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1.
Environ Pollut ; 258: 113736, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877467

RESUMO

The long-term and large-scale utilization of fertilizers and pesticides in facility agriculture leads to groundwater pollution. However, the coexistence and interactions between organic fertilizers (i.e., organic matter), toxic metals, and pesticides in shallow groundwater have seldom been studied. Thus, the study sought to characterize said interactions via fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy coupled with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and chemometric techniques. The results indicated that groundwater DOM was comprised of protein-, polysaccharide-, and lignin-like substances derived from organic fertilizers. Protein-like substances accounted for the binding of Co, Ni, and Fe, while polysaccharide- and lignin-like substances were mainly responsible for Cr and Mo complexation. Moreover, lignin- and polysaccharide-like substances played a key role in the binding of pesticides (i.e., dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT], endosulfan, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane [γ-HCH], monocrotophos, chlorpyrifos, and chlorfenvinphos), rendering the conversion of γ-HCH to ß-hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCH) and the degradation of DDT to dichlorobenzene dichloroethylene (DDE) ineffective. However, the presence of protein-like substances in groundwater benefited the degradation and conversion of γ-HCH and α-endosulfan. Redundancy analyses showed that lignin- and polysaccharide-like matter had the most impacts on the coexistence of DOM with toxic metals and pesticides.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713023

RESUMO

PBC is a chronic progressive autoimmune disorder involving the destruction of intrahepatic small bile ducts, cholestasis, fibrosis, and ultimately cirrhosis if left untreated. It is largely driven by the autoimmune response, but bile acids and the intestinal microbiota are implicated in disease progression as well. The only drugs licensed for PBC are UDCA and OCA. UDCA as a first-line and OCA as a second-line therapy are safe and effective, but the lack of response in a significant portion of patients and inadequate control of symptoms such as fatigue and pruritus remain as concerns. Liver transplantation is an end-stage therapy for many patients refractory to UDCA, which gives excellent survival rates but also moderate to high recurrence rates. The limited options for FDA-approved PBC therapies necessitate the development of alternative approaches. Currently, a wide variety of experimental drugs exist targeting immunological and physiological aspects of PBC to suppress inflammation. Immunological therapies include drugs targeting immune molecules in the B cell and T cell response, and specific cytokines and chemokines implicated in inflammation. Drugs targeting bile acids are also noteworthy as bile acids can perpetuate hepatic inflammation and lead to fibrosis over time. These include FXR agonists, ASBT inhibitors, and PPAR agonists such as bezafibrate and fenofibrate. Nonetheless, many of these drugs can only delay disease progression and fail to enhance patients' quality of life. Nanomedicine shows great potential for treatment of autoimmune diseases, as it provides a new approach that focuses on tolerance induction rather than immunosuppression. Tolerogenic nanoparticles carrying immune-modifying agents can be engineered to safely and effectively target the antigen-specific immune response in autoimmune diseases. These may work well with PBC especially, given the anatomical features and immunological specificity of the disease. Nanobiological therapy is thus an area of highly promising research for future treatment of PBC.

3.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 488-496, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330341

RESUMO

Electron transfer capacities (ETC) of humic-like acids (HLA) and their effects on dechlorination are dependent on their redox-active properties. Aging and minerals can affect the chemical compositions and structures of HLA. However, the underlying mechanism and the impacts on the dechlorination capacities of HLA are poorly understood. We investigated how redox properties change in association with the intrinsic chemical natures and exterior minerals of the HLA extracted from landfilled solid wastes. Furthermore, the ETC of the landfill-derived HLA could be strengthened by increasing landfill age and demineralization, thereby facilitating the dechlorination of pentachlorophenol (PCP). The HLA molecules started to polymerize aromatic macromolecules during landfilling, leading to an increase in ETC and dechlorination capacities. Macromolecular HLA were dissociated to smaller molecules and exposed more aromatic and carboxyl groups when separated from minerals, which enhanced the ETC and the dechlorination abilities of the HLA. Microbial-mediated dechlorination was an effective way to degrade PCP, and almost 80% of the PCP was transformed after 40 days of demineralized HLA and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 incubation. The demineralization and aging further facilitated the microbial-mediated PCP dechlorination. The findings provide a scientific base for improving in-situ bioremediation of chlorinated compound-contaminated soils using freshly synthesized HLA.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Substâncias Húmicas , Pentaclorofenol/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Halogenação , Oxirredução , Microbiologia do Solo
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(17): 4726-4733, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964976

