autophagy related 7; B2M: beta-2-microglobulin; CCCP: carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone; CHX: cycloheximide; COX6A1: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6A1; c-PARP: cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase; CQ: chloroquine; GOT1/AST: glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 1, soluble; GPT/ALT: glutamic pyruvic transaminase, soluble; HBSS: Hanks´ balanced salt solution; H&E: hematoxylin and eosin; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated proteins 1 light chain 3; PLK1: polo like kinase 1; RCC IV: respiratory chain complex IV; ROS: reactive oxygen species; TUBB8: tubulin beta 8 class VIII.

2.
Expert Opin Drug Saf ; : 1-14, 2020 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356646

RESUMO

Introduction: Given their importance in cellular processes and association with numerous diseases, protein kinases have emerged as promising targets for drugs. The FDA has approved greater than fifty small molecule kinase inhibitors (SMKIs) since 2001. Nevertheless, severe hepatotoxicity and related fatal cases have grown as a potential challenge in the advancement of these drugs, and the identification and diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) are thorny problems for clinicians. Areas covered: This article summarizes the progression and analyzes the significant features in the study of SMKI hepatotoxicity, including clinical observations and investigations of the underlying mechanisms. Expert opinion: The understanding of SMKI-associated hepatotoxicity relies on the development of preclinical models and improvement of clinical assessment. With a full understanding of the role of inflammation in DILI and the mediating role of cytokines in inflammation, cytokines are promising candidates as sensitive and specific biomarkers for DILI. The emergence of three-dimensional spheroid models demonstrates potential use in providing clinically relevant data and predicting hepatotoxicity of SMKIs.

4.
Toxicol Lett ; 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248157

RESUMO

Gefitinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor indicated for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic or advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose tumors have specific EGFR mutations. Pulmonary toxicity is one of the fatal adverse effects of gefitinib and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we demonstrated that alveolar macrophages contributed to gefitinib-induced pulmonary toxicity through promoting alveolar epithelial cells to undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inducing activation and antiapoptotic effect in fibroblasts. Further, we found that alveolar macrophage-secreted MCP-1 worked as a key factor in the pathologic changes of these two cell types. Gefitinib increased Mcp-1 transcription level via the nuclear import of the transcription factor STAT3. In conclusion, our data uncovered the underlying mechanisms of macrophage-promoted pulmonary toxicity in the presence of gefitinib. MCP-1 antibody or inhibition of STAT3 activation may represent novel therapeutic strategies for preventing gefitinib-induced pulmonary toxicity.

5.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087838

RESUMO

Aberrant activation of the RAS superfamily is one of the critical factors in carcinogenesis. Among them, KRAS is the most frequently mutated one which has inspired extensive studies for developing approaches to intervention. Although the cognition toward KRAS remains far from complete, mounting evidence suggests that a variety of post-translational modifications regulate its activation and localization. In this review, we summarize the regulatory mode of post-translational modifications on KRAS including prenylation, post-prenylation, palmitoylation, ubiquitination, phosphorylation, SUMOylation, acetylation, nitrosylation, etc. We also highlight the recent studies targeting these modifications having exhibited potent anti-tumor activities.

6.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010159

RESUMO

Proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs), which selectively degrade targeted proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, have emerged as a novel therapeutic technology with potential advantages over traditional inhibition strategies. In the past few years, this technology has achieved substantial progress and two PROTACs have been advanced into phase I clinical trials. However, this technology is still maturing and the design of PROTACs remains a great challenge. In order to promote the rational design of PROTACs, we present PROTAC-DB, a web-based open-access database that integrates structural information and experimental data of PROTACs. Currently, PROTAC-DB consists of 1662 PROTACs, 202 warheads (small molecules that target the proteins of interest), 65 E3 ligands (small molecules capable of recruiting E3 ligases) and 806 linkers, as well as their chemical structures, biological activities, and physicochemical properties. Except the biological activities of warheads and E3 ligands, PROTAC-DB also provides the degradation capacities, binding affinities and cellular activities for PROTACs. PROTAC-DB can be queried with two general searching approaches: text-based (target name, compound name or ID) and structure-based. In addition, for the convenience of users, a filtering tool for the searching results based on the physicochemical properties of compounds is also offered. PROTAC-DB is freely accessible at http://cadd.zju.edu.cn/protacdb/.

