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1.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 2): 131981, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826886

RESUMO

Microwave (MW) technology has gained increasing interest in wastewater treatment due to its unique properties, such as fast and uniform heating, hot spots effect, and non-thermal effect. MW enhances the production of active radicals (e.g., OH, SO4-), which exerts a stronger integrated treatment effect in combination with advanced oxidation processes. Over the years, microwave-assisted advanced oxidation processes (MW-AOPs) have developed rapidly to degrade pollutants as innovative treatment approaches. This paper provides a detailed classification and a comprehensive review of MW-AOPs. The latest applications of MW in different advanced oxidation systems (oxidation systems, catalytic oxidation systems, and photochemical, electrochemical and sonochemical systems) are reviewed. The reaction parameters and performance of MW-AOPs in wastewater treatment are discussed, and the enhancement of pollutant degradation by MW is highlighted. In addition, the operating costs of MW-AOPs are evaluated. Some recommendations on MW-AOPs are made for future research. This review provides meaningful information on the potential development and evolution of MW-AOPs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Catálise , Micro-Ondas , Oxirredução , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; : 1-8, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657031

RESUMO

At present, low-pass whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is frequently used in clinical research and in the screening of copy number variations (CNVs). However, there are still some challenges in the detection of triploids. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq) technology is a reduced-representation genome sequencing technology developed based on next-generation sequencing. Here, we verified whether RAD-Seq could be employed to detect CNVs and triploids. In this study, genomic DNA of 11 samples was extracted employing a routine method and used to build libraries. Five cell lines of known karyotypes and 6 triploid abortion tissue samples were included for RAD-Seq testing. The triploid samples were confirmed by STR analysis and also tested by low-pass WGS. The accuracy and efficiency of detecting CNVs and triploids by RAD-Seq were then assessed, compared with low-pass WGS. In our results, RAD-Seq detected 11 out of 11 (100%) chromosomal abnormalities, including 4 deletions and 1 aneuploidy in the purchased cell lines and all triploid samples. By contrast, these triploids were missed by low-pass WGS. Furthermore, RAD-Seq showed a higher resolution and more accurate allele frequency in the detection of triploids than low-pass WGS. Our study shows that, compared with low-pass WGS, RAD-Seq has relatively higher accuracy in CNV detection at a similar cost and is capable of identifying triploids. Therefore, the application of this technique in medical genetics has a significant potential value.

3.
Hepatology ; 74(5): 2508-2525, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: NAFLD is the most prevalent chronic liver disease without any Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacological intervention in clinic. Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is one of the most attractive targets for NAFLD treatment because of its robust rate-limiting capacity to control hepatic de novo lipogenesis. However, the regulatory mechanisms of FASN in NAFLD and potential therapeutic strategies targeting FASN remain largely unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Through a systematic interactomics analysis of FASN-complex proteins, we screened and identified sorting nexin 8 (SNX8) as a binding partner of FASN. SNX8 directly bound to FASN and promoted FASN ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. We further demonstrated that SNX8 mediated FASN protein degradation by recruiting the E3 ligase tripartite motif containing 28 (TRIM28) and enhancing the TRIM28-FASN interaction. Notably, Snx8 interference in hepatocytes significantly deteriorated lipid accumulation in vitro, whereas SNX8 overexpression markedly blocked hepatocyte lipid deposition. Furthermore, the aggravating effect of Snx8 deletion on NAFLD was validated in vivo as hepatic steatosis and lipogenic pathways in the liver were significantly exacerbated in Snx8-knockout mice compared to wild-type controls. Consistently, hepatocyte-specific overexpression of Snx8 in vivo markedly suppressed high-fat, high-cholesterol diet (HFHC)-induced hepatic steatosis. Notably, the protective effect of SNX8 against NAFLD was largely dependent on FASN suppression. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that SNX8 is a key suppressor of NAFLD that promotes FASN proteasomal degradation. Targeting the SNX8-FASN axis is a promising strategy for NAFLD prevention and treatment.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 793: 148597, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182453