RESUMO

Compost-derived humic acids (HAs) as cheap soil conditioners have potential to facilitate pentachlorophenol (PCP) bio-dechlorination but lack proof and studies. To clarify this, PCP bio-dechlorination mediated by compost-derived HAs under Fe(III) reduction conditions was investigated. Reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography and high-performance size exclusion chromatography were employed to identify the functional components within compost-derived HAs. Our results showed that compost-derived HAs facilitated the bio-dechlorination of PCP under Fe(III) reduction conditions, and four kinds of byproducts were detected during the process. The relatively hydrophilic and high molecular weight (MW) components within compost-derived HAs presented significant associations with the concentration of byproducts from bio-dechlorination of PCP in Fe2O3 reduction conditions. In contrast, the hydrophobic and low MW components were the main functional components for PCP bio-dechlorination in Fe3O4 reduction environment. These findings clarified the effects of polarity and MW of compost-derived HAs on PCP bio-dechlorination, giving clues to optimize composting technology to utilize compost products for in situ contamination remediation of paddy soil.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Pentaclorofenol/química , Cloro/química , Cloro/metabolismo , Compostagem , Compostos Férricos/química , Compostos Férricos/metabolismo , Halogenação , Peso Molecular , Oxirredução , Pentaclorofenol/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo
5.
Chemosphere ; 222: 757-765, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738318

RESUMO

The electron transfer capacities (ETC) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are related to their hydrophobicity. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The DOM was extracted from chicken manure compost, and fractionated into four fractions based on hydrophobicity, i.e., hydrophobic acid (HOA), hydrophobic base (HOB), hydrophilic matter (HIM) and acid insoluble matter (AIM) fractions. The composition, structure and ETC of the four fractions were measured using spectral technology and electrochemical methods. The results showed that the HOA and AIM fractions consisted mainly of fulvic- and humic-like substances, the HOB fraction comprised mainly organic nitrogen compounds, and the HIM was mainly composed of carbohydrates and protein-like matter. The electron donating capacities (EDC) and electron accepting capacities (EAC) of the four fractions were in the range of 616.90-5224.66 and 7.30-191.20 µmoL/g(C), respectively, The HOB fraction exhibited the highest EDC among the four fractions, followed by the HOA, AIM and HIM fractions. The EAC of the four fractions was characterized by the order of AIM, HOB, HOA and HIM. The tryptophan- and humic-like substances and organic nitrogen compounds accounted for the EDC, whereas the carboxyl group on aromatic substance responsible for the EAC.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Transporte de Elétrons , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Esterco , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Fracionamento Químico , Galinhas , Substâncias Húmicas , Compostos de Nitrogênio/química , Triptofano/química
6.
Cell Host Microbe ; 25(3): 357-366.e6, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30795982

RESUMO

Influenza is a leading cause of death in the elderly, and the vaccine protects only a fraction of this population. A key aspect of antibody-mediated anti-influenza virus immunity is adaptation to antigenically distinct epitopes on emerging strains. We examined factors contributing to reduced influenza vaccine efficacy in the elderly and uncovered a dramatic reduction in the accumulation of de novo immunoglobulin gene somatic mutations upon vaccination. This reduction is associated with a significant decrease in the capacity of antibodies to target the viral glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA), and critical protective epitopes surrounding the HA receptor-binding domain. Immune escape by antigenic drift, in which viruses generate mutations in key antigenic epitopes, becomes highly exaggerated. Because of this reduced adaptability, most B cells activated in the elderly cohort target highly conserved but less potent epitopes. Given these findings, vaccines driving immunoglobulin gene somatic hypermutation should be a priority to protect elderly individuals.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Epitopos/genética , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Adulto Jovem
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 665: 920-928, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790763