7.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024240

RESUMO

DJ-1 is a multifunctional protein associated with cancers and autosomal early-onset Parkinson disease. Besides the well-documented antioxidative stress activity, recent studies show that DJ-1 has deglycation enzymatic activity and anti-ferroptosis effect. It has been shown that DJ-1 forms the homodimerization, which dictates its antioxidative stress activity. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the dimeric structure of DJ-1 and its newly reported activities. In HEK293T cells with Flag-tagged and Myc-tagged DJ-1 overexpression, we performed deletion mutations and point mutations, narrowed down the most critical motif at the C terminus. We found that the deletion mutation of the last three amino acids at the C terminus of DJ-1 (DJ-1 ΔC3) disrupted its homodimerization with the hydrophobic L187 residue being of great importance for DJ-1 homodimerization. In addition, the ability in methylglyoxal (MGO) detoxification and deglycation was almost abolished in the mutation of DJ-1 ΔC3 and point mutant L187E compared with wild-type DJ-1 (DJ-1 WT). We also showed the suppression of erastin-triggered ferroptosis in DJ-1-/- mouse embryonic fibroblast cells was abolished by ΔC3 and L187E, but partially diminished by V51C. Thus, our results demonstrate that the C terminus of DJ-1 is crucial for its homodimerization, deglycation activity, and suppression of ferroptosis.

8.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1769, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33014870

RESUMO

Interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase-1 (IRAK1) exhibits important roles in inflammation, infection, and autoimmune diseases; however, only a few inhibitors have been discovered. In this study, at first, a discriminatory structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) was employed, but only one active compound (compound 1, IC50 = 2.25 µM) was identified. The low hit rate (2.63%) which derives from the weak discriminatory power of docking among high-scored molecules was observed in our virtual screening (VS) process for IRAK1 inhibitor. Furthermore, an artificial intelligence (AI) method, which employed a support vector machine (SVM) model, integrated information of molecular docking, pharmacophore scoring and molecular descriptors was constructed to enhance the traditional IRAK1-VS protocol. Using AI, it was found that VS of IRAK1 inhibitors excluded by over 50% of the inactive compounds, which could significantly improve the prediction accuracy of the SBVS model. Moreover, four active molecules (two of which exhibited comparative IC50 with compound 1) were accurately identified from a set of highly similar candidates. Amongst, compounds with better activity exhibited good selectivity against IRAK4. The AI assisted workflow could serve as an effective tool for enhancement of SBVS.

9.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 13(10): 1085-1093, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896175

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The outbreak of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection has become a serious hazard to global health. Apart from attacking respiratory system, it can induce multiorgan dysfunction, including cardiovascular system, liver, kidney, gastrointestinal, nervous system, and immune system. However, there are few reviews focusing on summary and comparison of diagnostic methods and complications induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection, which places a significant limit on the effective management. AREAS COVERED: This review is a blend of evidence obtained by literature retrieval from PubMed, clinical experience, and the authors' opinions. We searched PubMed using the terms 'COVID-19 & diagnosis' and 'COVID-19 & complications' and selected the most relevant articles. Here we summarize the diagnostic methods that are available in clinic and discuss their different characters. Furthermore, the review offers an insight into the symptoms, incidence, and clinical strategies of complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. EXPERT OPINION: COVID-19 has been a global pandemic, which requires rapid response. The comparison between different characters of the diagnostic methods and the summary of the symptoms, incidence, and clinical strategies of complications given in this review are not only significant for the optimal use of diagnostic methods, but also beneficial for the prevention and management of complications.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Incidência , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
10.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 10(8): 1426-1439, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963941