RESUMO

Decades of researches have proved that pyrolysis can not only realize the harmless disposal of waste tire, but also carry out the goal of waste resource utilization via recycling pyrolytic products (e.g. pyrolytic carbon black, CBp). The current work studied the effect of CBp obtained from the commercial scale pyrolysis of waste tire, on the properties of natural rubber and butadiene rubber. CBp was incorporated into a carbon black quality identification standard formula in combination with N234 commercial carbon black (cCB) first. After screening a better substitution ratio, the composite material of CBp and cCB was mixed with more additives, and the experiment was carried out with a real production formula. To restore the practical production situation, the experiment process adopts the most commonly used process to avoid major changes in commercial production. CBp was tested at increasing loading levels as partial or full replacement of cCB. The physico-mechanical properties of the rubber compounds were studied by tests of physical, mechanical, and vulcanization properties. With the increase in the amount of CBp added, the physical and mechanical properties of the rubber compound showed a trend of slightly increasing first and then rapidly decreasing. The addition of CBp can increase the yield strength and stiffness of the rubber, but it may also lead to a decrease in hardness. Meanwhile, the substitution ratio of CBp up to 50% has been proven to improve safety and achieve a more stable vulcanization process of rubber compounds. CBp can replace up to half of cCB without significantly reducing the quality of tire rubber. The economic value of partial replacement of cCB by CBp has also been evaluated, demonstrating that adding a small amount of CBp can directly reduce the cost of raw materials, indirectly reduce the use of fossil energy promoting carbon dioxide reduction worldwide.


Assuntos
Pirólise , Fuligem , Reciclagem , Borracha
5.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 147, 2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a common endocrine disorder with rising prevalence in pregnancy, has been reported to be associated with alteration of gut microbiota in recent years. However, the role of gut microbiome in GDM physiopathology remains unclear. This pilot study aims to characterize the alteration of gut microbiota in GDM on species-level resolution and evaluate the relationship with occurrence of GDM. METHODS: An analysis based on 16S rRNA microarray was performed on fecal samples obtained from 30 women with GDM and 28 healthy pregnant women. RESULTS: We found 54 and 141 differentially abundant taxa between GDM and control group at the genus and the species level respectively. Among GDM patients, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius was inversely correlated with fasting glucose while certain species (e.g., Aureimonas altamirensis, Kosakonia cowanii) were positively correlated with fasting glucose. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that there are large amounts of differentially abundant taxa between GDM and control group at the genus and the species level. Some of these taxa were correlated with blood glucose level and might be used as biomarkers for diagnoses and therapeutic targets for probiotics or synbiotics.

6.
Waste Manag Res ; 39(12): 1440-1450, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860697

RESUMO

Pyrolysis offers a more focused alternative to waste tyres treatment. Pyrolytic carbon black (CBp), the main product of waste tyre pyrolysis, and its modified species can be applied to tyre manufacturing realizing its high-value utilization. Modified pyrolytic carbon black/natural rubber composites prepared by a wet compounding (WC) and latex mixing process have become an innovative technology route for waste tyre remanufacturing. The main properties and applications of CBp reported in recent years are reviewed, and the main difficulties affecting its participation in tyre recycling are pointed out. The research progress of using WC technology to replace dry mixing manufacturing of new tyres is summarized. Through literature data and comparative studies, this paper points out that the characteristic of high ash content can be well utilized if CBp is applied to tyre manufacturing. This mini-review proposes a new method for high-value utilization of CBp. The composite mixing of CBp and carbon nano-materials under wet conditions is conducive to the realization of their good dispersion in the rubber matrix. This provides a new idea for customer resource integration and connection of industry development between the tyre production industry and waste tyre disposal management.


Assuntos
Carbono , Pirólise , Reciclagem , Borracha
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 145507, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770869