RESUMO

Compost-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM), which has a wide distribution of molecular weight (MW) and polarity, has a potential application in the remediation of the contaminated soil due to its redox-active functional groups. Composting treatment can change the MW and polarity of the DOM through microbial transformation and degradation. However, the relationship between the redox properties of compost-derived DOM and its MW and polarity is still unclear. DOM was extracted from municipal solid wastes with different composting times in this study, and it was further fractionated into humic acids (HA), fulvic acids (FA) and hydrophilic (HyI) fractions based on its hydrophobicity and XAD-8 resin. Electron transfer capacities [including electron accepting capacities (EAC) and electron donating capacities (EDC)] of the HA, FA and HyI fractions and their associations with polarity and MW were studied. The results showed that the EAC of the HA, FA and HyI all increased after composting. The EDC of the HA and HyI exhibited an increasing trend as well, though that of the FA decreased remarkably after composting. The MW, polarity and redox-active functional groups of the HA, FA and HyI fractions were determined using high performance liquid chromatography and excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectra coupled with parallel factor analysis. The result showed that the quinone-like groups were mainly detected in the medium MW and transphilic sub-fractions of the HA, FA and HyI, and were the main functional groups responsible for the EAC. The low MW sub-fractions, which consisted mainly of tyrosine-like matter, were the main functional components accounted for the EDC. The results advance our understanding of the influence of MW and polarity on the redox properties of organic substances, and facilitate to reveal the important redox-active functional groups when compost is utilized to remediate the contaminated soil.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 651(Pt 1): 909-916, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30257230

RESUMO

Landfill is an important method for the treatment of municipal solid wastes. Microbes play a central role in the biodegradation and stabilization of organic matter during landfill; however, the succession of microbial communities in landfills and their association with organic matter still remain unclear. This study investigated the succession and diversity of microorganisms in landfill depending on different depths and ages as well as its association with dissolved organic matter (DOM) and heavy metals. The results showed that the actinobacterial diversity and richness were high compared to bacteria in young landfill cells. The diversity and richness of bacteria and actinobacterial were the highest in the middle layer in the intermediate and old landfill cells. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the most dominant phyla. Firmicutes were mainly affected by the humification degree, and the aromatic and protein-like substance content of the landfill-derived DOM. The phylum Proteobacteria was greatly affected by the lipid and humic-like substances content of the landfill-derived DOM, while the distribution of Actinobacteria was regulated by both aromatic and humic-like substances. The effect of dissolved heavy metals on the microbial distribution in landfill differed for the metals Cr, Ni, Pb, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Cd. Siderophile elements (Cr, Ni, and Pb) were necessary trace elements for Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and promoted their growth. Oxyphilic element (Mn) was an important factor promoting the growth of Actinobacteria. However, no apparent relationship was found between sulfurophile elements (Cu, Zn, and Cd) and microorganisms.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biodiversidade
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 365: 457-466, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453239

RESUMO

Three dissolved organic matter (DOM) samples were obtained from municipal solid wastes at the initial (C0), high-temperature (C7) and mature (C51) period during composting. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) analysis on Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), ultraviolet visible (UV-vis), and synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS) were used to investigate the metal binding properties of compost-derived DOM. Synchronous and asynchronous maps of 2D-FTIR-COS of DOM-Cu(II) and DOM-Pb(II) were similar, however, the susceptibility and binding sequence of the corresponding spectral region was different. The N-H (amide I), phenolic OH, and C-O of alcohols, ethers, and esters were the most susceptive in the C0, C7, and C51 samples, respectively. 2D absorption COS indicated that the preferential binding with Cu(II) was shown to be at 305 nm for C0, at 236 nm for C7 and C51, and with Pb(II) at 247 nm for C0, at 233 nm for C7 and C51. 2D-SFS-COS indicated that protein-like matter showed a higher susceptibility and preferential binding with Cu(II) than humic-like substances. DOM showed a higher complexing affinity with Cu(II) than Pb(II) on the basis of the log K values. Spectral techniques combined with 2D-COS are useful to understand the binding heterogeneities of ligand sites within DOM-Cu(II) or Pb(II) during the composting.