RESUMO

The membrane protein claudin-3 (CLDN3) is critical for the formation and maintenance of tight junction and its high expression has been implicated in dictating malignant progression in various cancers. However, the post-translational modification of CLDN3 and its biological function remains poorly understood. Here, we report that CLDN3 is positively correlated with ovarian cancer progression both in vitro and in vivo. Of interest, CLDN3 undergoes S-palmitoylation on three juxtamembrane cysteine residues, which contribute to the accurate plasma membrane localization and protein stability of CLDN3. Moreover, the deprivation of S-palmitoylation in CLDN3 significantly abolishes its tumorigenic promotion effect in ovarian cancer cells. By utilizing the co-immunoprecipitation assay, we further identify ZDHHC12 as a CLDN3-targating palmitoyltransferase from 23 ZDHHC family proteins. Furthermore, the knockdown of ZDHHC12 also significantly inhibits CLDN3 accurate membrane localization, protein stability and ovarian cancer cells tumorigenesis. Thus, our work reveals S-palmitoylation as a novel regulatory mechanism that modulates CLDN3 function, which implies that targeting ZDHHC12-mediated CLDN3 S-palmitoylation might be a potential strategy for ovarian cancer therapy.

11.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 3625-3649, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982171

RESUMO

PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors are a group of immune checkpoint inhibitors as front-line treatment of multiple types of cancer. However, the serious immune-related adverse reactions limited the clinical application of PD-1/PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies, despite the promising curative effects. Therefore, it is urgent to develop novel inhibitors, such as small molecules, peptides or macrocycles, targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis to meet the increasing clinical demands. Our review discussed the mechanism of action of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors and presented clinical trials of currently approved PD-1/PD-L1 targeted drugs and the incidence of related adverse reactions, helping clinicians pay more attention to them, better formulate their intervention and resolution strategies. At last, some new inhibitors whose patent have been published are listed, which provide development ideas and judgment basis for the efficacy and safety of novel PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors.

12.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 1311, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982735

RESUMO

Ubiquitination is known as important post-translational modification in cancer-related pathways. Human deubiquitinases (DUBs), with functions of modulating the ubiquitination process, are a family with about 100 proteins. They mainly function by cutting ubiquitin chains of the substrates. The Machado-Joseph domain-containing proteases (MJDs) is one of the sub-families of DUBs, consisting of four members, namely, Ataxin-3, Ataxin-3L, JOSD1, and JOSD2. Recent studies have provided new insights into biological functions of MJDs in the progression of Machado-Joseph disease or cancer diseases. In this review, we summarized the cellular functions and regulatory mechanisms of MJDs in Machado-Joseph disease and cancer pathways. Furthermore, we summarized MJDs genetic alterations in different human cancers by exploring the public databases (cBioportal). The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive account based on our current knowledge about emerging insights into MJDs in physiology and disease, which might shed light on fundamental biological questions and promise to provide a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

13.
Autophagy ; : 1-15, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917124

RESUMO

Although molecular targeted therapies have recently displayed therapeutic effects in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), limited response and acquired resistance remain common problems. Numerous studies have associated autophagy, an essential degradation process involved in the cellular response to stress, with the development and therapeutic response of cancers including AML. Thus, we review studies on the role of autophagy in AML development and summarize the linkage between autophagy and several recurrent genetic abnormalities in AML, highlighting the potential of capitalizing on autophagy modulation in targeted therapy for AML. Abbreviations: AML: acute myeloid leukemia; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; APL: acute promyelocytic leukemia; ATG: autophagy related; ATM: ATM serine/threonine kinase; ATO: arsenic trioxide; ATRA: all trans retinoic acid; BCL2: BCL2 apoptosis regulator; BECN1: beclin 1; BET proteins, bromodomain and extra-terminal domain family; CMA: chaperone-mediated autophagy; CQ: chloroquine; DNMT, DNA methyltransferase; DOT1L: DOT1 like histone lysine methyltransferase; FLT3: fms related receptor tyrosine kinase 3; FIS1: fission, mitochondrial 1; HCQ: hydroxychloroquine; HSC: hematopoietic stem cell; IDH: isocitrate dehydrogenase; ITD: internal tandem duplication; KMT2A/MLL: lysine methyltransferase 2A; LSC: leukemia stem cell; MDS: myelodysplastic syndromes; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; NPM1: nucleophosmin 1; PIK3C3/VPS34: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3; PML: PML nuclear body scaffold; ROS: reactive oxygen species; RB1CC1/FIP200: RB1 inducible coiled-coil 1; SAHA: vorinostat; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; TET2: tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2; TKD: tyrosine kinase domain; TKI: tyrosine kinase inhibitor; TP53/p53: tumor protein p53; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; VPA: valproic acid; WDFY3/ALFY: WD repeat and FYVE domain containing 3.