RESUMO

Environmental problems caused by waste tires have become so glaring that it has attracted wide attention. This case study seeks to examine the properties of carbon black from waste tires continuous commercial scale pyrolysis. This work aims to contribute to this growing area of research by exploring the difference between the properties of products under the condition of mass production and those under the condition of laboratory scale or pilot scale production. A pyrolysis prototype, with a waste tire mass flow rate of 50-60 t d-1 was constructed and introduced. Steel-included tire granulates were pyrolyzed in micro-negative pressure furnace at about 420 ± 20 °C. This kind of nonstripping, micro-negative pressure and low-temperature continuous thermal pyrolysis technology can reduce the stripping process between rubber and steel wire, reduce the requirement of equipment sealing, and improve the utilization rate of resources. All three products including pyrolytic carbon black (CBp), tire pyrolysis oil (TPO) and pyrolysis gas showed good characteristics. Pyrolysis gas had been successfully re-used for pyrolysis furnaces and dryers. The higher heating value of TPO estimated to 37-40 MJ/ kg, which was comparable to diesel fuel through further treatment. Results of proximate analysis, element analysis, XPS, FTIR, XRD and surface structure confirmed that CBp with commercial scale production showed no apparent data difference with those in other small scale research cases. The morphological changes of carbon black particles were suggested, revealing a possible internal structure of CBp aggregates in commercial scale pyrolysis. This study is an attempt to push the existing research in this field to commercial production. This work generates fresh insight into the viability of continuous commercial pyrolysis and demonstrates the feasibility of the operation, providing reference for many researchers and units who study the pyrolysis technology of waste tires with the feasibility of industrial production.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 779: 146397, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743457

RESUMO

With the implementation of zero-waste city and waste classification in China, a large amount of food waste (FW) began to appear in concentration, and there was an urgent requirement for appropriate and efficient treatment technology. Traditional FW disposal methods (landfill and incineration) could cause several environmental problems, so resource recycling has become the main development trend of FW in China. In recent years, anaerobic digestion (AD) technology for FW resource treatment has attracted much attention due to its advantages such as the ability to obtain clean energy, low carbon emissions, and suitability for large-scale treatment compared with other recycling technologies (composting, feed, and breeding insects). Chinese policy is conducive to the development of AD for FW, which has the potential to produce methane and achieve economic and environmental benefits. This paper presents an overview of the researches, application situations, and perspectives for the AD of FW resource treatment in China. The bibliometric analysis shows that China has the most interest in the AD of FW compared to other countries, and the amount and characteristics analysis of FW indicates that FW is suitable for treatment by AD. At the same time, this review analyzes the influence factors, methods to promote AD, working mechanism, secondary pollution of AD. Besides, the article introduces and analyzes the current policies, application status, economic and environmental benefits, and problems of AD for FW resource treatment in China. AD is considered as an alternative resource treatment technology for FW, although there are still several problems such as odors, digestate, etc. In the future, China should focus on the reform of management policy, the implementation of the AD circular economy model, and the research of the biorefinery model based on AD technology.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Anaerobiose , China , Cidades , Alimentos , Metano/análise
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 776: 145913, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639457

RESUMO

Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) were used extensively in people's lives, especially with the vigorous promotion of new energy vehicles, which led to the generation of a large number of waste LIBs. In consideration of the enormous quantity, environmental risk, and resource properties, many countries have issued a series of laws and regulations to manage waste LIBs and developed a lot of recycling technologies. As the biggest producer of batteries in the world, China has also taken necessary measures to deal with this situation. This paper presents the latest regulations of waste LIBs in China and reviews the recycling strategies of waste LIBs, especially physical recycling methods. Based on the analysis of the current management status of waste LIBs in China and the recycling technologies, some management suggestions, and a complete closed-circuit recycling process including cascade utilization and resource recovery were put forward. A rough economic evaluation of the process was also conducted to demonstrate the economic feasibility of the proposed process. The purpose of this paper is to provide some valuable references for decision-making bodies in the improvement of waste lithium-ion battery management and to provide an environmentally friendly and industrial feasible recycling process for reference.