10.
J Infect Dis ; 219(10): 1586-1595, 2019 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496437

RESUMO

Annual vaccination with influenza vaccines is recommended for protection against influenza in the United States. Past clinical studies and meta-analysis, however, have reported conflicting results on the benefits of annual vaccination. B-cell responses elicited following repeat influenza vaccinations over multiple seasons have not been examined in detail. We analyzed the B-cell and antibody (Ab) responses in volunteers vaccinated yearly, from 2010 or 2011 through 2014, with seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines. Statistical analyses were designed to help correct for possible bias due to reduced sample size in the later years of the study. We show that, after the second annual vaccination, the frequency of vaccine-specific plasmablasts and the binding reactivity of plasmablast-derived polyclonal Abs are reduced and do not increase in subsequent years. Similar trends are observed with the serum hemagglutination inhibition Ab response after each annual vaccination, as well as the binding reactivity of plasmablast-derived polyclonal Abs to the hemagglutinin of influenza A virus vaccine components, even with changes in the seasonal vaccine components during the study. Our findings indicate a diminished B-cell response to annual vaccination with seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine. These results emphasize the need for developing improved strategies to enhance the immunogenicity and efficacy of annual influenza vaccination.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Formação de Anticorpos , Feminino , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Vacinação , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia
11.
Epilepsy Behav ; 88: 33-40, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to determine if ripple oscillations (80-120 Hz), detected in intracranial electroencephalogram (iEEG) recordings of patients with epilepsy, correlate with an enhancement or disruption of verbal episodic memory encoding. METHODS: We defined ripple and spike events in depth iEEG recordings during list learning in 107 patients with focal epilepsy. We used logistic regression models (LRMs) to investigate the relationship between the occurrence of ripple and spike events during word presentation and the odds of successful word recall following a distractor epoch and included the seizure onset zone (SOZ) as a covariate in the LRMs. RESULTS: We detected events during 58,312 word presentation trials from 7630 unique electrode sites. The probability of ripple on spike (RonS) events was increased in the SOZ (p < 0.04). In the left temporal neocortex, RonS events during word presentation corresponded with a decrease in the odds ratio (OR) of successful recall, however, this effect only met significance in the SOZ (OR of word recall: 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.59-0.85, n = 158 events, adaptive Hochberg, p < 0.01). Ripple on oscillation (RonO) events that occurred in the left temporal neocortex non-SOZ also correlated with decreased odds of successful recall (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.34-0.80, n = 140, adaptive Hochberg, p < 0.01). Spikes and RonS that occurred during word presentation in the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) correlated with the most significant decrease in the odds of successful recall, irrespective of the location of the SOZ (adaptive Hochberg, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Ripples and spikes generated in the left temporal neocortex are associated with impaired verbal episodic memory encoding. Although physiological and pathological ripple oscillations were not distinguished during cognitive tasks, our results show an association of undifferentiated ripples with impaired encoding. The effect was sometimes specific to regions outside the SOZ, suggesting that widespread effects of epilepsy outside the SOZ may contribute to cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Parciais/fisiopatologia , Memória Episódica , Neocórtex/fisiologia , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Cognição/fisiologia , Eletrocorticografia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances
12.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 39(10): 4556-4564, 2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30229603

RESUMO

Landfills have been the most common methods of organized waste disposal in China posing an incredible groundwater pollution threat. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can be used to trace the source, species and migration of contaminants in groundwater, and the investigations of its composition, structure, and distribution play a role in environmental protection. This study investigated the DOM source, composition, and molecular structure in groundwater at landfills for different years of operation, and explored the dynamics of groundwater DOM evolution over time, usingmodern spectroscopy in combination with multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that DOM in landfill groundwater was initially dominated by outputs from microbial activities, and this was followed by autogenous terrigenous input. In the early stages of landfilling, the DOM of microbial origin was significant; however, towards the late stages of landfilling, the presence of microbial DOM has weakened. The groundwater DOM with short landfill times were mainly composed of newly produced tryptophan and tyrosine, which had low humification, aromaticity, and molecular weight. Microbial activity was strong, and while there were initial, significant differences between sampling points, evidence of its presence could be used for early warning of contamination and monitoring should be conducted for its presence. Microbial activity weakened with longer landfill operation time, landfill waste tended towards stability, and the DOM in groundwater with high humification, aromaticity and molecular weight, was able to reduce the landfill impact on groundwater.