14.
Molecules ; 25(18)2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911715

RESUMO

Dalbavancin is a novel semisynthetic glycopeptide antibiotic that comprises multiple homologs and isomers of similar polarities. However, pharmacokinetic studies have only analyzed the primary components of dalbavancin, namely B0 and B1. In this study, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to simultaneously determinate and investigate the five homologous components of dalbavancin, namely, A0, A1, B0, B1, and B2, in rat plasma. In this method, methanol was used to precipitate plasma, and a triple-bonded alkyl chromatographic column was used for molecule separation, using 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile as the mobile phase for gradient elution. Targeted homologs were analyzed by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The linearity range was 50-2500 ng/mL with a high correlation coefficient (r2 > 0.998). This method was successfully applied in the pharmacokinetic analysis of dalbavancin hydrochloride to investigate dalbavancin components in rats.

15.
Reprod Toxicol ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998050

RESUMO

Forchlorfenuron (CPPU), a plant growth regulator, is widely used in agriculture. However, its long-term exposure effects on humans, especially neonates, remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the developmental toxicity of prenatal and postnatal gavage administration of CPPU in rats. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered 300 mg/kg/day CPPU by gavage from day 6 of gestation to the cessation of nursing. During weaning, rat offspring were administered 0, 30, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day CPPU for 4 weeks, followed by a 4-week CPPU-free recovery period. There were no significant differences in clinical symptoms, body weight, development indicators, serum biochemical parameters, sex hormone levels, sperm motility, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes among the 0-100 mg/kg/day CPPU groups. In the 300 mg/kg/day CPPU group, female rats exhibited decreased body weight, earlier time of vaginal opening (VO) and first estrus time (FE), elevated estradiol and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels, and upregulation of estrogen receptor 1 gene expression, whereas male rats only exhibited increases in serum BUN, creatinine, and glucose levels. Most changes were reversed after the recovery period. Furthermore, the endometrial epithelial height was significantly increased in female rats despite the absence of significant changes in uterine wall thickness and endometrial glands. Thus, CPPU may promote estradiol secretion, resulting in altered VO and FE and adverse effects in prepubertal female rats. These findings may be applied for risk assessment following CPPU exposure in humans.

16.
Br J Pharmacol ; 177(22): 5008-5030, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851637

RESUMO

In recent years, phase separation has been increasingly reported to play a pivotal role in a wide range of biological processes. Due to the close relationships between cancer and disorders in intracellular physiological function, the identification of new mechanisms involved in intracellular regulation has been regarded as a new direction for cancer therapy. Introducing the concept of phase separation into complex descriptions of disease mechanisms may provide many different insights. Here, we review the recent findings on the phase separation of cancer-related proteins, describing the possible relationships between phase separation and key proteins associated with cancer and indicate possible regulatory modalities, especially drug candidates for phase separation, which may provide more effective strategies for cancer therapy.