10.
BMC Med Genomics ; 13(1): 117, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to mitigate the risk of allele dropout (ADO) and ensure the accuracy of preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic disease (PGT-M), it is necessary to construct parental haplotypes. Typically, haplotype resolution is obtained by genotyping multiple polymorphic markers in both parents and a proband or a relative. Sometimes, single sperm typing, or tests on the polar bodies may also be useful. Nevertheless, this process is time-consuming. At present, there was no simple linkage analysis strategy for patients without affected relatives. METHOD: To solve this problem, we established a haplotyping by linked-read sequencing (HLRS) method without the requirement for additional relatives. First, the haplotype of the genetic disease carriers in the family was constructed by linked-read sequencing, and then the informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in upstream and downstream mutation region were selected to construct the embryo haplotype and to determine whether the embryo was carrying the mutation. Two families were selected to validate this method; one with alpha thalassemia and the other with NDP gene disorder. RESULTS: The haplotyping by linked-read sequencing (HLRS) method was successfully applied to construct parental haplotypes without recruiting additional family members; the method was also validated for PGT-M. The mutation carriers in these families were sequenced by linked-read sequencing, and their haplotypes were successfully phased. Adjacent SNPs of the mutation gene were identified. The informative SNPs were chosen for linkage analyses to identify the carrier embryos. For the alpha thalassemia family, a normal blastocyst was transferred to the uterus and the accuracy of PGT-M was confirmed by amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that HLRS can be applied for PGT-M of monogenic disorders or de novo mutations where the mutations haplotype cannot be determined due to absence of affected relatives.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cromossômicos/diagnóstico , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos/métodos , Ligação Genética , Haplótipos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/métodos , Alelos , Transtornos Cromossômicos/genética , Família , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Gravidez
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 742: 140235, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629243

RESUMO

Recently, the recycling of waste tires has caused widespread concern for its environmental issues. The experience of the producer responsibility and tax system is of great beneficial to developing countries. The article also elaborates on the efforts of Chinese government to focus on establishing and perfecting waste tire treatment system by strengthen legislation. The main reasons such as immature market, non-uniform policy and repeated taxation for the survival difficulties of waste tire recycling enterprises in China are summarized. Among numerous resource methods, pyrolysis has been considered as a promising thermochemical process to deal with the waste tires. Unlike other similar reviews that mainly focus on its liquid phase, special attention has been given to solid char, pyrolysis carbon black, due to its wide application and high-value utilization in the future. We summarize the available research on application of pyrolysis carbon black as an alternative to commercial carbon black in rubber manufacture, as activated carbon in pollution control and as biochar for soil improvement. Analysis of the available data revealed that 1) the influence of temperature and time has been basically established; 2) catalyst type, dosage and reactor selection should be adjusted according to product demand; 3) pickling has become the primary means of improving pyrolysis carbon black; 4) the type of modifier and modification method must be adjusted according to the specific characteristics of the raw materials and needs to be combined with the experimental results to realize resource utilization and give full play to its economic value.

12.
J Hazard Mater ; 393: 122351, 2020 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120209

RESUMO

Liquid crystal (LC), as a crucial component of liquid crystal display (LCD), improperly treatment of which will possibly impair ecosystems and human health. In view of the advantages of hydrothermal reaction and microwave irradiation, this paper intensively studied the process of microwave-assisted hydrothermal (MWAH) decomposition of LC wastes. The experimental materials include a kind of refractory fluorinated liquid crystal commonly used in thin-film transistor LCD, and its mixture with the other two typical liquid crystal monomers in the waste low-end display panels. Under the MWAH process, the optimized condition for thorough decomposition of 0.67 g.L-1 fluorinated liquid crystal is 0.653 mol.L-1 H2O2, 1 g.L-1 AC, 300 mL water, 250 °C and 7 min. The superiority of microwave in enhancing hydrothermal treatment efficiency was verified by the first-order kinetic reaction equation fitted for the decomposition process under optimal condition, along with two possible decomposition pathways tentatively proposed after characterizing the intermediate products. Under the same condition, 1 g.L-1 mixture of fluorinated liquid crystal and the other two liquid crystal monomers were entirely decomposed with no harmful byproduct detected, suggesting that microwave irradiation could effectively promote the hydrothermal decomposition of liquid crystal wastes.