13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(19): 18866-18878, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29713983

RESUMO

Composting leachates were collected to investigate the fluorescent characteristic and compositional change of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and the effects of the DOM and nutrients on heavy metal distribution during a leachate combination treatment process. Excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra showed that, with the progress of the treatment units, the content of fulvic-like, humic-like, and protein-like substances gradually decreased. One fulvic-like component (C1), three humic-like components (C2, C3, and C4), and three protein-like components (C5, C6, and C7) were identified in the leachate DOM by parallel factor analysis. Anaerobic-aerobic processes removed a large fraction of the tyrosine-like component (C7) and tryptophan-like component (C6) and a small amount of humic-like component (C2), while the membrane bioreactor showed a good removal effect on protein-like component. The ultra-filtration membrane treatment had a removal effect on fulvic-like and humic-like component and other recalcitrant compounds, while the reverse osmosis treatment had a good removal effect on both humic-like and protein-like components. Correlation analysis indicated that Mn and Cr were primarily associated with protein-like components and nutrients in the composting leachates. Ni and Pb were bound to fulvic-like, humic-like, and protein-like components, Co and Zn interacted with inorganic nitrogen and total phosphorus, and Cd only interacted with inorganic nitrogen.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Metais Pesados/química , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Análise Fatorial , Fluorescência , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
14.
Chemosphere ; 207: 267-277, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29803158

RESUMO

An important pathway for biochar to alter the availability of soil phosphorus (P) is to change P sorption characteristics of the soil. The aim of this study was to understand the mechanisms of biochar effects on P sorption in acid upland red soils in the presence of different concentrations of exogenous P. Rice straw biochar (RSB) was prepared and applied at rates of 0, 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/w) to three red soils (MZ1, MZ2, and QY1) differing in initial pH (pH = 4.31, 4.82, and 5.68, respectively). The P sorption characteristics of these red soils were described using the Langmuir and Temkin equations and their relationships with soil basic physicochemical properties were analyzed. Furthermore, a representative red soil (MZ2) was selected to analyze the zeta potential of soil colloids and the chemical properties of sorption equilibrium solution, in order to understand their relationships with P sorption characteristics. Results showed that within a certain range of P concentration in the equilibrium solution, the amount of P sorbed by the three red soils decreased and the corresponding amount of P desorbed increased with increasing amendment rate of RSB. RSB showed the greatest effect on P desorption characteristics of MZ2 soil in the presence of higher exogenous P concentration. With increasing RSB amendment rate, the maximum P sorption of MZ1 soil decreased, while those of MZ2 and QY1 soils increased after an initial decrease. Phosphate sorption equilibrium constant and maximum P buffer capacity of each soil first increased and then decreased. However, a single physicochemical property could not interpret complex changes in multi-factors that jointly determine the P sorption characteristics of red soils. In the case of MZ2 soil, RSB amendment shifted the zeta potential of soil colloids to the negative direction; this decreased the positive charge and increased the negative charge on the soil surface, thus reducing P sorption in the MZ2 soil. In the presence of the same concentration of exogenous P, RSB amendment altered the pH, dissolved organic C (DOC), humification index (HIX), and maximum fluorescence intensity (Fmax) in the sorption equilibrium solution. In most cases, the amount of P sorbed by the MZ2 soil was negatively correlated with the pH value, DOC concentration, HIX value, and Fmax value of humic-like dissolved organic matter (DOM), and positively correlated with the Fmax value of protein-like DOM (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The relative fractional distribution of the contents for humic-like and protein-like DOM might determine the difference in the P sorption characteristics of MZ2 soil. In conclusion, different amendment rates of RSB affected the release of phosphate from soil surfaces into the solution by altering basic physicochemical and electrochemical properties of red soils and chemical properties of sorption equilibrium solution.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Oryza/química , Fósforo/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Solo/química
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(13): 13026-13034, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29480395