17.
Brief Bioinform ; 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32838410

RESUMO

Atomic charges play a very important role in drug-target recognition. However, computation of atomic charges with high-level quantum mechanics (QM) calculations is very time-consuming. A number of machine learning (ML)-based atomic charge prediction methods have been proposed to speed up the calculation of high-accuracy atomic charges in recent years. However, most of them used a set of predefined molecular properties, such as molecular fingerprints, for model construction, which is knowledge-dependent and may lead to biased predictions due to the representation preference of different molecular properties used for training. To solve the problem, we present a new architecture based on graph convolutional network (GCN) and develop a high-accuracy atomic charge prediction model named DeepAtomicCharge. The new GCN architecture is designed with only the atomic properties and the connection information between the atoms in molecules and can dynamically learn and convert molecules into appropriate atomic features without any prior knowledge of the molecules. Using the designed GCN architecture, substantial improvement is achieved for the prediction accuracy of atomic charges. The average root-mean-square error (RMSE) of DeepAtomicCharge is 0.0121 e, which is obviously more accurate than that (0.0180 e) reported by the previous benchmark study on the same two external test sets. Moreover, the new GCN architecture needs much lower storage space compared with other methods, and the predicted DDEC atomic charges can be efficiently used in large-scale structure-based drug design, thus opening a new avenue for high-performance atomic charge prediction and application.

18.
Carbohydr Polym ; 245: 116526, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718630

RESUMO

Rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) pectin are regarded as strong galectin-3 (Gal-3) antagonist because of galactan sidechains. The present study focused on discussing the effects of more structural regions in pectin on the anti-Gal-3 activity. The water-soluble pectin (WSP) recovered from citrus canning processing water was categorized as RG-I pectin. The controlled enzymatic hydrolysis was employed to sequentially remove the α-1,5-arabinan, homogalaturonan and ß-1,4-galactan in WSP. The Gal-3-binding affinity KD (kd/ka) of WSP and debranched pectins were calculated to be 0.32 µM, 0.48 µM, 0.56 µM and 1.93 µM. Moreover, based on the more sensitive cell line (MCF-7) model, the IC30 value of WSP was lower than these of modified pectins, indicating decreased anti-Gal-3 activity. Our results suggested that the total amount of neutral sugar sidechains, the length of arabinan and cooperation between HG and RG-I played important roles in the anti-Gal-3 activity of WSP, not the Gal/Ara ratio or RG-I/HG ratio. These results provided a new insight into structure-activity relationship of citrus segment membrane RG-I as a galectin-3 antagonist and a new functional food.

19.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 10(6): 947-960, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642404

RESUMO

Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors. As transcription factors, hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are the master regulators of the hypoxic microenvironment; their target genes function in tumorigenesis and tumor development. Intriguingly, both yes-associated protein (YAP) and its paralog transcriptional coactivator with a PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) play fundamental roles in the malignant progression of hypoxic tumors. As downstream effectors of the mammalian Hippo pathway, YAP and/or TAZ (YAP/TAZ) are phosphorylated and sequestered in the cytoplasm by the large tumor suppressor kinase 1/2 (LATS1/2)-MOB kinase activator 1 (MOB1) complex, which restricts the transcriptional activity of YAP/TAZ. However, dephosphorylated YAP/TAZ have the ability to translocate to the nucleus where they induce transcription of target genes, most of which are closely related to cancer. Herein we review the tumor-related signaling crosstalk between YAP/TAZ and hypoxia, describe current agents and therapeutic strategies targeting the hypoxia-YAP/TAZ axis, and highlight questions that might have a potential impact in the future.

20.
Front Immunol ; 11: 994, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612601

RESUMO

The DJ-1 protein, known as an oxidative stress sensor, participates in the onset of oxidative stress-related diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, type 2 diabetes, and male infertility. Although DJ-1 has been extensively studied for more than two decades, evidence has only recently emerged that it plays a key role in immune and inflammatory disorders. The immune regulatory function of DJ-1 is achieved by modulating the activation of several immune cells including macrophages, mast cells, and T cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent and/or ROS-independent mechanisms. This review describes the current knowledge on DJ-1, focusing on its immune and inflammatory regulatory roles, and highlights the significance of DJ-1 as a novel therapeutic target for immune and inflammatory diseases.

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