13.
Waste Manag ; 102: 635-644, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785523

RESUMO

Indium is one of the components with great recycling value in waste LCDs. Degradation of organic materials and the remain of indium in the solid phase can be simultaneously achieved by hydrothermal pretreatment via parameter regulation. Indium was transferred from the solid phase to the liquid phase by using sulfuric acid after hydrothermal pretreatment. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid diluted by sulfonated kerosene and hydrochloric acid were used as extractant and stripping agent respectively to purify and concentrate indium from acidic leaching solution. The results indicated that the leaching yield of indium reached 100% under the optimal condition of reaction time of 40 min, reaction temperature of 70-80 °C, acid concentration of 0.5 M and solid-liquid (S/L) ratio of 1:2 g/mL. Given conditions of extraction time of 3 min at the organic phase to aqueous phase (O/A) ratio of 1:10 by 20% D2EHPA and stripping time of 10 min at the (O/A) ratio of 10:1 by 4 M HCl, the recovery efficiency of indium reached 97.25%. In addition, acid leaching process did not change the surface topography and molecular structure of glass substrate and had no negative effect on subsequent recycling of glass. The kinetic equation of leaching yield and reaction time at the temperature of 80 °C is 1 - (1 - y)1/3 = 0.0215 t. The reaction activation energy of metal indium leaching process is 50.64 kJ/mol.


Assuntos
Resíduo Eletrônico , Cristais Líquidos , Índio , Querosene , Cinética , Reciclagem
14.
J Hazard Mater ; 369: 125-131, 2019 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776595

RESUMO

The environmental risks and recycling potential of organic materials and indium of waste LCD panel has produced commercial value. It has been found that hydrothermal reaction can achieve an efficient and clean degradation of organic materials in a closed environment. However, as the degradation process occurs, the glass substrate is gradually exposed to the hydrothermal environment. Whether the metal indium is dissolved into the liquid phase and whether it affects product quality and the subsequent leaching process need to be discussed. In present study, simultaneous organic materials degradation and pretreatment of indium recycling was achieved due to the regulation of parameters. Effects of reaction temperature, reaction time, H2O2 supply and pH of the reaction solution on the transfer of indium in liquid and solid phase were investigated. The results showed that the degradation rate of the organic material reach 90% under the neutral condition of 300℃ of reaction temperature, 36 mL of water and 7.2 mL of H2O2 supply and 11 min of reaction time. This pretreatment method effectively realized the resource recovery of waste LCD panel and the outflow of metal indium was inhibited at the same time, thus further comprehensive recycling of resources could be prepared.

15.
Hepatology ; 69(6): 2471-2488, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30748020

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a worldwide epidemic. A large and growing unmet therapeutic need has inspired numerous studies in the field. Integrating the published genomic data available in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) with NAFLD samples from rodents, we discovered that interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6) is significantly downregulated in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced fatty liver. In the current study, we identified IRF6 in hepatocytes as a protective factor in liver steatosis (LS). During HFD challenge, hepatic Irf6 was suppressed by promoter hypermethylation. Severity of HFD-induced LS was exacerbated in hepatocyte-specific Irf6 knockout mice, whereas hepatocyte-specific transgenic mice overexpressing Irf6 (IRF6-HTG) exhibited alleviated steatosis and metabolic disorder in response to HFD feeding. Mechanistic studies in vitro demonstrated that hepatocyte IRF6 directly binds to the promoter of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) gene and subsequently halts the transcription of Pparγ and its target genes (e.g., genes that regulate lipogenesis and lipid acid uptake) under physiological conditions. Conclusion: Irf6 is downregulated by promoter hypermethylation upon metabolic stimulus exposure, which fail to inhibit Pparγ and its targets, driving abnormalities of lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , PPAR gama/genética , Animais , Metilação de DNA/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Hepatócitos/citologia , Humanos , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Distribuição Aleatória , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 259: 91-98, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29536879

RESUMO

The process characteristics of microwave assisted hydrothermal carbonization of cellulose was investigated and a first order kinetics model based on carbon concentration was developed. Chemical properties analysis showed that comparing to conventional hydrothermal carbonization, hydrochar with comparable energy properties can be obtained with 5-10 times decrease in reaction time with assistance of microwave heating. Results from kinetics study was in great agreement with experimental analysis, that they both illustrated the predominant mechanism of the reaction depend on variations in the reaction rates of two co-existent pathways. Particularly, the pyrolysis-like intramolecular dehydration reaction was proved to be the predominant mechanism for hydrochar generation under high temperatures. Finally, the enhancement effects of microwave heating were reflected under both soluble and solid pathways in this research, suggesting microwave-assisted hydrothermal carbonization as a more attracting method for carbon-enriched hydrochar recovery.