RESUMO

The changes of dissolved organic matter (DOM) components during stabilization process play significant effects on its redox properties but are little reported. Composting is a stabilization process of DOM, during which both the components and electron transfer capacities (ETCs) of DOM change. The redox components within compost-derived DOM during the stabilization process are investigated in this study. The results show that compost-derived DOM contained protein-like, fulvic-like, and humic-like components. The protein-like component decreases during composting, whereas the fulvic- and humic-like components increase during the process. The electron-donating capacity (EDC), electron-accepting capacity (EAC), and ETC of compost-derived DOM all increase during composting but their correlations with the components presented significant difference. The humic-like components were the main functional component responsible for both EDC and ETC, whereas the protein- and fluvic-like components show negative effects with the EAC, EDC, and ETC, suggesting that the components within DOM have specific redox properties during the stabilization process. These findings are very meaningful for better understanding the geochemical behaviors of DOM in the environment.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos/análise , Compostagem , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , China , Transporte de Elétrons , Oxirredução
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(9): 9132-9144, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29340861

RESUMO

Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) were used to investigate the compositional characteristics of dissolved and particulate/colloidal organic matter and its correlations with nitrogen, phosphorus, and heavy metals in an effluent-dominated stream, Northern China. The results showed that dissolved organic matter (DOM) was comprised of fulvic-like, humic-like, and protein-like components in the water samples, and fulvic-like substances were the main fraction of DOM among them. Particulate/colloidal organic matter (PcOM) consisted of fulvic-like and protein-like matter. Fulvic-like substances existed in the larger molecular form in PcOM, and they comprised a large amount of nitrogen and polar functional groups. On the other hand, protein-like components in PcOM were low in benzene ring and bound to heavy metals. It could be concluded that nitrogen, phosphorus, and heavy metals in effluent had an effect on the compositional characteristics of natural DOM and PcOM, which may deepen our understanding about the environmental behaviors of organic matter in effluent.


Assuntos
Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Fósforo/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , China , Análise Fatorial , Fluorescência , Rios
17.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 39(12): 5699-5707, 2018 Dec 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628417

RESUMO

The structural composition and functional group changes in fulvic acid (FA) at various landfills were studied using ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy. The electron transfer ability of FA and its ability to degrade pentachlorophenol (PCP) were also studied considering the various landfills. The results showed that the use of MR-1 as an electron donor and the simultaneous addition of fulvic acid in different stages as an electron shuttle can significantly increase the degradation rate of PCP, leading it beyond 80%. Due to the different redox properties of fulvic acid at the different landfill stages, the degradation of PCP has different reduction conversion abilities. Landfill fulvic acid is able to reduce and transform PCP because of its electron transfer ability. These functions are all conducive to promoting PCP reductive dechlorination.

18.
Integr Environ Assess Manag ; 13(6): 1052-1059, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28577331

RESUMO

Agricultural regions are a significant source of groundwater pesticide pollution. To ensure that agricultural regions with a significantly high risk of groundwater pesticide contamination are properly managed, a risk-based ranking method related to groundwater pesticide contamination is needed. In the present paper, a risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions was established. The method encompasses 3 phases, including indicator selection, characterization, and classification. In the risk ranking index system employed here, 17 indicators involving the physicochemical properties, environmental behavior characteristics, pesticide application methods, and inherent vulnerability of groundwater in the agricultural region were selected. The boundary of each indicator was determined using K-means cluster analysis based on a survey of a typical agricultural region and the physical and chemical properties of 300 typical pesticides. The total risk characterization was calculated by multiplying the risk value of each indicator, which could effectively avoid the subjectivity of index weight calculation and identify the main factors associated with the risk. The results indicated that the risk for groundwater pesticide contamination from agriculture in a region could be ranked into 4 classes from low to high risk. This method was applied to an agricultural region in Jiangsu Province, China, and it showed that this region had a relatively high risk for groundwater contamination from pesticides, and that the pesticide application method was the primary factor contributing to the relatively high risk. The risk ranking method was determined to be feasible, valid, and able to provide reference data related to the risk management of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:1052-1059. © 2017 SETAC.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Praguicidas/classificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/classificação , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura , China , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Sci Transl Med ; 9(395)2017 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28637924