Assuntos
Carbono , Celulose , Micro-Ondas , Temperatura Alta , Cinética
17.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(2)2018 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29470417

RESUMO

This paper presents the design, development and realization of a fast and novel process for the synthesis of 3C silicon carbide (ß-SiC) nanorods and submicron powder. Using SiO2 (or Si) and activated carbon (AC), this process allows ß-SiC to be synthesized with almost 100% purity in timeframes of seconds or minutes using multimode microwave rotary tube reactors under open-air conditions. The synthesis temperature used was 1460 ± 50 °C for Si + AC and 1660 ± 50 °C for SiO2 + AC. The shortest ß-SiC synthesis time achieved was about 20 s for Si + AC and 100 s for SiO2 + AC. This novel synthesis method allows for scaled-up flow processes in the rapid industrial-scale production of ß-SiC, having advantages of time/energy saving and carbon dioxide emission reduction over comparable modern processes.

18.
Waste Manag Res ; 36(2): 99-112, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29241402

RESUMO

The wide use of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) has brought great numbers of discarded LIBs, which has become a common problem facing the world. In view of the deleterious effects of spent LIBs on the environment and the contained valuable materials that can be reused, much effort in many countries has been made to manage waste LIBs, and many technologies have been developed to recycle waste LIBs and eliminate environmental risks. As a review article, this paper introduces the situation of waste LIB management in some developed countries and in China, and reviews separation technologies of electrode components and refining technologies of LiCoO2 and graphite. Based on the analysis of these recycling technologies and the structure and components characteristics of the whole LIB, this paper presents a recycling strategy for all components from obsolete LIBs, including discharge, dismantling, and classification, separation of electrode components and refining of LiCoO2/graphite. This paper is intended to provide a valuable reference for the management, scientific research, and industrial implementation on spent LIBs recycling, to recycle all valuable components and reduce the environmental pollution, so as to realize the win-win situation of economic and environmental benefits.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Resíduo Eletrônico , Lítio , Reciclagem , China , Gerenciamento de Resíduos
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(26): 20825-20830, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28803394

RESUMO

With the increasing adoption of EVs (electric vehicles), a large number of waste EV LIBs (electric vehicle lithium-ion batteries) were generated in China. Statistics showed generation of waste EV LIBs in 2016 reached approximately 10,000 tons, and the amount of them would be growing rapidly in the future. In view of the deleterious effects of waste EV LIBs on the environment and the valuable energy storage capacity or materials that can be reused in them, China has started emphasizing the management, reuse, and recycling of them. This paper presented the generation trend of waste EV LIBs and focused on interrelated management development and experience in China. Based on the situation of waste EV LIBs management in China, existing problems were analyzed and summarized. Some recommendations were made for decision-making organs to use as valuable references to improve the management of waste EV LIBs and promote the sustainable development of EVs.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , China , Íons , Lítio , Reciclagem , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/legislação & jurisprudência
20.
Oncotarget ; 7(45): 72475-72485, 2016 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27636999

RESUMO

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is widely used for the women with infertility conditions to achieve pregnancy. However, the adverse effects of ART may lead to poor perinatal and neonatal outcomes, e.g., preterm birth and low body weight. In this study, we investigated the inflammatory molecular factors and microRNA that might be involved in ART related preterm birth. We found the elevation of Toll-like 4 receptor (TLR4), activation of NFκB pathway and down-regulation of microRNA-146a (miR-146a), a negative regulator of NFκB, in the placenta of preterm birth and ART, indicating preterm birth and ART were associated with inflammation signaling activation. In vitro experiments demonstrated that miR-146a suppressed NFκB pathway and shifted the balance of cytokines in the cord blood toward a repertoire of pro-inflammatory outcomes by down-regulating IRAK1 and TRAF6. The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IFNγ and TNFα in the cord blood were highly expressed in the preterm and ART, while anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was the lower in the preterm and ART. In summary, we firstly uncovered that TLR4/NFκB mediated inflammation signaling and miR-146a participated in ART-related preterm birth patients, which suggests that importance of TLR4/NFκB/miR-146a signaling in clinical interventions and biomarkers of ART-related perinatal or neonatal outcomes.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Nascimento Prematuro/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Placenta/patologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/genética , Nascimento Prematuro/patologia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Transdução de Sinais , Transfecção
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