RESUMO

Human rotaviruses (RVs) are the leading cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. The molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid induction of heterotypic protective immunity to RV, which provides the basis for the efficacy of licensed monovalent RV vaccines, have remained unknown for more than 30 years. We used RV-specific single cell-sorted intestinal B cells from human adults, barcode-based deep sequencing of antibody repertoires, monoclonal antibody expression, and serologic and functional characterization to demonstrate that infection-induced heterotypic immunoglobulins (Igs) primarily directed to VP5*, the stalk region of the RV attachment protein, VP4, are able to mediate heterotypic protective immunity. Heterotypic protective Igs against VP7, the capsid glycoprotein, and VP8*, the cell-binding region of VP4, are also generated after infection; however, our data suggest that homotypic anti-VP7 and non-neutralizing VP8* responses occur more commonly in people. These results indicate that humans can circumvent the extensive serotypic diversity of circulating RV strains by generating frequent heterotypic neutralizing antibody responses to VP7, VP8*, and most often, to VP5* after natural infection. These findings further suggest that recombinant VP5* may represent a useful target for the development of an improved, third-generation, broadly effective RV vaccine and warrants more direct examination.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Rotavirus/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Rotavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Rotavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle
20.
Hepatology ; 66(3): 885-895, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28470667

RESUMO

A major problem in autoimmunity has been identification of the earliest events that lead to breach of tolerance. Although there have been major advances in dissecting effector pathways and the multilineage immune responses to mitochondrial self-antigens in primary biliary cholangitis, the critical links between environmental factors and tolerance remain elusive. We hypothesized that environmental xenobiotic modification of the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDC-E2) inner lipoyl domain can lead to loss of tolerance to genetically susceptible hosts. Previously we demonstrated that serum anti-PDC-E2 autoantibodies cross-react with the chemical xenobiotics 2-octynoic acid and 6,8-bis (acetylthio) octanoic acid and further that there is a high frequency of PDC-E2-specific peripheral plasmablasts. Herein we generated 104 recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) based on paired heavy-chain and light-chain variable regions of individual plasmablasts derived from primary biliary cholangitis patients. We identified 32 mAbs reactive with native PDC-E2, including 20 specific for PDC-E2 and 12 cross-reactive with both PDC-E2 and 2-octynoic acid and 6,8-bis (acetylthio) octanoic acid. A lower frequency of replacement somatic hypermutations, indicating a lower level of affinity maturation, was observed in the complementarity-determining regions of the cross-reactive mAbs in comparison to mAbs exclusively recognizing PDC-E2 or those for irrelevant antigens. In particular, when the highly mutated heavy-chain gene of a cross-reactive mAb was reverted to the germline sequence, the PDC-E2 reactivity was reduced dramatically, whereas the xenobiotic reactivity was retained. Importantly, cross-reactive mAbs also recognized lipoic acid, a mitochondrial fatty acid that is covalently bound to PDC-E2. CONCLUSION: Our data reflect that chemically modified lipoic acid or lipoic acid itself, through molecular mimicry, is the initial target that leads to the development of primary biliary cholangitis. (Hepatology 2017;66:885-895).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Autoimunidade/genética , Colangite/imunologia , Colangite/patologia , Xenobióticos/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Autoantígenos/genética , Autoimunidade/imunologia , Feminino , Amplificação de Genes , Humanos , Immunoblotting , Masculino , Mimetismo Molecular/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ácido Tióctico/imunologia , Ácido Tióctico/metabolismo
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